Anda di halaman 1dari 18


The Philippines is an island nation rich in both culture and history. The Filipino martial art
of Arnis/Kali/Escrima has contributed to both the history and diversity of the Philippines.
There are an abundance of styles and systems of Arnis/Kali/Escrima that are taught
throughout the world to this day, that have survived and developed throughout the
different regions, families and teachers who have preserved what is sometimes called a
complete martial art.

Arnis/Kali/Escrima was originally developed by the people native to the islands using simple
impact and edged weapons such as kampilans, rattan, swords, daggers, spears and other
assorted weaponry for combat and self defense. These weapons were also sometimes used
as farm implements.

The arrival of Ferdinand Magellans force in 1521 was met in battle with a group of
islanders, led by Raja Lapu Lapu, who defeated Magellan using only a bladed weapon.
Magellans armored and musket bearing conquistadors were overpowered by the fierce
fighters and retreated. The Spanish returned in the 1570s and this time the Philippines
came under Spanish rule unable to contend with the modern weaponry the Spanish used.
The practice of Arnis/Kali/Escrima was prohibited, but continued and was preserved
through native ritual dance, performance, and mock battles. Thus the arts were passed
down in families from generation to generation, honing their skill, speed, accuracy and

The terms Arnis, Kali and Escrima are all used to refer to the Filipino martial arts. There
has been some confusion as to what word refers to which part of the martial art. It is
believed that Arnis, Kali, and Escrima are all a part of the same art and depending on the
location, dialect and type of training taught. Also, any of the three names may apply to a
certain part of training. One interpretation is that Kali is the mother art of Arnis and
Escrima. Arnis focuses on the knife, including dagger, sword, and any other form of bladed
weapon. Escrima is based on the baston or stick. It has also become very popular in the
sport aspect of full contact stick fighting.

To this day Arnis/Kali/Escrima has retained a strong Spanish influence not only in the
names and titles used in training, but in the impact it has had on Filipino culture. Filipino
martial arts continue to encompass a large range of weapons training and hand-to-hand
combat, enriching the culture of Filipino society. Thus the reference to it being a
complete martial art.
Dimensions The playing area is a square measuring 8.0 meters by 8.0 meters with a two (2)
meters minimum free zone around it, and a clear space without any obstruction up to a
height of not less than 5 meters from the playing surface.

Lines of the Playing Area All lines of the playing surface are 5.08 cm. (2 inches) and must
be of different color from that of the floor and other lines previously drawn for other

Boundary Lines Four lines mark the boundary of the playing area. The free zone distance
measuring 2.0 meters are drawn outside of the playing area.

Match Lines Two lines of 1.0 meter long and 2.0 meters apart mark the horizontal match

The horizontal match lines are drawn 3 meters from the boundary lines that run
perpendicularly to the officials table, and 3.5 meters from the boundary line that run
parallel to the officials table. i-ARNIS / 13

The horizontal match line left of the officials table is colored red and the opposite
horizontal match line is blue to mark the respective line of each player.

Referee Line A straight line of 1.0 meter long is drawn 2.5 meters from the farthest
boundary line parallel to the officials table.

Warning Lines A broken straight line is drawn one (1) meter before each boundary line to
serve as a marker before the outside zone.

Playing Surface 1.7.1 The surface must be flat and smooth and must not be elevated from
the ground.

The playing surface must be clean and free from foreign objects that may endanger or
cause injury to the players. It is prohibited to hold any competition on a rough, slippery or
soiled surface. Any other surface must have the approval of i-ARNIS.

Neutral Corner The corner of the playing area farthest to the officials table and in
between the two (2) judges within the free zone shall be designated as the neutral corner.
This shall be the consultation area for the referee and judges.

