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EDEXCEL ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR ENGINEERS H1

UNIT 2 - NQF LEVEL 4

OUTCOME 2 - TRIGONOMETRIC METHODS

TUTORIAL 1 SINUSOIDAL FUNCTION

Sinusoidal functions: review of the trigonometric ratios; Cartesian and polar co-ordinate systems;
properties of the circle; radian measure; sinusoidal functions

Applications such as: angular velocity; angular acceleration; centripetal force; frequency;
amplitude; phase; the production of complex waveforms using sinusoidal graphical synthesis; AC
waveforms and phase shift

Trigonometric identities: relationship between trigonometric and hyperbolic identities; double angle
and compound angle formulae and the conversion of products to sums and differences; use of
trigonometric identities to solve trigonometric equations and simplify trigonometric expressions

You should judge your progress by completing the self assessment exercises.

Trigonometry has been covered in the NC Maths module and should have been studied prior to this
module. This tutorial provides further studies and applications of that work.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 1
1. RADIAN

In Engineering and Science, we use the radian to measure angle as well as degrees. This is defined
as the angle created by placing a line of length 1 radius around the
edge of the circle as shown. In mathematical words it is the angle
subtended by an arc of length one radius. This angle is called the
RADIAN.

The circumference of a circle is 2R. It follows that the number of


radians that make a complete circle is
2 R
or 2.
R
There are 2 radians in one revolution so 360o =2 radian
1 radian = 360/2 = 57.296o

2. TWO DIMENSIONAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS

CARTESIAN

In a two dimensional system the vertical direction is usually y (positive


up) and the horizontal is direction is x (positive to the right). Other
letters may be used to designate an axis and they dont have to be
vertical and horizontal.

The origin o is where the axis cross at x = 0 and y = 0


A point p on this plane has coordinates x, y and this is usually written as p (x,y)

POLAR

If a line is drawn from the origin to point p it is a radius R and forms an


angle with the x axis. The angle is positive measured from the x axis in
a counter clockwise direction.
A vector with polar coordinates is denoted R

CONVERSION

The two systems are clearly linked as we can convert from one to the
other using trigonometry and Pythagoras theorem.
y = R sin x = R cos

y/x = tan
R = (x2 + y2)

WORKED EXAMPLE No. 1

The x, y coordinates of a point is 4, and 6. Calculate the polar coordinates.

SOLUTION

R = (42 + 62)1/2 = 7.211


= tan-1 (6/4) = 56.31o

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 2
SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 1

1. Convert 60o to radian. (1.0472 rad)


2. Convert /6 radian into degrees. (30o)
3. The x, y Cartesian coordinates of a vector are 2 and 7.Express the vector in Polar coordinates.
(7.28 74o)
4. A vector with Cartesian coordinates 10, 20 is added to a vector with coordinates -20,10. What
are the polar coordinates of the resulting vector?
(31.623 108.4o)

3. REVIEW OF TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS

The ratios of the lengths of the sides of a right angle triangle are always
the same for any given angle . These ratios are very important because
they allow us to calculate lots of things to do with triangles. In the
following the notation above is used with the corners denoted AB and C

SINE
Opposite CB
The ratio = is called the sine of the angle A. (note we usually drop the e on sine)
Hypotenuse AB

Before the use of calculators, the values of the sine of angles were placed in tables but all you have
to do is enter the angle into your calculator and press the button shown as sin.

For example if you enter 60 into your calculator in degree mode and press sin you get 0.8660

If you enter 0.2 into your calculator in radian mode and press sin you get 0.1987
Note that sin() = -sin (-) and sin (180 ) = sin()

COSINE
Adjacent AC
The ratio = is called the cosine of the angle A.
Hypotenuse AB

On your calculator the button is labelled cos. For example enter 60 into your calculator in degree
mode and press the cos button. You should obtain 0.5

If you enter 0.2 into your calculator in radian mode and press cos you get 0.9800

Note that cos() = cos (-) and cos(180 ) = -cos()

TANGENT

Opposite BC
The ratio = is called the tangent of the angle A.
Adjacent AC

On your calculator the button is labelled tan. For example enter 60 into your calculator in degree
mode and press the tan button and you should obtain 1.732.

If you enter 0.2 into your calculator in radian mode and press tan you get 0.2027

Note that sin()/cos() = tan() and tan(90 ) = 1/tan()

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 3
INVERSE FUNCTIONS

Some people find it useful to use the inverse functions which are as follows.

cosec () = sin-1() sec () = cos-1() cot () = tan-1()

4. SINE AND COSINE RULE

The following work enables us to solve triangles other than right angles triangles.

