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| — ‘Treatise on the Ornaments of Music GIUSEPPE TARTINI SOL BABITZ ISBN : 978-93-328-5772-8 First Published 1956, reprint 2013 in India by Isha Books B-69, New Gupta Colony, New DDA Market, New Delhi - 110009 Printed at: Sagar Color Scan, New Delhi. Treatise on the Ornaments of Music GIUSEPPE TARTINE ronslated ond Edited by SOL BABITZ P. Desis, who tracted Tartin's Trea tie on Ormamentation Into French in 1773, refered to the work as “unique” ia the Tit introduetion be prepared for it. He id not elborate on this polnt, but i all probability the work poses even sreter dln to singulanty than he surmied. Te is the fst book dealing entirely with ‘ormamentation the ist book to dsc ia etal the raison dre and appiation of ‘ornaments, providing information found in ‘bo other Books of the period the only ‘ook writen on that sublet ia Taly at 2 tne when all Europe was copying the Ttlian model in performance. Oddly facush it was never publsbed in Taian but crusted widdly in mamnecrpt; whe thus crusting it nd, acoing ts French translator, wide induence; it was probably sen by'C.. E, Bach and most ‘erty studied by Leopold Mozart, who ‘appropriated entre sections fom i fr BS Vionchale with the then caomary lack ‘of acknowledgement? Pandey, when the manuicipt was Sally publabed fa French trandton, I Inuence wed, perhaps because it was ‘coming outmoded—thee seems to be bo furer mention of I by 18h-entury weit em Today, no copies of the manuscript fe known, while the Preach verion ie aime forcoten, very rae, and misine from mest Hbraves; all is iS strane, sinc sever relatively unimportant works of Turn ar widely Known, Tis present olscurity is such that there is no mention fof iin Engh books on omamenaton? opal Mona, Vern ener grindichon Vitis (Rorsbary, 1750), Cas. 9 ty hovers ied by Ads. Bereta, Die Oran der Muah, Capt: Breton nd el 1907), pp 145.149, and Linn de Waste, Bate Prego Viton de aly “Vin (Ena "Libis. Dare, 1926), tH, 64 and it i incomectly dasgated in bh the ‘ld and aew Grow. ‘Tartints syle i clear and some of bis statements equiv In the extreme, all ‘of whlch begs shed Hit on aspects of per- formance which are still not completely understood, Tati evidence els ex hin for example, why the leading nox- epboard books. (Tas, Quant, Gemini, L, Mozart) omit symbols for tbe mordext ‘and tar and why thee very tems are loeateddiferendy in these bocks. "The manusciptappazenly bor no dst, ut ie must dave. been written prior to 1950 in order to allow several years for it to culate and reach Leopold Mozart in time tobe Incrparated into bis Bock belo ts weling in 175, eis doubill if the original tle of the ‘ook can be dicovered. The ebbé Fanzago tas been variously quoted with repect to the tite, A Diionary of Masons sys “The abbé Faszago speaks of a manuscript treatise by Tata etled Lesione sopra 4 vert genert df apposatre d tril temelt fe morden Gr.” als says, “Labbe anzago mentions 2 work iy Tootote 24, age 36 of the Git edition of the eulogy ff Tati under the tite of Lesion po Viole; bat the vel tile of his work found in the catalogue of Jouph Benson (Wenge 1818, p. 4) Tralee dale apb0n- ature i axendnti che dcndent per olin, comme gare i le roma, mor= deat," ed” alr, con Gcirasone delle ‘cadens natural compote ‘Ts last tile conerss lly with the contents of the French trandationt ferved the tractor ae the basis for bis rmore flowery tte, ame at eaancing the 34 Diary of Muscons (Loden, 1831), ‘scaed Bes ‘FJ, Rls, Bigrphe eters der mae sins (Pa 3439, 15 % JOURNAL OF RESEARCI IN ALUSIC HOUCATION work's sil, The emi of this translator as been someting of 2 mystery. Laurence fovcety points aut tat he aot the nude Denis who published violin sonatas im the 17205) however Whe Jane Arger® be confuses him with a Denis who did afew yrs aller publishing a Nowooen sytem de rosiue raique in VATS Fei dace {he trandator a8 Piewo Deni, 2 pulser tnd tandeline teacher who als trated owe Age, Ler serets ef le rye (Paris ose 917), 106 ie i Lares, 1,265; I, 168 We ate ahs indeed te de Toure or etting {api and nt Fa 1782 a0 he dte of ube aan the etn. ur’ Graias. That Fats is probably comet ‘may be infeed fom the Ist page ofthe P. Desis transi, where Is found a Tet of ‘idetic works for the mandolize “by the sthor” Deni’ remarks scattered through the text. axe easly ditingihed, snes they are eon- ferred with the ranch equivalents of some of Tarn terme, The prownt weer’ femarke are in Brackets and footnotes. The Tusa omamples ave been reproduced photographically through te courtesy of the Library of Congres. or asstanee im the preparation of his teansaton, thiols are dee. to David De Boyden, Alen P. Briton, Wesky Kuhle, Will Liehteswanges, and Fitz Ze TREATISE ON THE ORNAMENTS OF MUSIC Including the origin of the appoggiatura Its value and where to put it All the various kinds of trills How to use them ‘The vibrato and the mordent "The use to which they can be put ‘The modes or natural ornaments ‘The florid modes which are endless How to construct a cadenza ‘An original work very useful not only to teachers of the singing style, but also to all instrumentalists, and which every good musician, even a composer will read such pleasure Composed by the celebrated Giuseppe Tart ‘And translated by Sig’ P. Denis of Paris ‘ranma u Denis troduction The work which I give to the public as es mie es eather, [wha 3} tectum as one ies ite Bay Slopetn, yall the. acadoies of Barope ts the geste mason of his entry." Iy Seaforth pute goo, tnd my paiade 19 tis grat mon tho ‘deigst.honor me wth is Front, has induced me to. ten Tee into rence clay et 1 co, this treats, which hos ested many teats nd which has pee Birth to moder mas. The rear 1 advived not to reed atin hast, but the contrary ot ¢ slow jac end with though, order to derive from i the prof and sale faction he desires. Concerning the Appogeiatura Which in French Is Called Little Note Appogglaturas are those notes weitten smaller than the others: ‘An appoggatura is an_omament joined to a large note before which it is placed; both are expreseed with the sane bow stoke oF with the same breath jeblerloe- ‘There are two kinds of appogsia- turas, With some one descends to the large notes, with others one ascends to them: Diderot