Rules and Regulation

Opponents will begin and end all matches with a salute or bow to each other and the
Referee will position fighters beyond largo range at the start of every round.
Only attacks with the stick and feet are allowed.
Hits, slashes, and witticks are all legal. Punots, pokes and stabs are all illegal.
Target areas are: 1) front and sides of the body, 2) arms and hands, 3) top, front and
sides of the helmet.
Kicks are allowed below the neck and above the waist only.
In single stick competition, it is NOT legal to block a stick with your free hand. However,
arm stopping at quarto range or arm checking is allowed.
Fighters are required to exhibit a realistic defense (movement, parrying, intelligent
No takedowns. No grappling, wrestling or hooking.
No pushing or striking with any part of your body.
No foot sweeps or throws, thrusting or butt strikes, 2 handed strikes.
No strikes or kicks below the waistline or direct strikes to the back.
No kicks below the waist or above the neck.
No knee strikes or elbow strikes.
Checks may be used to create distance but may NOT be directed to the face. Checks are
allowed below the neck and above the waist free hand or two hands on weapon (AKA rifle
Trapping and parrying are allowed. Locking and holding are not.
An instantaneous Hold and Hit with immediate release is allowed.
In the event inaction or ineffective action in the clinch, referee will call time and break
Disarms must be immediate, or have an immediate release (1 2 rule applies).
Joints may not be locked or twisted for a disarm.
You may use the ring to control the action. You may not use it to avoid action.
To signal surrender or stop action for an injury, equipment failure, etc., raise both hands
and back up. Do not turn away.

1. Violation of time limit shall cause the participant/s deduction of points. A deduction
of 2 points should be given for every second short of the minimum one (1) minute
time limit or in excess of the maximum of two (2) minute time limit. . 2. Stepping
and/or going out of the boundary lines will cause the performer/s a deduction of
two (2) regardless of Number of stepping violation. 3. Performers who accidentally
loses grip of the weapon/s should be given a deduction of five (5) points for every
violation. 4. Failure to execute the standard pugay at the start/end of performance
would mean a five (5) points deduction.
The padded stick shall be the official weapon of the player. the specifications of which
shall be in accordance with the i-ARNIS standard. No other similar material will be allowed
to be used in any local, national or international competitions.

Each padded stick shall be properly foam-cushioned and shall have a maximum grip
diameter of not more than 3.81 cm. (1 1/2 inch) and length of 76.20 cm (30 inches for men
and women). The length of padded stick shall be cm (27 inches for boys and girls).

Both padded stick shall be color-coded, one red and the other blue.

Refers to a pair of protective head gear to include an impact-worthy face mask, the
specifications of which shall be in accordance with the i-ARNIS standard

Both headgears must be color-coded, one red and the other blue, to match the padded
stick of the player.

Refers to a pair of protective body protector, properly cushioned , the specifications of

which shall be in accordance with the i-ARNIS standard

Male and female player must both wear body protector and groin protector. Body
protectors and groin protectors specifications shall be in accordance with the i-ARNIS
standard. Both body protectors and groin protectors shall be color coded to match the
color of the player.

Forearm and shin guards are compulsory. The specifications shall be in accordance with i-
ARNIS standard. Both shin & forearms guards must be color coded to match the color of
the player.

A pair of scoreboards, either manually or electronically operated, the specifications of

which shall be in accordance with the i-ARNIS standards.

Two score boards per contest area shall be placed at diagonally opposite corners outside
the playing area, inside the competition area within the free zone, right where the judges
are positioned.

Two sets of red and blue flags, the size of which is 30 cm by 25 cm, are used by the
judges in declaring decisions or asking for consultations.