SINE RULE

Consider the diagram. h = b sin A = a sin B


a b
It follows that =
sinA sinB
a b c
If we did the same for another perpendicular to side b or a we could show that = =
sinA sinB sinC

WORKED EXAMPLE No. 2

Find the length of the two unknown side in the triangle shown.

SOLUTION

a = 50 mm A = 30o B = 45o C = 180 o - 30o - 45o = 105o


a b c 50 b c
= = = =
sinA sinB sinC sin(30) sin(45) sin(105)
50 sin(45) 50 sin(105)
b= = 70.711 mm c= = 96.593 mm
sin (30) sin (30)

WORKED EXAMPLE No. 3

A weight of 300 N is suspended on two ropes as shown.


Calculate the length of the ropes
Draw the vector diagram for the three forces in equilibrium.
Calculate the forces in the ropes.

SOLUTION

The third internal angle is 110o.


4/sin 110 = L1/sin 50 = L2/sin 20
L1 = 3.261 m and L2 = 1.456 m
Next draw the triangle of forces as shown.
F1/sin 40o = 300/sin 70o F1 = 205.2 N
F2/sin 70o = 300/sin 70o F1 = 300 N

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 4
COSINE RULE

Consider the diagram. Using Pythagoras we have:

h2 = a2 (b x)2 and h2 = c2 x2
a2 (b2 + x2 2bx) = c2 x2
a2 b2 - x2 + 2bx) = c2 x2
a2 = b2 + x2 2bx + c2 x2
a2 = b2 + c2 2bx substitute x = c cos(A) a2 = b2 + c2 2bc
cos(A) = c2
b2 + c2 a 2
cos(A) =
2bc
If we repeated the process with h drawn normal to the other sides we could show that :
c2 + a 2 b2 a 2 + b2 c2
cos(B) = cos(C) =
2ca 2ab
You can see a pattern for remembering the formulae. This is a useful formula for solving a triangle
with three known sides or two known sides and the angle opposite the unknown side.

WORKED EXAMPLE No. 4

Find the length of the unknown side in the triangle shown.


Find the other internal angles.

SOLUTION
a 2 + b2 c2 6 0 2 + 70 2 c 2
cos(C) = cos(60o ) =
2ab (2)(60(70)
cos(60 o )(2)(60)(7 0) = 60 2 + 70 2 c 2
4200 = 8500 c 2
c2 = 4300 c = 65.574 mm

b 2 + c 2 a 2 702 + 65.5742 602


cos(A) = = = 0.61
2bc (2)(70)(65.574)
A = 52.4o
B = 180 52.4 60 = 126.5 o

WORKED EXAMPLE No. 5

Find the resultant of the two forces shown.

SOLUTION

The addition of the two force is done as shown.


100 2 + 100 2 R 2
cos(135o ) =
(2)(100(100)
cos(135o )(2)(100)(100) = 1002 + 1002 R 2
-14142.1 = 20000 R2
R2 = 34142.13 R = 184.78 N

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 5
SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 2

1. Find the resultant of the two forces shown. (Answer 328.8 N)

2. Vector A has polar coordinates 12 60o and vector B has polar coordinates 5 20o
Find the resultant in polar form. (16.15 48.5o )

3. The diagram shows a weight suspended from two ropes. Calculate the angles of the ropes to the
horizontal support.

(Answers 49o and 59o)

4. A weight of 4 Tonne is suspended on two ropes as shown. Calculate the length of the ropes and
the forces in them.

(Answers 1.034 m, 1.464 m, 3.172 T and 2.928 T)

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 6
5. SINUSOIDAL FUNCTIONS

In Nature and in Engineering there are many things that oscillate in some form or other and produce
a repetitive change of some quantity with respect to time. Examples are mechanical oscillations and
alternating electricity. In many cases a plot of the quantity against time produces a sinusoidal graph
and the change is said to be sinusoidal.

MECHANICAL EXAMPLES

SCOTCH YOKE and ECCENTRIC CAM

The Scotch Yoke is a device that produces up and down motion when the wheel is rotated. The
displacement of the yoke from the horizontal position is x = R sin = x R sin(t). Plotting x against
time or angle will produce a sinusoidal graph. The eccentric cam is really another version of this.

