Free convection

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Free convection

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Heat Transfer

Prepared By

Brij Bhooshan

Asst. Professor

B. S. A. College of Engg. And Technology

Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, (India)

Supported By:

Purvi Bhooshan

7.1 Concept of Buoyancy Force

7.2 Dimensionless Parameters of Natural Convection

7.3 An Approximate Analysis of Laminar Natural Convection on a Vertical Plate

7.4 Free Convection from Vertical Planes and Cylinders

7.5 Free Convection from Horizontal Cylinders

7.6 Free Convection from Horizontal Plates

7.7 Free Convection from Spheres

7.8 Free Convection in Enclosed Spaces

7.9 Rotating Cylinders, Disks and Spheres

7.10 Combined Forced and Natural Convection

References:

1- J. P. Holman, heat Transfer, 9th Edn, MaGraw-Hill, New York, 2002.

2- James R. Welty, Charles E. Wicks, Robert E. Wilson, Gregory L. Rorrer Fundamentals

of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, 5th Edn, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008.

3- F. Kreith and M. S. Bohn, Principal of Heat Transfer, 5th Edn, PWS Publishing Co.,

Boston, 1997.

4- P. K. Nag, Heat and mass transfer, 2nd Edn, MaGraw-Hill, New Delhi 2005.

Please welcome for any correction or misprint in the entire manuscript and your valuable

suggestions kindly mail us brijrbedu@gmail.com.

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 1

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

The flow velocity in free convection is much smaller than that encountered in forced

convection. Therefore, heat transfer by free convection is much smaller than that by forced

convection. Diagram 7.1 (a) illustrates the development of velocity field infront of a hot

vertical plate owing to the buoyancy force. The heated fluid in front of the hot plate rises,

entraining fluid from the quiescent outer region.

Diagram 7.1 (b) shows a cold vertical plate in a hot fluid, where the direction of motion is

reversed, the fluid in front of the plate being heavier moves vertically down, again

entraining fluid from the quiescent outer region.

Turbulent

Laminar

Laminar

Turbulent

(a) Hot wall

Diagram 7.1 Laminar and turbulent velocity boundary layer for natural convection on a vertical plate

In both cases a velocity boundary layer is develops with a certain peak in it. The velocity is

zero both the plate surface and at the edge of boundary layer is laminar, then at a certain

distance from the leading edge the transition to turbulent layer occurs, and finally a fully

developed turbulent layer is established.

We now consider a fluid contained in the space between two parallel horizontal plates

(Diagram 7.2(a)).

Unstable Stable

fluid fluid

(a) Lower plate hot (b) Lower plate hot

Diagram 7.2

Suppose the lower plate is maintained at a temperature higher than that of the upper plate

(Tl > T2). A temperature gradient will be established in the vertical direction. The layer will

be top-heavy, since the density of the cold fluid at the top is higher than that of the hot fluid

at the bottom. If the temperature difference is increased beyond a certain critical value, the

viscous forces within the fluid can no longer sustain the buoyancy forces, and a convection

motion is set up.

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 2

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

Suppose in Diagram 7.2(b), the lower plate is cold and the upper plate is hot (i.e. Tl < T2).

Here, the density of the top layer is less than that of the bottom layer. The fluid is then

always stable, and no natural convection currents are set up.

(a)

(b)

(d)

(c)

Diagram 7.3 Buoyancy-driven flows on horizontal cold (Tw < T) and hot (Tw > T) plates,

(a) Top surface of cold plate, (b) bottom surface of cold plate, (c) top surface of hot plate and (d) bottom surface of

hot plate

Diagram 7.3 shows the directions of convection currents for horizontal plates, heated or

cooled, facing up or down.

natural convection on a vertical plate, as illustrated in Diagram 7.1. For simplicity analysis,

we assume that the boundary layer flow is steady and laminar. Since small flow velocities

are associated with natural convection, the viscous energy dissipation term in the energy

equation can be neglected. Then to governing continuity, momentum and energy equations

are obtained from the boundary layer equations, as derived in the last chapter, and the

appropriate buoyancy term is introduced in the momentum equation:

Continuity:

Momentum:

Energy:

Here the term g on the right hand side of the momentum equation represents the body

force exerted on the fluid element in the negative x-direction.

For small temperature differences, the density in the buoyancy term is considered to vary

with temperature, whereas the density appearing elsewhere in these equations is

considered constant. This is often referred to as Boussinesq approximation.