1. GrandMaster Benjamin Lema - Lightning Scientific Arnis Int. (1937) (deceased - Jan.,
2. Master Ronald Ramirez - Iron Viking Society (2002), the system he teaches is called
the "Traditional Lightning Arnis."
3. Master Jose Antonio O. Ogardo/Master Eugenio O. Ogardo, Jr. - Dagang Kidlat Martial
Art Center (2005), system - "Traditional Lightning Arnis."
4. Master Herminio Binas - Binas Dynamic Arnis
5. Master Nila Limpin - Balisong Master
6. GrandMaster Angel Cabales - Cabales Serrada Escrima (deceased)
7. Master Felicissimo Dizon - De Cuerdas Escrima (deceased)
8. Master Carlos Escorpizo - Arnis Escorpizo
9. Master Ramiro Estalilla - Rigonan-Estililla Kabaroan
10. GrandMaster Ray Galang - Hagibis
11. GrandMaster Meliton Geronimo - Sikaran
12. GrandMaster Leo M. Giron - Giron Escrima

On February 9, 1895, in Holyoke, Massachusetts (USA), William G. Morgan,
a YMCA physical education director, created a new game called Mintonette as a pastime to
be played (preferably) indoors and by any number of players. The game took some of its
characteristics from tennis and handball. Another indoor sport, basketball, was catching
on in the area, having been invented just ten miles (sixteen kilometers) away in the city
of Springfield, Massachusetts, only four years before. Mintonette was designed to be an
indoor sport, less rough than basketball, for older members of the YMCA, while still
requiring a bit of athletic effort.

The first rules, written down by William G Morgan, called for a net 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m) high,
a 25 ft 50 ft (7.6 m 15.2 m) court, and any number of players. A match was composed
of nine innings with three serves for each team in each inning, and no limit to the number
of ball contacts for each team before sending the ball to the opponents' court. In case of
a serving error, a second try was allowed. Hitting the ball into the net was considered a
foul (with loss of the point or a side-out)except in the case of the first-try serve.

After an observer, Alfred Halstead, noticed the volleying nature of the game at its first
exhibition match in 1896, played at the International YMCA Training School (now
called Springfield College), the game quickly became known as volleyball (it was originally
spelled as two words: "volley ball"). Volleyball rules were slightly modified by the
International YMCA Training School and the game spread around the country to various
Rules and Regulations
The court dimensions

A volleyball court is 9 m 18 m (29.53 ft 59.06 ft), divided into equal square halves by a
net with a width of one meter (39.4 in). The top of the net is 2.43 m (7 ft 11 2132 in)
above the center of the court for men's competition, and 2.24 m (7 ft 4 316 in) for
women's competition, varied for veterans and junior competitions.

The minimum height clearance for indoor volleyball courts is 7 m (23 ft), although a
clearance of 8 m (26 ft) is recommended.

A line 3 m (9.84 ft) from and parallel to the net is considered the "attack line". This "3
meter" (or "10-foot") line divides the court into "back row" and "front row" areas (also
back court and front court). These are in turn divided into 3 areas each: these are
numbered as follows, starting from area "1", which is the position of the serving player:

After a team gains the serve (also known as siding out), its members must rotate in a
clockwise direction, with the player previously in area "2" moving to area "1" and so on, with
the player from area "1" moving to area "6". Each player rotates only one time after the
team gains possession of the serve; the next time each player rotates will be after the
other team wins possession of the ball and loses the point.

The team courts are surrounded by an area called the free zone which is a minimum of 3
meters wide and which the players may enter and play within after the service of the
ball.[16] All lines denoting the boundaries of the team court and the attack zone are drawn
or painted within the dimensions of the area and are therefore a part of the court or
zone. If a ball comes in contact with the line, the ball is considered to be "in". An antenna
is placed on each side of the net perpendicular to the sideline and is a vertical extension
of the side boundary of the court. A ball passing over the net must pass completely
between the antenna (or their theoretical extensions to the ceiling) without contacting

The ball

Main article: Volleyball (ball)

FIVB regulations state that the ball must be spherical, made of leather or synthetic
leather, have a circumference of 6567 cm, a weight of 260280 g and an inside pressure
of 0.300.325 kg/cm2.[17] Other governing bodies have similar regulations.

Game play

White is on the attack while red attempts to block.

Buddhist monks play volleyball in the Himalayan state of Sikkim, India.