In all cases we should remember that velocity is the first derivative of displacement and
acceleration is the second derivative. It follows that:

Displacement x = R sin(t)
Velocity v = dx/dt = R cos(t)
Acceleration a = dv/dt = -2R sin(t) = -2 x

Anything that obeys these equations is said to have SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION

The starting point of the oscillation


could be at any angle so in that
case the equations become:

Displacement
x = R sin(t + )

Velocity
v = dx/dt = R cos(t + )

Acceleration
a = dv/dt = -2R sin(t + ) = -2 x

The plots show the displacement,


velocity and acceleration for = 0 on
the left and a negative on the right.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 7
MASS ON A SPRING

A mass on the end of a spring will oscillate up and down


and produce identical motion to the Scotch Yoke without
the rotation of a wheel.

The displacement is x = xo sin (t)


The velocity of the mass is v = xo sin(t)
The acceleration of the mass is a = -2 xo cos(t)

It can be shown for the frictionless case that = (k/m)1/2


where k is the spring stiffness in N/m and m the mass in
kg. This is called the natural frequency.
1 k
The natural frequency of oscillation is hence f =
2 m

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE

When a mass rotates at radius R the centrifugal force is given


by:
CF = m2R

If this is a machine mounted on a platform as shown that can


only move in one direction, the force acting in that direction
is the component of the force in that direction.

In this example the force exerted on the spring is:

m2R sin() = m2R sin(t)

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 8
WORKED EXAMPLE No. 6

The displacement of a body performing simple harmonic motion is described by the following
equation

x = A sin (t + ) where A is the amplitude, is the natural frequency and is the phase angle.
Given A = 20 mm, = 50 rad/s and = /8 radian, calculate the following.

i. The frequency.
ii. The periodic time.
iii. The displacement, velocity and acceleration when t = T/4.

Sketch the graphs of x, v and a and confirm your answers.

SOLUTION

First deduce the frequency. f = /2 = 50/2 = 7.96 Hz.


Next deduce the periodic time. T = 1/f = 0.126 s
Next deduce the time t. t = T/4 = 0.0314 s
Next write out the equation for displacement and solve x at t = 0.0314 s

x = 20 sin (50 x 0.314) +
8

x = 20sin 1.57 + = 20sin1.963 = 18.48 mm
8
Next write down the equations for v and a

x = 20sin(t + )
v = 20 cos(t + ) = 20 x 50 x cos(1.963) = - 382.2 mm/s
a = - 20 2 sin(t + ) = - 20 x 50 2 sin(1.963) = - 46203 mm/s 2

The plots of x, v and a confirm these answers.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 9
WORKED EXAMPLE No. 7

A spring of stiffness 20 kN/m supports a mass of 4 kg. The mass is pulled down 8 mm and
released to produce linear oscillations. Calculate the frequency and periodic time. Sketch the
graphs of displacement, velocity and acceleration. Calculate the displacement, velocity and
acceleration 0.05 s after being released.

SOLUTION
k 20000
= = = 70.71 rad/s
M 4

f= = 11.25 Hz
2
1
T = = 0.0899 s
f
The oscillation starts at the bottom of the cycle so xo = -8 mm. The resulting graph of x against
time will be a negative cosine curve with an amplitude of 8 mm.
The equations describing the motion are as follows.

x = xocost
When t = 0.05 seconds x = -8 cos(70.71 x 0.05)
x = 7.387 mm. (Note angles are in radian)
This is confirmed by the graph.

If we differentiate once we get the equation for velocity.


v = -xosin t
v = -xosin t = -70.71 (-8)sin(70.71 x 0.05)
v = -217 mm/s
This is confirmed by the graph.

Differentiate again to get the acceleration.


a = -2xocost and since x = xocost a = -2x
a = -70.712 x 7.387 = -36 934 mm/s2
This is confirmed by the graph.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 10
SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 3

1. Calculate the frequency and periodic time for the oscillation produced by a mass spring
system given that the mass is 0.5 kg and the spring stiffness is 3 N/mm. (12.3 Hz, 0.081 s).

2. A mass of 4 kg is suspended from a spring and oscillates up and down at 2 Hz. Determine the
stiffness of the spring. (631.6 N/m).

