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Sinusoidal functions: review of the trigonometric ratios; Cartesian and polar co-ordinate systems;

properties of the circle; radian measure; sinusoidal functions

Applications such as: angular velocity; angular acceleration; centripetal force; frequency;

amplitude; phase; the production of complex waveforms using sinusoidal graphical synthesis; AC

waveforms and phase shift

Trigonometric identities: relationship between trigonometric and hyperbolic identities; double angle

and compound angle formulae and the conversion of products to sums and differences; use of

trigonometric identities to solve trigonometric equations and simplify trigonometric expressions

You should judge your progress by completing the self assessment exercises.

Trigonometry has been covered in the NC Maths module and should have been studied prior to this

module. This tutorial provides further studies and applications of that work.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 1

1. RADIAN

In Engineering and Science, we use the radian to measure angle as well as degrees. This is defined

as the angle created by placing a line of length 1 radius around the

edge of the circle as shown. In mathematical words it is the angle

subtended by an arc of length one radius. This angle is called the

RADIAN.

radians that make a complete circle is

2 R

or 2.

R

There are 2 radians in one revolution so 360o =2 radian

1 radian = 360/2 = 57.296o

CARTESIAN

up) and the horizontal is direction is x (positive to the right). Other

letters may be used to designate an axis and they dont have to be

vertical and horizontal.

A point p on this plane has coordinates x, y and this is usually written as p (x,y)

POLAR

angle with the x axis. The angle is positive measured from the x axis in

a counter clockwise direction.

A vector with polar coordinates is denoted R

CONVERSION

The two systems are clearly linked as we can convert from one to the

other using trigonometry and Pythagoras theorem.

y = R sin x = R cos

y/x = tan

R = (x2 + y2)

SOLUTION

= tan-1 (6/4) = 56.31o

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 2

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 1

2. Convert /6 radian into degrees. (30o)

3. The x, y Cartesian coordinates of a vector are 2 and 7.Express the vector in Polar coordinates.

(7.28 74o)

4. A vector with Cartesian coordinates 10, 20 is added to a vector with coordinates -20,10. What

are the polar coordinates of the resulting vector?

(31.623 108.4o)

The ratios of the lengths of the sides of a right angle triangle are always

the same for any given angle . These ratios are very important because

they allow us to calculate lots of things to do with triangles. In the

following the notation above is used with the corners denoted AB and C

SINE

Opposite CB

The ratio = is called the sine of the angle A. (note we usually drop the e on sine)

Hypotenuse AB

Before the use of calculators, the values of the sine of angles were placed in tables but all you have

to do is enter the angle into your calculator and press the button shown as sin.

For example if you enter 60 into your calculator in degree mode and press sin you get 0.8660

If you enter 0.2 into your calculator in radian mode and press sin you get 0.1987

Note that sin() = -sin (-) and sin (180 ) = sin()

COSINE

Adjacent AC

The ratio = is called the cosine of the angle A.

Hypotenuse AB

On your calculator the button is labelled cos. For example enter 60 into your calculator in degree

mode and press the cos button. You should obtain 0.5

If you enter 0.2 into your calculator in radian mode and press cos you get 0.9800

TANGENT

Opposite BC

The ratio = is called the tangent of the angle A.

Adjacent AC

On your calculator the button is labelled tan. For example enter 60 into your calculator in degree

mode and press the tan button and you should obtain 1.732.

If you enter 0.2 into your calculator in radian mode and press tan you get 0.2027

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 3

INVERSE FUNCTIONS

Some people find it useful to use the inverse functions which are as follows.

The following work enables us to solve triangles other than right angles triangles.

SINE RULE

a b

It follows that =

sinA sinB

a b c

If we did the same for another perpendicular to side b or a we could show that = =

sinA sinB sinC

Find the length of the two unknown side in the triangle shown.

SOLUTION

a b c 50 b c

= = = =

sinA sinB sinC sin(30) sin(45) sin(105)

50 sin(45) 50 sin(105)

b= = 70.711 mm c= = 96.593 mm

sin (30) sin (30)

Calculate the length of the ropes

Draw the vector diagram for the three forces in equilibrium.

Calculate the forces in the ropes.

SOLUTION

4/sin 110 = L1/sin 50 = L2/sin 20

L1 = 3.261 m and L2 = 1.456 m

Next draw the triangle of forces as shown.

F1/sin 40o = 300/sin 70o F1 = 205.2 N

F2/sin 70o = 300/sin 70o F1 = 300 N

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 4

COSINE RULE

h2 = a2 (b x)2 and h2 = c2 x2

a2 (b2 + x2 2bx) = c2 x2

a2 b2 - x2 + 2bx) = c2 x2

a2 = b2 + x2 2bx + c2 x2

a2 = b2 + c2 2bx substitute x = c cos(A) a2 = b2 + c2 2bc

cos(A) = c2

b2 + c2 a 2

cos(A) =

2bc

If we repeated the process with h drawn normal to the other sides we could show that :

c2 + a 2 b2 a 2 + b2 c2

cos(B) = cos(C) =

2ca 2ab

You can see a pattern for remembering the formulae. This is a useful formula for solving a triangle

with three known sides or two known sides and the angle opposite the unknown side.