Each team consists of six players. To get play started, a team is chosen to serve by coin
toss. A player from the serving team throws the ball into the air and attempts to hit the
ball so it passes over the net on a course such that it will land in the opposing team's court
(the serve). The opposing team must use a combination of no more than three contacts
with the volleyball to return the ball to the opponent's side of the net. These contacts
usually consist first of the bump or pass so that the ball's trajectory is aimed towards the
player designated as the setter; second of the set (usually an over-hand pass using wrists
to push finger-tips at the ball) by the setter so that the ball's trajectory is aimed
towards a spot where one of the players designated as an attacker can hit it, and third by
the attacker who spikes (jumping, raising one arm above the head and hitting the ball so it
will move quickly down to the ground on the opponent's court) to return the ball over the
net. The team with possession of the ball that is trying to attack the ball as described is
said to be on offense.

The team on defense attempts to prevent the attacker from directing the ball into their
court: players at the net jump and reach above the top (and if possible, across the plane)
of the net to block the attacked ball. If the ball is hit around, above, or through the block,
the defensive players arranged in the rest of the court attempt to control the ball with
a dig (usually a fore-arm pass of a hard-driven ball). After a successful dig, the team
transitions to offense.

The game continues in this manner, rallying back and forth, until the ball touches the court
within the boundaries or until an error is made. The most frequent errors that are made
are either to fail to return the ball over the net within the allowed three touches, or to
cause the ball to land outside the court. A ball is "in" if any part of it touches a sideline or
end-line, and a strong spike may compress the ball enough when it lands that a ball which at
first appears to be going out may actually be in. Players may travel well outside the court
to play a ball that has gone over a sideline or end-line in the air.

Other common errors include a player touching the ball twice in succession, a player
"catching" the ball, a player touching the net while attempting to play the ball, or a player
penetrating under the net into the opponent's court. There are a large number of other
errors specified in the rules, although most of them are infrequent occurrences. These
errors include back-row or libero players spiking the ball or blocking (back-row players may
spike the ball if they jump from behind the attack line), players not being in the correct
position when the ball is served, attacking the serve in the front court and above the
height of the net, using another player as a source of support to reach the ball, stepping
over the back boundary line when serving, taking more than 8 seconds to serve,[18] or
playing the ball when it is above the opponent's court.

Scorer's table just before a game

When the ball contacts the floor within the court boundaries or an error is made, the
team that did not make the error is awarded a point, whether they served the ball or not.
If the ball hits the line, the ball is counted as in. The team that won the point serves for
the next point. If the team that won the point served in the previous point, the same
player serves again. If the team that won the point did not serve the previous point, the
players of the serving team rotate their position on the court in a clockwise manner. The
game continues, with the first team to score 25 points by a two-point margin is awarded
the set. Matches are best-of-five sets and the fifth set, if necessary, is usually played to
15 points. (Scoring differs between leagues, tournaments, and levels; high schools
sometimes play best-of-three to 25; in the NCAA matches are played best-of-five to 25
as of the 2008 season.)[19]

Before 1999, points could be scored only when a team had the serve (side-out scoring) and
all sets went up to only 15 points. The FIVB changed the rules in 1999 (with the changes
being compulsory in 2000) to use the current scoring system (formerly known as rally point
system), primarily to make the length of the match more predictable and to make the
game more spectator- and television-friendly.

The final year of side-out scoring at the NCAA Division I Women's Volleyball
Championship was 2000. Rally point scoring debuted in 2001,[20] and games were played to
30 points through 2007. For the 2008 season, games were renamed "sets" and reduced to
25 points to win. Most high schools in the U.S. changed to rally scoring in
2003,[21][22][23] and several states implemented it the previous year on an experimental


The libero player was introduced internationally in 1998,[25] and made its debut for NCAA
competition in 2002.[26] The libero is a player specialized in defensive skills: the libero
must wear a contrasting jersey color from his or her teammates and cannot block or
attack the ball when it is entirely above net height. When the ball is not in play, the libero
can replace any back-row player, without prior notice to the officials. This replacement
does not count against the substitution limit each team is allowed per set, although the
libero may be replaced only by the player whom he or she replaced. Most U.S. high schools
added the libero position from 2003 to 2005.[22][27]

The libero may function as a setter only under certain restrictions. If she/he makes an
overhand set, she/he must be standing behind (and not stepping on) the 3-meter line;
otherwise, the ball cannot be attacked above the net in front of the 3-meter line. An
underhand pass is allowed from any part of the court.