and d’Alenbert, Eneylopddie rai, 115-8). The spalig Is Pore, «satus ere ty the trandaioe—ha seo the tern fel oe was adobe coment fori ad shall speak first of those with which one descends; these are the most natural and the most flattering? ‘One must make a distinction be- tween two kinds of descending appog- fiaturas, to wit, long, or sustained appogglaturas, and short and passing appogglaturas. The duration of a long appogpiatura should equal that of the large note to which it is joined, or, to state it better, it should share the value of this large note. This will be seen inthe second of the following two ‘ezamples. The appoggiatura is written as a large note in the second example: second example is not in the value of the appogsiatura, which is the same as that of the large note, but in the nature ofthe bow stroke or the breath- ing. Tf this appoggiatura were written as a large note, as it appears in this example, it would be necessary to express it with more stress than the second, andl it would demand a short trill. But as itis only an appoggatura, the bow or voice should start it softly, ‘Thar earl eeenent with eect to Bach Quant dow not nto tbat the ule of hs eramples are docmdiag (Most {hap 9, Psa; f oar 100 187i? rat Dying a the Fain, London 175, b 1, G, P. Be Bach, Voraeh fbr ue dot dor Klein a pide, Der Bn 153, as W. T- Ml, New You Neran, 1949, b, 90) J. J. Quant Verach tardiness ie ove oon Bell 178, Chap. 8 % JOURNAL OF RESEARCI IN ALUSIC HOUCATION work's sil, The emi of this translator as been someting of 2 mystery. Laurence fovcety points aut tat he aot the nude Denis who published violin sonatas im the 17205) however Whe Jane Arger® be confuses him with a Denis who did afew yrs aller publishing a Nowooen sytem de rosiue raique in VATS Fei dace {he trandator a8 Piewo Deni, 2 pulser tnd tandeline teacher who als trated owe Age, Ler serets ef le rye (Paris ose 917), 106 ie i Lares, 1,265; I, 168 We ate ahs indeed te de Toure or etting {api and nt Fa 1782 a0 he dte of ube aan the etn. ur’ Graias. That Fats is probably comet ‘may be infeed fom the Ist page ofthe P. Desis transi, where Is found a Tet of ‘idetic works for the mandolize “by the sthor” Deni’ remarks scattered through the text. axe easly ditingihed, snes they are eon- ferred with the ranch equivalents of some of Tarn terme, The prownt weer’ femarke are in Brackets and footnotes. The Tusa omamples ave been reproduced photographically through te courtesy of the Library of Congres. or asstanee im the preparation of his teansaton, thiols are dee. to David De Boyden, Alen P. Briton, Wesky Kuhle, Will Liehteswanges, and Fitz Ze TREATISE ON THE ORNAMENTS OF MUSIC Including the origin of the appoggiatura Its value and where to put it All the various kinds of trills How to use them ‘The vibrato and the mordent "The use to which they can be put ‘The modes or natural ornaments ‘The florid modes which are endless How to construct a cadenza ‘An original work very useful not only to teachers of the singing style, but also to all instrumentalists, and which every good musician, even a composer will read such pleasure Composed by the celebrated Giuseppe Tart ‘And translated by Sig’ P. Denis of Paris ‘ranma u Denis troduction The work which I give to the public as es mie es eather, [wha 3} tectum as one ies ite Bay Slopetn, yall the. acadoies of Barope ts the geste mason of his entry." Iy Seaforth pute goo, tnd my paiade 19 tis grat mon tho ‘deigst.honor me wth is Front, has induced me to. ten Tee into rence clay et 1 co, this treats, which hos ested many teats nd which has pee Birth to moder mas. The rear 1 advived not to reed atin hast, but the contrary ot ¢ slow jac end with though, order to derive from i the prof and sale faction he desires. Concerning the Appogeiatura Which in French Is Called Little Note Appogglaturas are those notes weitten smaller than the others: ‘An appoggatura is an_omament joined to a large note before which it is placed; both are expreseed with the sane bow stoke oF with the same breath jeblerloe- ‘There are two kinds of appogsia- turas, With some one descends to the large notes, with others one ascends to them: Diderot and d’Alenbert, Eneylopddie rai, 115-8). The spalig Is Pore, «satus ere ty the trandaioe—ha seo the tern fel oe was adobe coment fori ad shall speak first of those with which one descends; these are the most natural and the most flattering? ‘One must make a distinction be- tween two kinds of descending appog- fiaturas, to wit, long, or sustained appogglaturas, and short and passing appogglaturas. The duration of a long appogpiatura should equal that of the large note to which it is joined, or, to state it better, it should share the value of this large note. This will be seen inthe second of the following two ‘ezamples. The appoggiatura is written as a large note in the second example: second example is not in the value of the appogsiatura, which is the same as that of the large note, but in the nature ofthe bow stroke or the breath- ing. Tf this appoggiatura were written as a large note, as it appears in this example, it would be necessary to express it with more stress than the second, andl it would demand a short trill. But as itis only an appoggatura, the bow or voice should start it softly, ‘Thar earl eeenent with eect to Bach Quant dow not nto tbat the ule of hs eramples are docmdiag (Most {hap 9, Psa; f oar 100 187i? rat Dying a the Fain, London 175, b 1, G, P. Be Bach, Voraeh fbr ue dot dor Klein a pide, Der Bn 153, as W. T- Ml, New You Neran, 1949, b, 90) J. J. Quant Verach tardiness ie ove oon Bell 178, Chap. 8 80 sours Use to Which the Short ond Passing Appoggicture Should Be Put One can use it not only in descend- ing skips of thirds, but in all other places, even in descending scales and in any time signature; that is to say, in measures of 4/4 time and in triple time as can be seen in the following examples: ‘The effect of short and passing appogglaturas is to render the expres- sion lively and brilliant, This is very ‘diferent from that of the long appog- iaturas, which only render it melod- fous. One must consequently not put short and passing appoggiaturas in serious and sad pleces, but only in allegro, of at most in andante canta- bile. Their real