Find the other internal angles.

SOLUTION

a 2 + b2 c2 6 0 2 + 70 2 c 2

cos(C) = cos(60o ) =

2ab (2)(60(70)

cos(60 o )(2)(60)(7 0) = 60 2 + 70 2 c 2

4200 = 8500 c 2

c2 = 4300 c = 65.574 mm

cos(A) = = = 0.61

2bc (2)(70)(65.574)

A = 52.4o

B = 180 52.4 60 = 126.5 o

SOLUTION

100 2 + 100 2 R 2

cos(135o ) =

(2)(100(100)

cos(135o )(2)(100)(100) = 1002 + 1002 R 2

-14142.1 = 20000 R2

R2 = 34142.13 R = 184.78 N

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 5

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 2

2. Vector A has polar coordinates 12 60o and vector B has polar coordinates 5 20o

Find the resultant in polar form. (16.15 48.5o )

3. The diagram shows a weight suspended from two ropes. Calculate the angles of the ropes to the

horizontal support.

4. A weight of 4 Tonne is suspended on two ropes as shown. Calculate the length of the ropes and

the forces in them.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 6

5. SINUSOIDAL FUNCTIONS

In Nature and in Engineering there are many things that oscillate in some form or other and produce

a repetitive change of some quantity with respect to time. Examples are mechanical oscillations and

alternating electricity. In many cases a plot of the quantity against time produces a sinusoidal graph

and the change is said to be sinusoidal.

MECHANICAL EXAMPLES

The Scotch Yoke is a device that produces up and down motion when the wheel is rotated. The

displacement of the yoke from the horizontal position is x = R sin = x R sin(t). Plotting x against

time or angle will produce a sinusoidal graph. The eccentric cam is really another version of this.

In all cases we should remember that velocity is the first derivative of displacement and

acceleration is the second derivative. It follows that:

Displacement x = R sin(t)

Velocity v = dx/dt = R cos(t)

Acceleration a = dv/dt = -2R sin(t) = -2 x

Anything that obeys these equations is said to have SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION

could be at any angle so in that

case the equations become:

Displacement

x = R sin(t + )

Velocity

v = dx/dt = R cos(t + )

Acceleration

a = dv/dt = -2R sin(t + ) = -2 x

velocity and acceleration for = 0 on

the left and a negative on the right.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 7

MASS ON A SPRING

and produce identical motion to the Scotch Yoke without

the rotation of a wheel.

The velocity of the mass is v = xo sin(t)

The acceleration of the mass is a = -2 xo cos(t)

where k is the spring stiffness in N/m and m the mass in

kg. This is called the natural frequency.

1 k

The natural frequency of oscillation is hence f =

2 m

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE

by:

CF = m2R

only move in one direction, the force acting in that direction

is the component of the force in that direction.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 8

WORKED EXAMPLE No. 6

The displacement of a body performing simple harmonic motion is described by the following

equation

x = A sin (t + ) where A is the amplitude, is the natural frequency and is the phase angle.

Given A = 20 mm, = 50 rad/s and = /8 radian, calculate the following.

i. The frequency.

ii. The periodic time.

iii. The displacement, velocity and acceleration when t = T/4.

SOLUTION

Next deduce the periodic time. T = 1/f = 0.126 s

Next deduce the time t. t = T/4 = 0.0314 s

Next write out the equation for displacement and solve x at t = 0.0314 s

x = 20 sin (50 x 0.314) +

8

x = 20sin 1.57 + = 20sin1.963 = 18.48 mm

8

Next write down the equations for v and a

x = 20sin(t + )

v = 20 cos(t + ) = 20 x 50 x cos(1.963) = - 382.2 mm/s

a = - 20 2 sin(t + ) = - 20 x 50 2 sin(1.963) = - 46203 mm/s 2

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 9

WORKED EXAMPLE No. 7

A spring of stiffness 20 kN/m supports a mass of 4 kg. The mass is pulled down 8 mm and

released to produce linear oscillations. Calculate the frequency and periodic time. Sketch the

graphs of displacement, velocity and acceleration. Calculate the displacement, velocity and

acceleration 0.05 s after being released.

SOLUTION

k 20000

= = = 70.71 rad/s

M 4

f= = 11.25 Hz

2

1

T = = 0.0899 s

f

The oscillation starts at the bottom of the cycle so xo = -8 mm. The resulting graph of x against

time will be a negative cosine curve with an amplitude of 8 mm.