The libero is, generally, the most skilled defensive player on the team. There is also a
libero tracking sheet, where the referees or officiating team must keep track of whom
the libero subs in and out for. There may only be one libero per set (game), although there
may be a different libero in the beginning of any new set (game).

Furthermore, a libero is not allowed to serve, according to international rules, with the
exception of the NCAA women's volleyball games, where a 2004 rule change allows the
libero to serve, but only in a specific rotation. That is, the libero can only serve for one
person, not for all of the people for whom she goes in. That rule change was also applied to
high school and junior high play soon after.

Facilities & Equipments

Volleyball Court Dimensions

The Volleyball court is 60 feet by 30 feet in total. The net in placed in the center of the
court, making each side of the net 30 feet by 30 feet.

Center Line

A center line is marked at the center of the court dividing it equally into 30 feet squares,
above which the net is placed.

Attack Line

An attack line is marked 10 feet of each side of the center line.

Service Line

A service line, the area from which the server may serve the volleyball, is marked 10 feet
inside the right sideline on each back line.

The Net

The net is placed directly above the center line, 7 feet 4 inches above the ground for
women and 8 feet above the ground for men.


Volleyball poles should be set at 36 feet apart, 3 feet further out from the sidelines.

Ceiling Height

The minimum ceiling height should be 23 feet, though they should preferably be higher.
Alyssa Valdez (ADMU)

Wow valdez you are the champion and mvo to the hearts of philippine volleyball in
shortnterm ikaw naM+186
She really inspires a lot volleyball enthusiast, because of her sweet smile and
determination to win in every game.M+160
Phenom for Philippine Volleyball!M+152

Victonara Galang (DLSU)

Awarded as "Rookie of the Year" in her freshman year and "Most Valuable Player"
in her sophomore year, Galang appeared in all of the statistics except for the
setting department for which she is not a setter. - crockydyleM+51
Ara Galang is a consistent player, she's great and strong. No player even can defeat
her capability to play volleyball.M+39
She can do a lot whenever she's on court. As you can observe she's never been
substituted in de la salle and yet she can still move as if nothing happensM+36
Astonishing player ever... she can do everything..

Rachelle Anne Daquis (FEU)

This player is really timeless. Had been into her play since her UAAP days. Had seen
her struggles, victories and defeat. She knows how to stand and bounce back for
every fall. One step backward.. , two steps forward! - her patented hop, summarizes
her character.M+66
Always been a positive inspiration. To make a person interested in volleyball when
the sport really doesn't matter at the beginning is such a big accomplishment. Had
been following and supporting Philippines' women volleyball because of Daquis!M+44
If the criteria for being the best would be pure skill and talent, I would pick Valdez
or Aiza M. But embodying the enitre sport, putting heart in every play, establishing
leadership and gracing the court with passion... Is DAQUIS.. Should have been
number ONE on this list...M+42
She has showed that beauty is not just for fashion shows but also for volleyball...