expression can be seen in the following examples: * (Giap'o) Drs). WJ. 3th dicts Bac Evy (C. PE Bac, p. 99). The we Jory epaton nal petty bed ws Qt fed gla Wasa te appuceten 99 the Sutin Lombard ste nen sftad bea (he bet ise Freak ole (Quant, ap Pes: Chap (y, Sc 2, Ba 02 Ch. 18, Ban; PF Tod, Opinio! de ean 1385, Geman tame ty J. Ages, Bera, 1957, 9p 08). “Note he til he example whichis aot rmotncd i the txt this tel oo the Et ft soe ot plaabe ules hot lengened yt perfrmer to steal ine {ete clos scrdng tothe oneron of ‘ye tron. JS Beh roan pce Setamene fs aie pls, Oter ees SE wil be found on pp. 2 and 91 Cop st Mitt band stems). SAL OF RESEARCH IN’ MUSIC EDUCATION Sometimes in ascending stepwise appoggiaturas are used: It must be noted that there is in this passage a [metrical] ambiguit between the appoggiaturas and the large notes, 28 the good effect does not come from the appoggatura but from the large note which precedes it, and which forms with it @ [metri- cal] ambiguity. ‘Notes of this kind and not appog- latucas are used in the ascending and Aescending scales, Concerning the Simple Ascending Appogsiaturas ‘The simple ascending appoggiaturas do not at all conform to the nature of Darmony; the descending appoggia- turas take the place of the dissonance. Tf one reflects that the dissonance should not ascend but rather descend in order to resolve, one vill clearly see that the ascending eppoggiaturas fare contrary tothe nature of harmony. See the following examples: TEL, Mourns his wou Yambinty," cantiag i ito dave los ad Sts (Le Some, Chap. 9, Pat 18) some of Ke verses of th, (ats the convention of the debe ox fey hs pape wersen the value of te Set sur ee doe oneal of thew ‘be (he ot, Chap 9, Fas. 426,202 rarest a From this it fellows that one can- not use simple appoggiaruras in. as ending but one ean use them in combination with other appogalaturas, as in the following exemple: * teat One can combine ther in another way by starting them ascending and descending. See the example which follows: jomedakess ‘To prove that the ascending eppog sfaturas are contrary to harmony, one need only form a passage of ascendin skips in thirds and fl in the intervals ‘with passing appoggiaturas, as we have done in the example of descend- ing ships of thirds. In this war one will se that those which descend are good and those which ascend are bed ee ee Ss ‘There are nevertheless apposvia- tras which proceed by ships, some Tye et fo te tet ads GS ample atbalé ane et WL, Meza, Cap. 9, Pa 29. excendiog and cthers descending, which always have a gucd pecially In the contebie tained appogganur in descending sees: Merdent?! 8 Celed Ce ‘ond Morden! cedent rusic; but it sho some way a5 one Too much of :09 vwo Kinds cf ils, the ufl of & wholestep end thet of a bal 82 JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN M(USIC EDUCATION Bi a ‘This tell of a semi-tone is the clos- ing trill of minor keys. "The mechanism of the Trillo, or ill consists in pressing firmly the finget of the lover note and striking the string with the finger of the other note quickly and lightly.** ‘The trill is faulty when it exceeds the prescribed [interval of} a tone of semitone. In all music there is only ‘one case where this trill i permissible, ‘even though it exceeds a whole-step. It is that of the following example: * In that case, which occurs frequent- ly, it is better to substitute for this tall a mode, ie. a simple or compound ‘omamental igure, concerning which wwe shall speak later, for this trill is very dificult and as a result often devoid of taste or effect There are various ways of ending a trill—here are the two most usual and natural ones: * ‘The first is the more natural of the ‘wo. There is another complex one “Balen voi paving invaably ees ‘HL, Mont, Cha. 10, Par 4 Quan ac ces weer Talon vas” of ane te fat tn hide (Chap 9, ae. 4), ‘Mode i wed nie sense af sexes Manin (Gee). ‘mats, Tb, IX, Fi, Sa; Tab XV, Fs 175,20 Se p85 snd $3 ow shown in the following example and others similar to it: —— Nowadays @ trill is made on a note and then an octave higher without Interruption, as in the following ex- anple: Be = ‘This trl, artfully contrived, is bad because it goes against nature, Final- ly there are other ways of performing the trill with respect to piano and Jorte. Since the voice, or the tone of fan instrument affords pleasure when passing from fiona to fort, till vill have a good effect if one begins it slowly and gently, increasing its volume and speed simultaneously as in this example: ‘There ae also other ways of per- trill, as when the voice pro- ceeds. stepwise, elther ascending or descending: * fereettie On the violin it is also done with the aid of the second finger or by shifting the [first] finger alone. The “HH Mota, Chap. 10, Pt 6 {IE Mort, CBs. 16, Pa 7. 281, Afozet, Chap 10, Pars 22, 23, Th im- ‘lid peta es il tating othe wal ZTARTIN 8 same is done in triling each note when descending as wall as ascending ‘These trills which produce a good effect in scales are not as effective in leaps, ‘There is another kind of trill which fs best performed on tbe violin. The two notes which form this tril are Joined together in such a way that uo fingers never leave the string entirely. Te is therefore not performed lke the other tris, by lifting the finger, but by moving the entire hand with the wrist—the hand moving the finger with a swaying motion so that the trill is slured and not beaten, ‘This roduees a good fect in affective Dieees, and when the two notes are a semitone apart. Concerning the Use of the Tritt (Cohich we shall no longer call cadence but tril to diferentiate it jrom ‘musical or harmonic cadences) Concerning the Places Where the Tril Should be Used ‘The teil is used at the ends of phrases where occur final cadences, as they ate known in composition; in halfeadences; in those of the fourth Riss the only Bdeentary desciton of te ll nie the too Hosts never Tevet sting en Ie was wey eahat nl lave and Is teqaniy vse by Gost 1 Pe ty wa nae, en ete ied ah nen vey eeccclng sled pl of ates snd sto was se to ‘wigs expen hate aman! Lal-vay and the fifth; and finally in those which are deceptive—soe the following example: ® Tt should be noted that the trill of final cadences, that is cadences