To determine the pressure gradient term dp/dx, the x-momentum equation, Eq. (7.2) is

evaluated at the edge of the velocity boundary layer, where u 0 and . We obtain

where is the fluid density outside the boundary layer. Then the term g dP/dx

appearing in the momentum equation, Eq. (7.2) becomes

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 3

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

To find the dimensionless parameters that governs heat transfer in natural convection.

Suppose

The Grashof number represents the ratio of the buoyancy force to the viscous force acting

on the fluid.

Equation (7.11) imply that when the effects of natural and forced convection are of

comparable magnitude, the Nusselt number depends on Re, Pr and Gr, or

The parameter Gr/Re2, defined by Eq. (5.13), is a measure of the relative importance of

natural convection in relation to forced convection.

When Gr/Re2 1, natural and forced convection are of the same order of magnitude; hence

both must be considered.

If (Gr/Re2) << 1, flow is primarily by forced convection.

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 4

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

If (Gr/Re2) >> 1, natural convection becomes dominant and the Nusselt number depends on

Gr and Pr only:

In natural convection, flow velocities are produced by the buoyancy forces only; hence there

are no externally induced flow velocities. As a result, the Nusselt number does not depend

on the Reynolds number.

Sometimes another dimensionless parameter, called the Rayleigh number (Ra), which is

defined as

The Grashof number to correlate heat transfer in natural convection. Then the Nusselt

number relation (Eq. (7.16)), becomes

For three-dimensional shapes such as short cylinders and blocks the characteristic length L

may be determined from

where Lx is the height and Ly the average horizontal dimension of the body.

VERTICAL PLATE

Let us consider Tw and T be, respectively, the temperature of the wall surface and the bulk

temperature of the fluid (Diagram 7.4). The fluid moves upward along the plate for Tw > T

and flow downwards for Tw < T, as shown in Diagram 7.1. Within the boundary layer

temperature decrease from Tw to < T of the undisturbed or quiescent fluid outside the

heated region.

Boundary layer

Diagram 7.4 Temperature and velocity profile for free convection on a hot vertical plate

y = , u = 0.

The velocity and temperature profiles in the neighbourhood of the plate are shown. The

integral boundary layer equations for momentum and energy will be used to calculate the

heat transfer in natural convection.

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 5

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

Temperature profile

To solve the boundary layer equation, the temperature profile is approximated by a

parabolic equation of the form

At y = 0, T = Tw = C

At y = = t, T = T, (T/y)y = = 0

Substituting in Eq. (7.20),

Therefore

At y = 0, u = 0.

At y = = t, u = 0, u/y = 0

Using the first boundary condition u = 0 = au1

Since u1 0, d=0

Now

At y = = t, u = 0, u/y = 0

Therefore

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 6

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

where

Since u = 0 at y = , therefore, u will be maximum when y = /3.Therefore

Analysis

Let us consider a control volume differential element dx at a distance from the bottom edge

within the boundary layer as shown in Diagram 7.5.

B

C.V.

C

L

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Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 7

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

Integrating is limited to = t,

Now

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 8

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

Equating the corresponding component of x in Eq. (7.31) and (7.32), then

Heat flux

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 9

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

h 1/x1/4, as increases, h decreases.

Transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs at Rax,c = 109.

Isothermal Surfaces

The local value of heat transfer coefficient from equation (7.34) and (7.35)

The average value of the heat transfer coefficient for a height L is obtained

McAdams recommends the relation for natural convection over a vertical flat plate or

vertical cylinder in the turbulent region (GrL > 109)

For laminar flow (valid for 104 < Gr.Pr < 109)

For laminar flow (valid for 109 < Gr.Pr < 1012)

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 10

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

The general criterion is that a vertical cylinder may be treated as a vertical flat plate, when

for gases with Pr =0.7 indicates that the flat plate results for the average heat-transfer

coefficient should be multiplied by a factor F to account for the curvature, where

Churchill and Chu that are applicable over wider ranges of the Rayleigh number:

above equation (7.44) applies to laminar flow only and holds for all values of the Prandtl

number and for 10-1 < RaL < 109.

above equation (7.45) applies for both laminar and turbulent flow and for 10-1 < RaL < 109.

The physical properties are evaluated at the film temperature T* = (Tw + T)/2.