Games employing shuttlecocks have been played for centuries across Eurasia[n 1] but the
modern game of badminton developed in the mid-19th century among the British as a
variant of the earlier game of battledore and shuttlecock. ("Battledore" was an older term
for "racquet".)[3] Its exact origin remains obscure. The name derives from the Duke of
Beaufort's Badminton House in Gloucestershire,[4] but why or when remains unclear. As
early as 1860, a London toy dealer named Isaac Spratt published a booklet
titled Badminton BattledoreA New Game but unfortunately no copy has survived.[5] An
1863 article in The Cornhill Magazine describes badminton as "battledore and shuttlecock
played with sides, across a string suspended some five feet from the ground".[6]

The game may have originally developed among expatriate officers in British
India,[7] where it was very popular by the 1870s.[5] Ball badminton, a form of the game
played with a wool ball instead of a shuttlecock, was being played in Thanjavur as early as
the 1850s[8] and was at first played interchangeably with badminton by the British, the
woollen ball being preferred in windy or wet weather.

Early on, the game was also known as Poona or Poonah after the garrison town
of Pune,[7][9] where it was particularly popular and where the first rules for the game
were drawn up in 1873.[5][6][n 2] By 1875, returning officers had started a badminton
club in Folkestone. Initially, the sport was played with sides ranging from 14 players but it
was quickly established that games between two or four competitors worked the
best.[3] The shuttlecocks were coated with India rubber and, in outdoor play, sometimes
weighted with lead.[3] Although the depth of the net was of no consequence, it was
preferred that it should reach the ground.[3]

The sport was played under the Pune rules until 1887, when the J.H.E. Hart of
the Bath Badminton Club drew up revised regulations.[4] In 1890, Hart and Bagnel Wild
again revised the rules.[5] The Badminton Association of England published these rules in
1893 and officially launched the sport at a house called "Dunbar"[n 3] in Portsmouth on 13
September.[11] The BAE started the first badminton competition, the All England Open
Badminton Championships for gentlemen's doubles, ladies' doubles, and mixed doubles, in
1899.[4] Singles competitions were added in 1900 and an EnglandIreland championship
match appeared in 1904.[4]
England, Scotland, Wales, Canada, Denmark, France, Ireland, the Netherlands, and New
Zealand were the founding members of the International Badminton Federation in 1934,
now known as the Badminton World Federation. India joined as an affiliate in 1936. The
BWF now governs international badminton. Although initiated in England, competitive men's
badminton has traditionally been dominated in Europe by Denmark. Worldwide, Asian
nations have become dominant in international
competition. China, Denmark, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and South Korea are the nations
which have consistently produced world-class players in the past few decades, with China
being the greatest force in men's and women's competition recently.

The badminton court should be 44 feet long by 22 feet wide if playing doubles, and 44
feet long by 17 feet wide for singles. If the facility is indoors, there needs to be enough
height for the shuttlecock to be able to float across the net without hitting the ceiling.
This height will vary depending on the strength of the players.

Rules and Regulations


Badminton court, isometric view

The court is rectangular and divided into halves by a net. Courts are usually marked for
both singles and doubles play, although badminton rules permit a court to be marked for
singles only.[12] The doubles court is wider than the singles court, but both are of same
length. The exception, which often causes confusion to newer players, is that the doubles
court has a shorter serve-length dimension.

The full width of the court is 6.1 metres (20 ft), and in singles this width is reduced to
5.18 metres (17 ft). The full length of the court is 13.4 metres (44 ft). The service courts
are marked by a centre line dividing the width of the court, by a short service line at a
distance of 1.98 metres (6 ft 6 inch) from the net, and by the outer side and back
boundaries. In doubles, the service court is also marked by a long service line, which is
0.76 metres (2 ft 6 inch) from the back boundary.

The net is 1.55 metres (5 ft 1 inch) high at the edges and 1.524 metres (5 ft) high in the
centre. The net posts are placed over the doubles sidelines, even when singles is played.

The minimum height for the ceiling above the court is not mentioned in the Laws of
Badminton. Nonetheless, a badminton court will not be suitable if the ceiling is likely to be
hit on a high serve.

When the server serves, the shuttlecock must pass over the short service line on the
opponents' court or it will count as a fault.