which terminate musical phrases, is diferent from that of balf [interme- ate) cadences and deceptive ones, ‘The trill of final cadences isthe one concerning which we bave spoken above. The trill of half and deceptive cadences must consist of three notes, as can be seen in the following ex: ample: Uf there is enough time a passing appoggiatura may be joined to the thtee notes making up the final trill as in this example: ania Fetween ll and whats oud eit, ‘ese a impovsegertaments In efor ice ha demeetated othe Pr weer UHM in etal enters he Bet of pear foe vibrate fed ight tut someting 30The Fach terme wind ate cadence fl, cadens intermitne, eee que at db ‘uns tera Ea {JOURNAL OF RESEARCIL IN MUSIC EDUCATION If there are two slurred notes and ‘two detached notes, the trill should be on the first of the two slurred mee ‘This trill is contabile it conforms to nature and has a very good effect ‘when put in those places of which we Fave spoken. It should even be noted that when the melody ascends step- vise, it is Impossible to use any other, ‘and that if one wished to do so it vwould always be bad: Tn this case it is unnecessary to ‘add the passing appogziatura. ‘There fare countless other ways of using the ls in cantbile as well as lively and Tight music, and it is imposible to give examples ofall of these ways. We sball content ourselves with a small mamber of general rales, One must first see if the notes are of equal value. Fot ex: ample, in performing a scale of eighth notes, like the following one, if a til is put on the first note of the meas- ws the trill must of necessity fall on the third and filth notes of the measure; Dut if the trill is put on the note pre ceding the measure, the trill must fll fon the second and fourth notes of the ‘measure. This rule with reference to notes of equal value embraces am tndless number of eases—if there are fowo slurred notes at the start of the quarter or eighth part of the measure the tail falls on the frst of the two Tieton the ft 6 nate Dre tee om ers of Pa. 16 BS yorart adv wo at (he a 1H? nO aes athe En te a Ee th i ble Toot tooo § trate 1 there are three slurred notes, the till should be on the middle one, if the notes are as in this example: * Af the notes are slurred over the cighth beat, the tril should be put fon the second of the two slurred notes: When there is a scale of dotted rotes, the trill may be placed on the Tong oF on the short note: * Tut one should make a distinction ‘and aote that in the first example the tril on the long note renders the ex pression more cantabile while in the fecond example, placed on the short pote, it renders the expression livelier fand’ more audacious, Thus, in the “SEL, Morar, Chap, 10, Par 18 SL, Most, Chap. 10, Pt. 1 (Cap, 1, Par, 20. The Baal fe saRTIN fg second case the true expression is: the ‘When there are dotted notes, the trill bas a very good effect on the When there are two slurred notes on the same tone, the trill occurs at the same time as the crescendo on the second of the to notes: Cece Sige, One should be cautious in general not to put @ trill on the first note of any air, nor to put tills on two con secutive notes unless one wishes to make a series of trill: * ‘ange trl ay be an eter ot Beni Fait would be mere loge ve et tere tall. C.P- . Bah elas Wis ype al ile Go. Tt 1) ad ator SOkarve at Tari taker for seated whe cecinde on the etal. of Ue to swt eo (Cha, 80 y Pc. 18 {hd Cha. 2, Par 11) bess to the pret adding an Patera of th bow” ot feta of Ge ancl ola rae coe of ‘Iegroeent wih Tara. (Sef 15 above) ZH & Hach ol ad ters ets Concerning the Vibrato ™ or Tremblement, in French ‘This kind of omament is by its nature better suited to instruments ‘when it occurs in a human voice, itis due to the nature of that voice. ‘The sound of harpsichord strings, of bells, and of open strings of cer- tain good bowed instruments leaves in its natural wake an undulation in the it which has been animated by it ‘This undulation is caused by the vi- brations of the tiny parts composing the metal, or by the continued vibra- tion of the string set in motion by the bor in the case of a bowed instru ment, and by the jack in the case of a harpsichord string. In imitation of this effect one can produce this vibration artificially on the violin, viola, and ‘eal with a finger held on the string while the vibrato is impressed on the finger with the force of the wrist, with- out the finger leaving the string, despite its being lifted slightly Ifthe vibrato of the finger is slow, the un- ulation which is the vibrato of the sound will be slow; if it is fast, the undulation will be fast. One can ac- cordingly increase the speed of the ‘undulation little by litle, by starting slowly and rendering it faster by de- grees. An example will show this fugmentation indicated with small semicircles, the relative sizes of ‘which maik the slowness and the quickness and consequently the in- creased speed.s* Semel 1. Mawr copes this ston al most wor for rd. "Bsa fn 2 thor agate te modern ian vibrate we ues he pe about oneal sp, is ey mow, ing heey Sra ol Sager pres, something hich would be fe Side, the oder vine mide eater tendang "A slata ns ow athe Shen Selo over The mle ote ppt rogaee the athe Tetcetey vain wih = small 86 JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MUSIC EDUCATION Example of a slow but equal undu- lation; [and] of one which is fast Dut equal: and of one which passes by degrees from slow to fast: ‘This omament is never used in the semi-tones which ought to imitate not only the human voice but also the nature of perfect intonation to a mathematical point, that is to say, that the intonation ought not to be altered at all in the semi-tones, and it would be by the vibrato or undu- lation of the voice which prevents the intonation from remaining at its fixed point, and makes it rise or de scend, although imperceptibly. ‘This ‘omament produces a very good effect fn the final note of a musical phrase, if this note is not long, It benefits the tone and the canfabil. It produces the best natural tonal efect, because when fone has struck for the last time a harpsichord string, of a bell, or an ‘open string on a bowed instrument, ‘the sound continues and maintains the vibrato naturally 1or some time. Te also has e very good effect on the long notes of any air in any meter ‘whatsoever, when the notes are anged in the following way: * ar oc, oe for see rata, Ge Mewar, Chap 8, Par. $) Chap, Pu Ei, Quant Chips U0) Sie Pat 32 Genin, 9. 