Insulation

Plate Insulation

g

Diagram 7.6 (a) heating surface facing downwards, (b) Cold surface facing upwards

For a long vertical plate or a long cylinder tilted at an angle from the vertical with the

heated surface facing downward (Diagram 7.6(a)) or cooled surface facing upward (Diagram

7.6 (b)), the following equation can be used:

Constant-Heat-Flux Surfaces

Extensive experiments have been reported for free convection from vertical and inclined

surfaces to water under constant-heat-flux conditions.

Suppose modified Grashof number, Gr* is defined as:

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 11

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

Natural convection on a vertical plate subject to uniform heat flux at the wall surface was

investigated by Sparrow and Gregg, Vliet and Liu and Vliet. On the basis of their

experimental data, the following correlations were proposed:

Local heat transfer coefficient for laminar flow

Thus, when the characteristic values of m for laminar and turbulent flow are compared to

the exponents on Gr*x, we obtain

Churchill and Chu show that the constant-heat-flux case if the average Nusselt number is

based on the wall heat flux and the temperature difference at the center of the plate (x =

L/2). The result is

where

For laminar flow range of 10-6 < Gr Pr < 109.

The physical properties are evaluated at the film temperature T* = (Tw + T)/2.

Heat transfer from horizontal cylinders to liquid metals may be calculated from

For more information log on www.brijrbedu.org

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 12

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

The mean Nusselt number for natural convection on a horizontal plate as correlated by

McAdams is

(a) In the range (laminar) 105 < Ra < 2 x 107, C = 0.54, n = 1/4, and

(b) In the range (turbulent) 2 x 107 < Ra < 3 x 1010, C = 0.14, n = 1/3.

For hot surface facing down or cold surface facing up:

(a) In the range (laminar) 3 x 105 < Ra < 3 x 1010, C = 0.27, n = 1/4.

(b) In the range (turbulent) 7 x 106 < Ra < 11 x 109, C = 0.107, n = 1/3.

For the horizontal plate with heated surface facing upward:

For the horizontal plate with the heated surface facing downward:

For higher ranges of the Rayleigh number the experiments of Amato and Tien with water

suggest the following correlation:

for 3 x 105 < Rad < 8 x 108 and 10 < Nud < 90

Yuge recommends the following empirical relation for free-convection heat transfer from

spheres to air:

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 13

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

Churchill suggests a more general formula for spheres, applicable over a wider range of

Rayleigh numbers:

The free-convection flow phenomena inside an enclosed space are interesting examples of

very complex fluid systems that may yield to analytical, empirical, and numerical solutions.

Consider the system shown in Diagram 7.7(a), where a fluid is contained between two

vertical plates separated by the distance . As a temperature difference Tw =T1 T2 is

impressed on the fluid, a heat transfer will be experienced with the approximate flow

regions shown in Diagram 7.7(b).

According to MacGregor and Emery, in this Diagram 7.7(b), the Grashof number is

calculated as

As the Grashof number is increased, different flow regimes are encountered, as shown, with

a progressively increasing heat transfer as expressed through the Nusselt number

Nu

L L

Asymptoti Laminar

T T c flow boundary layer

flow

Typical velocity

temperature profile

Turbulent boundary

(a)

layer flow

(b)

Diagram 7.7

The heat transfer to a number of liquids under constant-heat-flux conditions, the empirical

correlations obtained were:

L/ is aspect ratio

Valid for qw = const., T = 90; 104 < Gr Pr < 107; 1 < Pr < 20,000; 10 < L/ < 40

Valid for qw = const., 106 < Gr Pr < 109; 1 < Pr < 20; 1 < L/< 40

As Gr increases, the flow becomes more of a boundary layer type with fluid rising in a layer

near the heated surface, turning the corner at the top, and flowing downward in a layer

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 14

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

near the cooled surface. The boundary layer thickness decreases with Gr d1/4, and the core

region is more or less inactive and thermally stratified. For the geometry in Diagram 7.8,

L

L HOT

Rotating cell

The results are sometimes expressed in the alternate form of an effective or apparent

thermal conductivity ke, defined by

In the building industry the heat transfer across an air gap is sometimes expressed in

terms of the R values, so that

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 15

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

Evans and Stefany have shown that transient natural-convection heating or cooling in

closed vertical or horizontal cylindrical enclosures may be calculated with

for the range 0.75 < L/d < 2.0. The Grashof number is formed with the length of the

cylinder L.