At the start of the rally, the server and receiver stand in diagonally opposite service
courts (see court dimensions). The server hits the shuttlecock so that it would land in the
receiver's service court. This is similar to tennis, except that a badminton serve must be
hit below waist height and with the racquet shaft pointing downwards, the shuttlecock is
not allowed to bounce and in badminton, the players stand inside their service courts unlike

When the serving side loses a rally, the serve immediately passes to their opponent(s)
(this differs from the old system where sometimes the serve passes to the doubles
partner for what is known as a "second serve").

In singles, the server stands in their right service court when their score is even, and in
her/his left service court when her/his score is odd.

In doubles, if the serving side wins a rally, the same player continues to serve, but he/she
changes service courts so that she/he serves to a different opponent each time. If the
opponents win the rally and their new score is even, the player in the right service court
serves; if odd, the player in the left service court serves. The players' service courts are
determined by their positions at the start of the previous rally, not by where they were
standing at the end of the rally. A consequence of this system is that, each time a side
regains the service, the server will be the player who did not serve last time.


Each game is played to 21 points, with players scoring a point whenever they win a rally
regardless of whether they served[12] (this differs from the old system where players
could only win a point on their serve and each game was played to 15 points). A match is the
best of three games.

If the score reaches 20-all, then the game continues until one side gains a two-point lead
(such as 2422), except when there is a tie at 29-all, in which the game goes to a golden
point. Whoever scores this point will win.

At the start of a match, the shuttlecock is cast and the side towards which the
shuttlecock is pointing serves first. Alternatively, a coin may be tossed, with the winners
choosing whether to serve or receive first, or choosing which end of the court to occupy
first, and their opponents making the leftover the remaining choice.
In subsequent games, the winners of the previous game serve first. Matches are best out
of three: a player or pair must win two games (of 21 points each) to win the match. For the
first rally of any doubles game, the serving pair may decide who serves and the receiving
pair may decide who receives. The players change ends at the start of the second game; if
the match reaches a third game, they change ends both at the start of the game and when
the leading player's or pair's score reaches 11 points.

The server and receiver must remain within their service courts, without touching the
boundary lines, until the server strikes the shuttlecock. The other two players may stand
wherever they wish, so long as they do not block the vision of the server or receiver.


If a let is called, the rally is stopped and replayed with no change to the score. Lets may
occur because of some unexpected disturbance such as a shuttlecock landing on court
(having been hit there by players playing in adjacent court) or in small halls the shuttle
may touch an overhead rail which can be classed as a let.

If the receiver is not ready when the service is delivered, a let shall be called; yet, if the
receiver attempts to return the shuttlecock, the receiver shall be judged to have been


Badminton racquets are lightweight, with top quality racquets weighing between 70 and 95
grams (2.5 and 3.4 ounces) not including grip or strings.[13][14] They are composed of
many different materials ranging from carbon fibre composite (graphite reinforced
plastic) to solid steel, which may be augmented by a variety of materials. Carbon fibre has
an excellent strength to weight ratio, is stiff, and gives excellent kinetic energy transfer.
Before the adoption of carbon fibre composite, racquets were made of light metals such
as aluminum. Earlier still, racquets were made of wood. Cheap racquets are still often made
of metals such as steel, but wooden racquets are no longer manufactured for the ordinary
market, because of their excessive mass and cost. Nowadays, nanomaterials such
as fullerene and carbon nanotubes are added to racquets giving them greater
durability.[citation needed]

There is a wide variety of racquet designs, although the laws limit the racquet size and
shape. Different racquets have playing characteristics that appeal to different players.
The traditional oval head shape is still available, but an isometric head shape is increasingly
common in new racquets.

Badminton strings are thin, high performing strings with thicknesses ranging from about
0.62 to 0.73 mm. Thicker strings are more durable, but many players prefer the feel of
thinner strings. String tension is normally in the range of 80 to 160 N (18 to 36 lbf).
Recreational players generally string at lower tensions than professionals, typically
between 80 and 110 N (18 and 25 lbf). Professionals string between about 110 and 160 N
(25 and 36 lbf). Some string manufacturers measure the thickness of their strings under
tension so they are actually thicker than specified when slack. Ashaway Micropower is
actually 0.7mm but Yonex BG-66 is about 0.72mm.