95 Dav Boyde, “The: Va Ses "Tedhlge ithe 105 Center” The tail Quartets, SOOT Canesty 1950), pte ‘Hew tbe mendes menioned by Tar ie mining lhe bare te Proved by {be present wie accordance i the Ine ‘This should always be equal and performed so exactly in time that the strong [pressure] of the vibrato occurs on the second of the to slurred notes masked with a2 and the weak on the frst marked with a 1, which is @ general rule: an Finally it has a very good effect on long notes played on two strings, as shown above. But it should be ‘ob- setved that in ordinary time (that is in 4/4 time) the strong. [pressure] ‘occurs on number 1, and the weak on number 2, whereas in triple time the strong occurs on number 2 and the vweak on number 1 ‘The general rule is that the strong always occurs an the first note of the quarter, eighth, or sixteenth part of the measure. ‘Bad of Vibrato Concerning the Mordent ‘The mordent is likewise an orna- ment derived from nature and art in ‘inaion: fe se petgrapte follow te ‘ample, Moar as sinflar outer bi ‘rere ssdnctdiy in toe orga 8 Campa: TE epsiae see Mewar) died sal ftezndo ene to rors the sing Pru Sf the Sager (Pale Slot en 190, Sef, Patt). ‘rans 87 vocal and instrumental music. Its character is expressed on 2 note by means of three small notes only, joined to the written note, and which are done in two ways, as in the two following examples: je222e8 eee ‘The manner used in the ist exam- ple, which has the small notes descend ing, bas a beter effect then thet used in the second example which has them ascending. The reason for this is thet fan appoggiatura produces a better lect descending than in ascending, ‘The best expression result from great speed in execution of the three joined notes, and to such @ degree, that if they ate not performed very fast, the rmordent is no loager a mordent but a mode, or cantbile ornament formed by the three joined notes. In short, if @ mordent is desired the three joined notes should not be brought out, but their effect merely felt, rendering the main note livelier, bolder, and more fery. This is why the mordent by its nature is more suitable for lively and light music than for the simple flowing air, and if one wishes to use it in this ait it not suitable for every type of air ‘but only in Andantes and Allegras, ‘when one wishes to lend fire to the expression, It should never be used in sustained, and melancholy ing it one should be care- not to let the strength of the voice or [instrumental] tone fall on the three joined notes but on the writen note of the eir, and thus the three joined notes should be per- formed weakly and the weitten note rendered strongly by the voice or in- strument.*® The place where it should be inserted is easy to perceive because the mordent is a kind of percussive accent, occasioned by the reinforcing ‘which’ should oocur on the written note ‘This is why the quarters and eighths of the measure in common time are the places where it is proper to put ‘ile iScentry clon nay vay ih ‘ie praca 9 pact armen ext (Gis bbe Rested shor motdeat Wik is tacit ence decribed sy on. 3, fe seman an ots tore the mala om e's Dados tat dete ie saclay acon Eeourd larson te via eso ae sual eaainens Ia feeclng is ormimeat tue. Slo of Tate snore” eb fe outloe he tare tad te dicleg Wale thie my ave te appeacace of aire ‘bon ‘morn itis aot poe ice te Set ues areal fle an ea ets, ‘oamentBavng the fet os crest, TS ly the oposite of te Leonard pace tc oni 6 {Be me “bkar—mordest an onset sar ft sce aad aves» nines. “L Morar aunpte to aploinfor Ms se of te detsg saying at sold be pre ‘Stl Sr ih a atens the rie inaraach ai ae fer, be gus Amt atk is homers ‘eter than he etc perchance ane had i eo the cures bias” Nese Moat ay tier wer ecb, a wees LStectary wines sould ronal ht bruliast seament to Se Beets ve feng tases eb ie gee eT ‘etoo foe i be lsthcetery bev whieh ‘te "ney ten toe tir wren ace iat] «sea 'etace se beste Sa able "Digewees betwen lth Cray nd Set Vila Bowing" The Store, atch 1957. The sof atack orien tale te rouat beiee the stacy ae sowed alae ran is aetewarthy Ut vines gored oat nly the tefbeard ordeat et abo te cone Senta pe for tim werent ee, we ter fos ie ecaey compli that ther cau abt insete eer oramest ad {Bac loss sold bev to adopt Clete 88 JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MUSIC EDUCATION them when the notes are of mixed values, because when they are of equal value one may place them on any note one wishes. When the notes are of mixed values, however, and fone wishes to place the mordent on the note which marks a quarter of the measure, this note must be longer than those which follow, as can be seen in the example below: Observe likewise, that in an air like that in the following example, there is 2 sort of obligation to use the as- cending and descending mordent: It is evident in this example and others like it, that the mordent obeys the rule of the appogeiaturas which flow from the preceding note and are ray from it Thus, when one de- scends from the preceding note to the following one, the sppoggiatura de- Seends; when one ascends from the preceding mute to the following one, he appoggiatura also ascends, and it is the same with the mordent in these two eases If, therefore one pays attention to the preceding note, it will not be possible to go wrong. The mor- dent should not be put on single notes outside the measure, nor on those which begin @ melodic section: bod baa ‘The same holds true when the notes tare of equal value and it occurs out- side the measure, as can be seen in the following example: the it bod, the 22 good ‘The reason for this is clear because ‘we have stated above: Understand that the mordent, being in the nature of an accent, should not be placed on notes for which accents are unsuited— ‘notes such as the first of the preced- ing example which is outside of the measure, and on which the accent would certainly be bad.!? There is another type of mordent which is deived from the writen note by striking it quickly with