The equations describing the motion are as follows.

x = xocost

When t = 0.05 seconds x = -8 cos(70.71 x 0.05)

x = 7.387 mm. (Note angles are in radian)

This is confirmed by the graph.

v = -xosin t

v = -xosin t = -70.71 (-8)sin(70.71 x 0.05)

v = -217 mm/s

This is confirmed by the graph.

a = -2xocost and since x = xocost a = -2x

a = -70.712 x 7.387 = -36 934 mm/s2

This is confirmed by the graph.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 10

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 3

1. Calculate the frequency and periodic time for the oscillation produced by a mass spring

system given that the mass is 0.5 kg and the spring stiffness is 3 N/mm. (12.3 Hz, 0.081 s).

2. A mass of 4 kg is suspended from a spring and oscillates up and down at 2 Hz. Determine the

stiffness of the spring. (631.6 N/m).

The amplitude of the oscillation is 5 mm. Determine the displacement, velocity and

acceleration 0.02 s after the mass passes through the mean or rest position in an upwards

direction. (1.243 mm, 60.86 mm/s and -196.4 mm/s2)

3. From recordings made of a simple harmonic motion, it is found that at a certain point in the

motion the velocity is 0.3 m/s and the displacement is 20 mm, both being positive downwards

in direction. Determine the amplitude of the motion and the maximum velocity and

acceleration. Write down the equations of motion.

Note that the data given is at time t = 0. You will have to assume that

v = -0.3914 sin(t - 50o)

a = -157.9 x

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 11

ELECTRICAL EXAMPLES

ALTERNATING ELECTRICITY

rad/s (very simplified case shown). The voltage generated is directly proportional to the angle of

rotation.

This explains why the voltage in our mains electrical system is sinusoidal. The voltage at any

moment in time is given by the equation v = V sin(t) where V is the maximum voltage

(amplitude) in the cycle and the angular velocity or frequency.

If we choose to measure the angle from a different starting point then v = V sin(t + ) where is

the starting angle.

RESISTANCE

the current is sinusoidal and in phase with the voltage.

V sin (t + )

i=

R

CAPACITANCE

is given by:

dv

i=C = CV cos(t + )

dt

INDUCTANCE

cos (t + )

given by: i = V

L

If we plot these we see that the current in the capacitor is displaced

-90o from that in the resistor and the current in the inductor is

displaced +90o. This is a similar relationship to that of the displacement, velocity and acceleration in

a mechanical system.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 12

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 4

1. Mains electricity has a frequency of 50 Hz. What is the periodic time and angular frequency?

(0.02 s and 314 rad/s)

2. An alternating current has a periodic time of 0.0025 s. What is the frequency? (400 Hz)

3. A alternating voltage has a peak to peak amplitude of 300 V and frequency of 50 Hz. What is

the amplitude? (150 V)

What is the voltage at t = 0.02 s? (16.4 V)

The amplitude.

The offset displacement.

The periodic time.

The frequency.

The angular frequency.

The phase angle.

inductor of value 10 mH are all connected in parallel to a

voltage source as shown. The voltage is 50 sin(2000t).

Determine an expression for the current drawn from the source.

Determine the peak current.

Determine the phase of the source current.

3cos(2000t )

i = 5 sin (2000t ) +

2

(5.22 A, -0.29 radian)

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 13

6. COMPLEX WAVEFORMS

FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY

The sinusoidal voltage formula is then v = V sin(2ft) In this formula f is the fundamental

frequency.

HARMONICS

A harmonic is a multiple of the fundamental frequency.

2f is the second harmonic.

3f is the third harmonic

nf is the nth harmonic.

synthesised from one common sinusoidal waveform.

The proof of this is not given here but the following is

mathematically correct. This graph shows the result of

adding the first and third harmonic with equal

amplitudes.

likely to be less than the amplitude of the

fundamental. This graph shows the affect of

adding the third harmonic with 1/3 of the

amplitude.

GENERATION OF HARMONICS

Harmonics are generated when a sinusoidal signal passes through a non-linear amplifier. An ideal

amplifier increases a sinusoidal signal perfectly.

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 14

SQUARE WAVES

Square waveforms are really d.c. levels that suddenly

change from plus to minus. It can be shown that the

following formula relates voltage and time. The formula is

an infinite series.

V V V

v = Vsin( t) + sin3( t) + sin5( t) + sin7( t) + ........

3 5 7

TRIANGULAR WAVES

It can be shown that the following formula

relates voltage and time. The formula is an

infinite series.

V V V

v = Vsin( t) + sin(3 t ) + sin(5 t) + sin(7 t ) + ........

9 25 49

Note that in this series, a phase shift of radians is added to each

D.J.Dunn www.freestudy.co.uk 15

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