The amplitude of the oscillation is 5 mm. Determine the displacement, velocity and
acceleration 0.02 s after the mass passes through the mean or rest position in an upwards
direction. (1.243 mm, 60.86 mm/s and -196.4 mm/s2)

3. From recordings made of a simple harmonic motion, it is found that at a certain point in the
motion the velocity is 0.3 m/s and the displacement is 20 mm, both being positive downwards
in direction. Determine the amplitude of the motion and the maximum velocity and
acceleration. Write down the equations of motion.

Note that the data given is at time t = 0. You will have to assume that

x = xocos(t + ) at time t=0

Ans. x= 0.0311 cos(t - 50o)


v = -0.3914 sin(t - 50o)
a = -157.9 x

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 11
ELECTRICAL EXAMPLES

ALTERNATING ELECTRICITY

Electricity is generated by rotating a conductor relative to a magnetic field at angular velocity


rad/s (very simplified case shown). The voltage generated is directly proportional to the angle of
rotation.

This explains why the voltage in our mains electrical system is sinusoidal. The voltage at any
moment in time is given by the equation v = V sin(t) where V is the maximum voltage
(amplitude) in the cycle and the angular velocity or frequency.
If we choose to measure the angle from a different starting point then v = V sin(t + ) where is
the starting angle.

RESISTANCE

When a sinusoidal voltage is applied across a resistor


the current is sinusoidal and in phase with the voltage.
V sin (t + )
i=
R
CAPACITANCE

When a sinusoidal voltage is applied across a capacitor C the current


is given by:
dv
i=C = CV cos(t + )
dt

INDUCTANCE

When a sinusoidal voltage is applied across an inductor L the current is


cos (t + )
given by: i = V
L
If we plot these we see that the current in the capacitor is displaced
-90o from that in the resistor and the current in the inductor is
displaced +90o. This is a similar relationship to that of the displacement, velocity and acceleration in
a mechanical system.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 12
SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 4

1. Mains electricity has a frequency of 50 Hz. What is the periodic time and angular frequency?
(0.02 s and 314 rad/s)

2. An alternating current has a periodic time of 0.0025 s. What is the frequency? (400 Hz)

3. A alternating voltage has a peak to peak amplitude of 300 V and frequency of 50 Hz. What is
the amplitude? (150 V)
What is the voltage at t = 0.02 s? (16.4 V)

4. Determine the following from the graph shown.

The amplitude.
The offset displacement.
The periodic time.
The frequency.
The angular frequency.
The phase angle.

(Answers 5, 2, 1.57 s, 4 rad/s, 0.637 Hz, 0.2 radian or 11.5o)

5. A resistor of value 10 , a capacitor of value 40 F and an


inductor of value 10 mH are all connected in parallel to a
voltage source as shown. The voltage is 50 sin(2000t).
Determine an expression for the current drawn from the source.
Determine the peak current.
Determine the phase of the source current.

3cos(2000t )
i = 5 sin (2000t ) +
2
(5.22 A, -0.29 radian)

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 13
6. COMPLEX WAVEFORMS

FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY

A sinusoidal voltage or current is described by the mathematical formula v = V sin t or i = I sin t

The sinusoidal voltage formula is then v = V sin(2ft) In this formula f is the fundamental
frequency.

HARMONICS
A harmonic is a multiple of the fundamental frequency.
2f is the second harmonic.
3f is the third harmonic
nf is the nth harmonic.

SYNTHESISING COMPLEX WAVES

Waveforms with shapes that are not sinusoidal may be


synthesised from one common sinusoidal waveform.
The proof of this is not given here but the following is
mathematically correct. This graph shows the result of
adding the first and third harmonic with equal
amplitudes.

In reality the amplitude of the harmonic is


likely to be less than the amplitude of the
fundamental. This graph shows the affect of
adding the third harmonic with 1/3 of the
amplitude.

GENERATION OF HARMONICS

Harmonics are generated when a sinusoidal signal passes through a non-linear amplifier. An ideal
amplifier increases a sinusoidal signal perfectly.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 14
SQUARE WAVES
Square waveforms are really d.c. levels that suddenly
change from plus to minus. It can be shown that the
following formula relates voltage and time. The formula is
an infinite series.

V V V
v = Vsin( t) + sin3( t) + sin5( t) + sin7( t) + ........
3 5 7

TRIANGULAR WAVES
It can be shown that the following formula
relates voltage and time. The formula is an
infinite series.

V V V
v = Vsin( t) + sin(3 t ) + sin(5 t) + sin(7 t ) + ........
9 25 49
Note that in this series, a phase shift of radians is added to each

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