the seme finger in such a way that the mordent would appear at fist to resemble a I Nevertheless it is not that, be- cause with a trill the note which is struck and recurs comes to rest on the lower note instead of ascending to the one above: “Gi, Nozat, Chap, 11, Fate 10-46; Quant, ‘eb, Fi 273) To, BX Bg Ia sd 7 anti 9 Tt is done with two notes, or with four, or six, according to the greater for lesser speed of the finger motion: eee ‘The above mordent is extremely useful in gay and lively pieces; it is not good in grave and melancholy pieces. In pieces which take a middle course it is good and will succeed if well placed. It obeys the same rules as the first mordent, which is com- ‘pound whereas this one is simple, Bed of Mordent {Note by P. Deas) ‘Tae thor is going to speak of that ich he cals Bodo and whch be divides Tato simple and compound modes. ‘The term Modo wed in his work, does not have the same mang as it bat in France. Ie 1 ed ia France to expres that whieh i called kay, that is to say, the manner of Sloging in which there is x toraiy. One syn for example, the key of © (Sel wt) To the prseat wok It denotes the manner of introducing oruments in an al Natural Modes "The modes leowen ag. the natural cones are those which are a gift of [Nature and which are common among those whom she favors, even when they have no knowiedge of music (of which there area thousand instances), ‘They are understood by all; they are suited to all kinds of airs and make no discord whatever over the bass which is below. These modes are few in number, but perhaps so only be- fause no one up to the present has taken the trouble to collect them and ‘nite ther down, while hearing them from thax people who ve no know edge of rac, Who sing for their own pleasuze wth much grace, that which is an inmte git, derived from these natural mdes which nature has taught them. "At hi point begins the collecting and wtig down of the small num ber which have been observed. Who- eer wish to take pains and be atten- tive willbe able to callct and write several nich bave not yet, been ob- served and erect this understanding. One es fst of all that since these ces are taught by. Nature Derelf, cx should, in speaking of @ rmode, observe at the same time the precise pla inthe air where it should be. put, Snce Nature does not ert with rspet to the mode, itis certain that she ets no more with respect to the plae where it should be used. This is s true that experience re veals it i all people who have no knowledge of music, but who bave received Gis git of Nature, Note that when sud a peron employs the ‘mode it wil be very good not ony in tet but doin reference to the spot where tisplaced, Tt is nezsary to matk, fist of all certain paces in the ait on which, folloving Neture, natural modes occur adnraly and with frequency "These spas re precisely those which compar call cadences. This is only generly speaking, and does not suffice, for there are cadences or cadential progressions which are not fil, and there are some which ter inate a vood, © phrase, 2 strain of the a, othe air itsell. In final cadenas there is room only for a tal whe placed on the fist ofthe tivo notes which form the final c ence, sin the following example: 90 JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN BUSIC EDUCATION, Which is always an authentic cadence, called in France cadence parfeite ‘Over this bass of the perfect e2- dence there are a great number of melodic figures expressed by notes ‘other than the two found in the ex- ample, the expression of which is such that it i apparent that the sense of the air is entirely finished, This sense will always be suited to en air com- posed on any other bass which is not 1 perfect cadence. Tn this connection the examples below, drawn from all possible natural movements of the bass, are given: (2) On the anthemic catnce called the parfet cadence (2) On the page cadence (G) On the fourth and the Sith in fst peitionst (4) On the sith and Sift in fist positon (5) On the sith and lth Sn second pa- ‘These examples are nearly all upper melodie parte which form a kind of cadence or cadential motion which is never entirely ended but is an iregu lar melodic ending. This can be better visualized by a practical example drawn from prose writing. When the sense of a phrase is entirely finished a period is used. Where the sense of a phrase is not entirely completed, one uses not a period but a semicolon or “tbe “posto” rls to a mathe of card inven wh the second pian (econd Tig) eamaas sth sant 9 ‘colon, or comma or parenthesis, ete “The final cadence which ends the air perfectly is ike the period and consists only of two notes, as we have said with respect to the tril. But all ‘the melodic ines which we are going to give in the diferent examples of the bass are like those phrases which never end with « period but with a semicolon, or colon, ete. ‘That is to say, they are parts of a nelody which is not entirely conclude cil; these are the true places where itis proper to place the natural modes. ‘Thus, one can advance the proposition that outside of these places, the sim ple modes wil be unsuitable and wil not produce e good effet. The ma- teria of these natural modes. which ve have collected up to now is that found below the plain notes in the following examples: ‘Note that the F, which is the fist of the two notes in the bass, may be sharped SSE But this does not affect the ex- amples when the mode falls on the second of the two notes Endings of average or suspended cadences, which do not finish the melody with their last note: 2 JOUENAL OF RESEARCH 18 1LUSIC EDUCATION Endings of average or suspended cadences which do not finish the melo- dy with their first notes: Note whieh prepares the asonnneet Note which forms it: == In short, all that has been given to illustrate the first note in the pre- ceding example can serve in these ex- ‘amples for the first note which prepares the dissonance: ‘The dissonances can have their modes on the note which precedes them, and cen have only one, or at best tro modes on the following note —that is to say the one which forms the dissonance ‘There are several other natural modes which can be used in other places in the air if one considers that the trill of three notes