The effective thermal conductivity for fluids between concentric spheres with the relation

where now the gap spacing is = r0 ri. The effective thermal conductivity given by

Equation (7.70) is to be used with the conventional relation for steady-state conduction in a

spherical shell:

Equation (7.70) is valid for 0.25 /ri 1.5 and 1.2 102 < Gr Pr < 1.1109, 0.7 < Pr < 4150

Properties are evaluated at a volume mean temperature Tm defined by

Experimental results for free convection in enclosures are not always in agreement, but we

can express them in a general form as

where L is the length of the annulus and the gap spacing is = r0 ri.

Inner cylinder

Flow pattern

L

Outer cylinder

Diagram 7.9 Natural convection heat transfer in the annular space between two concentric cylinders or

concentric spheres

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 16

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

For natural convection heat transfer across the gap between two horizontal concentric

cylinders (Diagram 7.9) the following correlation is suggested for heat flow per unit length

(W/m)

Jacobs has suggested the correlation for vertical enclosed air space shown diagram

where

Jacobs has suggested the correlation for horizontal enclosed air space

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 17

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

where

Globe and Dropkin gives the relation for liquid contained in horizontal space

The radiation transfer across a gap separating two large parallel planes may be calculated

with

and thus could determine an R-value for the radiation heat transfer in conjunction with

Equation (7.82).

so that

The total R-value for the combined radiation and convection across the space would be

written as

importance in the thermal analysis of flywheels, turbine rotors and other rotating

components of various machines. With heat transfer, a critical velocity is reached when the

circumferential speed of the cylinder surface becomes approximately equal to the upward

natural convection velocity at the side of a heated stationary cylinder. Below the critical

velocity, simple natural convection, characterised by the conventional Grashof number,

[g(Tw T)D3]/2 controls the rate of heat transfer. At speeds greater than critical (Re w >

8000 in air) the peripheral-speed Reynolds number D2w/ becomes the controlling

parameter. The combined effects of the Reynolds, Prandtl and Grashof numbers on the

average Nusselt number for a horizontal cylinder rotating in air above the critical velocity as

shown in diagram (Diagram 7.10) cab be expressed by empirical equation.

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 18

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

g D

The boundary layer on a rotating disk is laminar and of uniform thickness at rotational

Reynolds numbers wD2/ below about 106. At higher Reynolds numbers the flow becomes

turbulent near the outer edge, and as Rew is increased, the transition point moves radially

inward. The boundary layer thickens with increasing radius (Diagram 7.11).

Transition

Diagram 7.11 Velocity and boundary layer profiles for a disk rotating in an infinite environment

In the turbulent flow regime (wD2/ > 106) of a disk in air, the local value at a radius r is

For a sphere of diameter D rotating in an infinite environment with Pr > 0.7 in laminar

regime (Rew = wD2/ > 5 x 104), the average Nusselt number (hcD/k) can be obtained from

while in the regime 5 x 104 < Rew < 7 x 105 the equation is

The relative magnitude of the dimensionless parameter Gr/Re governs the relative

importance of natural convection in relation to forced convection where

which represents the ratio of the buoyancy forces to inertia forces. When this ratio is of the

order of unity, i.e. Gr Re2, the natural and forced convection are of comparable

magnitude, and hence they should be analysed simultaneously. If

Gr / Re2 >> 1: Natural convection dominates

Gr / Re2 1: Natural and forced convection are of comparable magnitude

Gr / Re2 << 1: Forced convection dominates

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 19

Chapter: 7 Natural Convective Heat Transfer Brij Bhooshan

For combined free and forced convection in the laminar flow regime inside a circular tube.

Brown and Gauvin recommend the following correlation for the Nusselt number

where Grd and Red are based on the tubes inside diameter with T = Tw T difference

between tube wall and fluid bulk temperature.

External flow

Nux for mixed convection on vertical plate is given by

If (Grx/Rex-2) A

If (Grx/Rex-2) > A

A 0.6 for Pr < 10; A 1.0 for Pr = 100

For horizontal plate when (Grx/Rex2.5) 0.083 the equation for forced convection

Internal flow

For mixed convection in turbulent flow in horizontal tubes

Brij Bhooshan Asst. Professor B.S.A College of Engg. & Technology, Mathura (India)

Copyright by Brij Bhooshan @ 2010 Page 20

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