It is often argued that high string tensions improve control, whereas low string tensions
increase power.[15] The arguments for this generally rely on crude mechanical reasoning,
such as claiming that a lower tension string bed is more bouncy and therefore provides
more power. This is in fact incorrect, for a higher string tension can cause the shuttle to
slide off the racquet and hence make it harder to hit a shot accurately. An alternative
view suggests that the optimum tension for power depends on the player:[13] the faster
and more accurately a player can swing their racquet, the higher the tension for maximum
power. Neither view has been subjected to a rigorous mechanical analysis, nor is there
clear evidence in favour of one or the other. The most effective way for a player to find a
good string tension is to experiment.


The choice of grip allows a player to increase the thickness of their racquet handle and
choose a comfortable surface to hold. A player may build up the handle with one or several
grips before applying the final layer.

Players may choose between a variety of grip materials. The most common choices
are PU synthetic grips or towelling grips. Grip choice is a matter of personal preference.
Players often find that sweat becomes a problem; in this case, a drying agent may be
applied to the grip or hands, sweatbands may be used, the player may choose another grip
material or change his/her grip more frequently.

There are two main types of grip: replacement grips and overgrips. Replacement grips are
thicker, and are often used to increase the size of the handle. Overgrips are thinner (less
than 1 mm), and are often used as the final layer. Many players, however, prefer to use
replacement grips as the final layer. Towelling grips are always replacement grips.
Replacement grips have an adhesive backing, whereas overgrips have only a small patch of
adhesive at the start of the tape and must be applied under tension; overgrips are more
convenient for players who change grips frequently, because they may be removed more
rapidly without damaging the underlying material.

A shuttlecock (often abbreviated to shuttle; also called a birdie) is a high-drag projectile,

with an open conical shape: the cone is formed from sixteen
overlapping feathers embedded into a rounded cork base. The cork is covered with
thin leather or synthetic material. Synthetic shuttles are often used by recreational
players to reduce their costs as feathered shuttles break easily. These nylon shuttles may
be constructed with either natural cork or synthetic foam base, and a plastic skirt.

Badminton rules also provide for testing a shuttlecock for the correct speed:

3.1: To test a shuttlecock, hit a full underhand stroke which makes contact with the
shuttlecock over the back boundary line. The shuttlecock shall be hit at an upward angle
and in a direction parallel to the side lines.

3.2: A shuttlecock of the correct speed will land not less than 530 mm and not more than
990 mm short of the other back boundary line.


Badminton shoes are lightweight with soles of rubber or similar high-grip, non-marking

Compared to running shoes, badminton shoes have little lateral support. High levels of
lateral support are useful for activities where lateral motion is undesirable and
unexpected. Badminton, however, requires powerful lateral movements. A highly built-up
lateral support will not be able to protect the foot in badminton; instead, it will encourage
catastrophic collapse at the point where the shoe's support fails, and the player's ankles
are not ready for the sudden loading, which can cause sprains. For this reason, players
should choose badminton shoes rather than general trainers or running shoes, because
proper badminton shoes will have a very thin sole, lower a person's centre of gravity, and
therefore result in fewer injuries. Players should also ensure that they learn safe and
proper footwork, with the knee and foot in alignment on all lunges.

Kennevic Asuncion (born March 21, 1980) is a male badminton player from the Republic
of the Philippines.[1] He is the son of former Philippine Badminton Team Coach Nelson
Asuncion. He plays doubles with his sister Kennie Asuncion. The brother-sister team used
to host a now defunct local Badminton TV show, Badminton Extreme along with their
father. The show was canceled due to the siblings' training for the 2008 Beijing Olympics.
In its steed a magazine called Badminton Extreme was released.
Ms. Nesbe Ramiso

Chedie Jane M. Malizon