is a mode ‘rane 93 rather than a til, when the two notes joined to the till are made sufcient- ly audible: # ‘This mode is of practical use in an infinite number of ways because it moves stepwise and forms a eadential pattern with the bass. In descending examples there is a natural mode of a very beautiful express a Care should be taken to prolong as much as possible the first of the four notes of the mode; and in an ascend- ing or descending scale the three note ‘nil is always natural: “Tike es fer th fat ul shuld be ef ‘The tbc ote sl” ieraly seas il bite Ge two motes of te terete Ta tll fll ste wa ft Observe that when the tempo of the measure is slow oF moderate tend- ing toward slow, the appoggiatura joined to the last of the three notes of the teil produces a very good effect [see frst staf below). * ‘There is another similar place where it is fiting to put a mode consisting of three notes (begin with second tai] Observe, however, that this inverted mode is suitable only with two con- ject ots Ene In this case the mode is the same as that written above, because the two notes written very short are not per- formed as they are written but the first is lengthened and that of the melody shortened: © “far bs siser opinion of ths oma mat bere ta is desta 04. “rrarogh rhythmic nts te ae be net the dated aes Mowatt, Chap. 9, ‘ere ciayand fo 147 ein 4 JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN A1USIC EDUCATION ‘There is another mode expressed by three nates like the mordent. When ‘these three notes are performed as fast as possible they form a mordent. When the first of the three is sus- tained, the mode is natural. See the following example which is joined to the appoggiatura when it descends, It is the following: When the appogsiatura ascends it changes into another mode thi = e= ‘This mode Is precisely the three note trill, which, if put in place of the long’ appoggiatura when it as cends always produces a better effect than the appoggiatura Grain considers the dotted Anon Pat er, as dsenbr, tbe missing tl mest te'splid G45. Ls Maar Ch. 9, Par 1.0, 26; Chap. 10, Pars 6,10, 1, 18; Chan. ‘There are other natural modes which are derived from those which vve have already given in the examples of deceptive and suspended cadences: But this is practicable only in as- cending. ‘One should observe and carefully note that separated examples of the first and second notes of deceptive ‘and suspended cadences have been ‘given, and that if the two above men- tioned notes are joined, in order to compose a single mode, and diverstiy the natural modes of each of the two notes, a very large number of com- ‘pound modes, composed of the two notes will thereby result. Likewise, if ‘one observes the natural modes’ of ‘each of the two notes and if one be- comes familiar with them to the ex- tent of becoming their absolute mas- ‘te, one will in the course of perform- ance discover many compound modes, erived from the first natural ones, in many other places suggested by Nature herself; and they willbe found to be produced naturally, without study, without application, without art, without reflection, Compound Modes * ‘These modes can be eniless ber cause they depend chiefly on skill in composition, which above a given bass can vary the upper voice in diferent ways the number of which is almost endless, Tiler et ranma 95 Tt would be vain and superfiuous to treat these modes as extensively as their number permitted; but here we wish only to treat these compound odes in a more limited and restricted sway, presenting them only in good taste, and using them only in natural- Iy cantabite places. ‘They should be all the more limited Dbecause a general proposition is made, ‘whereby they are excluded in many cases, The proposition is that the com- pound modes neither can nor should ‘occur in all cases where the subject of the composition and its parts present special subject or emotion, which cannot be altered in any way and must be expressed as it stands, ‘These cases occur quite often, and ‘consequestly compound modes in good. taste remain limited and restricted to few places. These places are ordin- arly found in the proximity of several cadential progressions; that is to say, two notes are always necessary to form the cadence—the compound mode occurs on the fist of the two foremeationed notes. They are like ‘wise found in the motion of funda- mental bass notes which do not form a cadence, These movements of the hbase being formed by two notes like cadences, the mode comes on the first fone as in cadental progressions. ‘Thus one ean furnish a general idea of compound modes derived from that gen concerning the _ movements Which the bass can make; for the movements which the bass can make with two notes alone being limited ‘Ths menes hat mien Tat wihed to spre the mi asf and? beetles {be bore compound sees, kit to = ‘ono the sin tly ordet whe oui ateay be nro I they nt ale the ablet oe -enetion” Ce Mart ee Sranentd xtmpler ich be terms fs Sine examples “widow ontaneattion” Cap. hPa 220) and restricted, the compound modes derived from’ these two notes wil also be limited. These are the pro- agressions which the bess can make with two principal notes: SSS (Of the above mentioned movements, the principal ones are the two car ences known as harmonic and arith- metic: ‘The prtsing of the fourth to the Sic "and that of the sich to this 8th With these single movements of the bass one can form a complete melodic phrase. These progressions will be discussed first because the other movements of the bass, as will be seen, are drawn and inferred from these first principal ones. When the bass makes a harmonic cadence the upper part can form the following selodi. Hine: == Natural Cadences ‘Natural cadences is the name given to ends of phrases on which the air pauses and stops—the air being un- able to stop without the kind of melodic progression known a5 a ca: dence. 