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Question for review in Chromatography and Separation Science

Chapter 1 Relating Chromatography to Separations


1. Define separation and chromatography.
2. How are chromatography and separations related to each other?
3. What differentiates chromatographic methods from related separation methods?
4. Define selectivity and detectability.

Chapter 2 Simple Separation Methods


1. Define distribution coefficient.
2. Two grams of Benzoic acid are dissolved in 200 ml of water and extracted with 200
ml of diethyl ether. The distribution coefficient of benzoic acid is 100, and its
dissociation constant is 6.5× 10-5. Calculate the distribution ratio (D) of benzoic acid
at pH 2, 5, and 6.
3. Calculate D at pH 2 to 10 (1 unit apart) in the above problem, and plot D versus pH.
4. Describe the operation of the Craig apparatus.
Chapter.3 Equilibrium Processes in Separations
1. Define phase rule.
2. Derive equations for: (a) Capacity factor (b) Separation factor.

Chapter 4 The Molecular Basis of Separation


1. Define and explain the following:
a. Intermolecular interactions
b. Debye interactions
c. Dispersion interactions
d. Specific interactions
2. Describe briefly the solubility parameter theory for regular solutions.
3. Derive the Martin equation, and explain its importance

Chapter 5 Mass Transport and Separation


1. Define diffusion and bulk motion. Discuss similarities and differences.
2. Provide equations for Fick’s first and second laws.
3. Discuss the usefulness of the Wilke-Chang equation for predicting diffusicity in
liquids.

Chapter 6 Chromatographic Methods


1. Define chromatography.
2. List various forms of chromatography, and differentiate the from each other by shourt
descriptions.
3. Provide a simple form of the can Deemter equation, and describe its usefulness in
chromatographic separations.

Chapter 7 Paper Chromatography


1. Define paper chromatography.
2. Describe various modes of chromatography.
3. What are the advantages offered by paper chromatography?
4. Name some universal detection reagents for paper chromatography.

Chapter 8 Thin-Layer Chromatography


1. Define TLC. What advantage does it offer over paper chromatography?
2. List various modes of TLC.
3. How does normal-phase TLC differ from reversed-phased TLC?
4. Provide some universal detection reagents fro TLC.

Chapter 9 Gas Chromatography


1. Define gas-liquid chromatography, and explain hoe it differs from gas-solid
chromatography.
2. Hoe do you select a stationary phase for a given sample?
3. Which detector offers the greatest sensitivity for the most samples, and why?
4. Discuss briefly Rohrschneider and McReynolds constants.

Chapter 10 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography


1. List various modes of chromatography. Which mode of chromatography is most
commonly used in HPLC?
2. How can you vary α values in RPLC?
3. Describe various approaches to solvent optimization in RPLC.
4. List some of the common additives for RPLC.

Chapter 11 Evolving Methods and Method Selection


1. List new evolving methods.
2. Describe briefly the advantages and limitations of the following methods:
 Capillary electrophoresis
 Supercritical fluid chromatography
 Field flow fractionation
3. Why are separation methods for chiral compounds unique? What can we learn from
them?