96 JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MUSIC EDUCATION. But apart from that which we have said, i should be understood that hharmonic cadences should always be performed very eractly in time. Here is an example of the upper voice of a harmonic cadence: Goa Many others are derived from this ‘one, the simplest of all. They consist fof Several notes, and are varied in preparing the cadence; but up to the last two [in the following example} they reduce themselves. to this frst example: But fundamentally the harmonic cadence can reduce itself in the bass to the three notes found in the frst case, the notes of which provide a complete understanding of that which the upper voice can do above them: (ne should alvays hear the ist tid ingle epee The ist which fs ori: a= [All of these kinds of cadences serve equally a5 the bass. The simplest are for the following examples: * B= Observe that the bass, which we have given is found most often com- posed of eighth notes, in the follow- ing manner: ie fatrive we compare the exams eam this point tbe endo te back th (Guam, Chap. 18nd 1 and Tabs, XVITXI. ‘TaRTENT 7 ‘This vatiety of bass bas no effect with respect to the diferent kinds of cadences of which we have spoken, ‘and which can be placed over the simple and florid bass, taking care only to shun and avoid parallel fifths and octaves between the upper part ‘There are other cadences even more compler, occasioned by the increased rotion of the first notes of the bass: 96 JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MUSIC EDUCATION. But apart from that which we have said, i should be understood that hharmonic cadences should always be performed very eractly in time. Here is an example of the upper voice of a harmonic cadence: Goa Many others are derived from this ‘one, the simplest of all. They consist fof Several notes, and are varied in preparing the cadence; but up to the last two [in the following example} they reduce themselves. to this frst example: But fundamentally the harmonic cadence can reduce itself in the bass to the three notes found in the frst case, the notes of which provide a complete understanding of that which the upper voice can do above them: (ne should alvays hear the ist tid ingle epee The ist which fs ori: a= [All of these kinds of cadences serve equally a5 the bass. The simplest are for the following examples: * B= Observe that the bass, which we have given is found most often com- posed of eighth notes, in the follow- ing manner: ie fatrive we compare the exams eam this point tbe endo te back th (Guam, Chap. 18nd 1 and Tabs, XVITXI. ‘TaRTENT 7 ‘This vatiety of bass bas no effect with respect to the diferent kinds of cadences of which we have spoken, ‘and which can be placed over the simple and florid bass, taking care only to shun and avoid parallel fifths and octaves between the upper part ‘There are other cadences even more compler, occasioned by the increased rotion of the first notes of the bass: 100 JOURNAL OF HESEARCH IN MUSIC EDUCATION. that it is not reasonable to call it ‘cadence; one must perforce call. it caprice. A caprice can be extended as far as one wishes, and can consist of pieces and dierent sentiments with diffrent time signatures. But since listeners are pleased at. present to hhear this sort of thing, however ‘enomalous and ill suited,” one must Iknow how to do it—and how to do it with some sort of judgment is that ‘of which we shall speak. One must know that the principal part whether instrumental or vocal, fannot stop on the first of the two notes which form the final cadence ‘but only on one of these three notes: None of these notes is the fist of the two notes constituting the final cadence, the notes of which are always : = But since it is necessary to stop in order to prepare this cadence, one cannot and should not stop on the first of the two aforesaid notes, but ‘on another note, from which one can go to this same note by means of florid modes in good taste, Whence it follows that the frst note upon which one must stop can never be the tuilled note (the first of the oa ‘wo. Tt will of necessity have to be fa note taken from the C (sol ut) chord which is the tonic of the key. But C (sol ut) being the bass, itis impossible that anything other than the three aforementioned notes [C E G] be over the bass. Whence necessarily follows that the singer or instrumentalist will be unable to stop nor should he—on any notes other ‘than these three: eS Tn this way the florid modes in ‘good taste will be those which should form this kind of cadence. Instrumen- talists have more freedom and facility than singers, because there are many modes of passages suitable for instrw- ments, but which the voice cannot ‘exeoule—passages which always pro- duce 2 good effect, ‘These orid modes in good taste consist of ascending and descending scales, which can be varied almost ‘endlessly, We are going to give several ‘which will make it apparent that well righ an endless number ean be made. Suppose that the first note on which ‘one stops in the principal part is C’* (ela): = the singer, or instrumentalist will be able to ascend to the octave by means of a scale with a florid mode in good taste, examples of which we are going to give: ‘This mode can be expressed by the voice and by an instrument. For the ‘rantENt 101 voice the notes are slurred, for the almost endless, and stop likewise on instrument they are detached G (re sol). One goes then from G seigte. With other florid modes to the tiled note which prepares the cadence. Here Is the pi note: gy then an sceig mae leading to Coau) ot Gms soliton a woe whic Wg ‘goes into G (re sol): ” ‘Ths one nye esznding od wing inl, a mode which leds tthe tiled nl of alec; te above tenoned lt ven als One wil be able to ascend similarly to the octave with accompanying notes, These go to the octave: One will be able to ascend to the tenth ths: ah If the first note upon which one ‘The florid modes can have an end- pauses is E, the mode could go to C less number of accompanying notes. and E and return as in the preceding Here are some examples of this Hf the fist note on which one paus- cs is G, one will be able to go to C and E as in the preceding examples, starting always with the mode of C in the stall, or Gan octave higher. ‘That will always have a good effect, ifthe mode be joined to the third example of plain notes, of which ex amples are given: When one has stopped on C'? (sol ut) and ascended stepwise in C major or EY? (si mi), one can in this order ad Tia progress to G' (re sol) with other oe florid modes, the number of which are SS