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Diesel Locomotive Roster The WDM (ALCO) Series

The WDM class are the general handyman locomotives of the Indian Railways. They are the
most basic of all locomotives in India, the most popular, most adaptable and widely used as
they have been around the longest and hence have the most number of people qualified to
service them. They can it into any schedule as they can haul anything and run anywhere. And
except for the WDM4, all of them were ALCOs based on the WDM2, with later models
being the same old ALCO with its faithful engine rebuilt and rebuilt to crank more power out
of it.
Diesel locomotives are built and maintained in India at the Diesel Locomotive Works
(DLW), Varanasi or at the Diesel-Loco Modernisation Works (DMW), Patiala. ALCOs are
today a vanishing breed with new EMDs coming in and more lines being electrified. Only
two among all ALCO models is in production today.
Here are the 13 WDM series locos.

WDM1
Supplied by ALCO, USA, all imported
The first diesel locomotives in India
12-Cylinder 4-Stroke Turbocharged Diesel
Rated Power Output: 1900 hp
Production Period: 1957 to 1959
Number Produced: 100
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co
Top (Rated) Speed: 100 kph

The very first diesel mainline locomotives in India, part of ALCOs DL500 World Series locomotives
lineup. Classic American butch good looks with only one forward cab at one end which
necessitated a lot of turntables. They were housed at Bondamunda (Rourkela), Vizag, Gonda, Patratu
and Gorakhpur, serving present-day NER, ECR, SER, ECoR and SCR. It was relatively
underpowered by todays standards, but still hauled most of the first dieselized expresses in India. All
were imported fully built and some were in service until 2000. Today all are withdrawn and most are
scrapped, though many of the same kind are still in service in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Greece etc.
Their heyday was before the large-scale advent of cameras and hence not much information or
pictures are available of them. The very first WDM1 #17000 is on display in the National Rail
Museum, New Delhi.
WDM2
12-Cylinder 4-Stroke Turbo Diesel (Alco 251B)
Originally ALCO DL560C
Rated Power Output: 2600 hp
Production Period: 1962 to 1998
Number Produced: 2700+
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co
Top (Rated) Speed: 120 kph
Supplied by ALCO, USA and later manufactured at CLW, DLW

The WDM2 ALCO is the quintessential Indian locomotive, the picture that comes to the
mind of the average Indian when you say Locomotive, with its Hood Unit cab and long,
narrow body. The WDM2 is the workhorse that powered the Indian Railways to what it is
today and set the standard for all Diesel Locomotives for more than four decades. However,
these definitive Indian locomotives are actually American.
The history of the WDM2 goes something like this: After Indian Railways decided to shift from steam to diesel
traction, they started looking out for modern diesel locomotive perfect for Indian conditions.
ALCOs DL560Cand GMs SD24 (as GT16 for India) were shortlisted, and the ALCO was selected because
they agreed for technology transfer so these locomotives could now be owned by Indian Railways. The ALCO
DL560C was classified the WDM2 and with it started the present saga of the ALCOs in the Indian Railways.
The SD24 would become the WDM4. The first DL560Cs were imported starting in 1962 and later mass-
produced in India.
The ALCO was perfect for Indian conditions, rugged, very reliable, powerful enough, had
simple construction and mechanics and was easy to operate and maintain and was very
malleable, enabling engineers to tweak and tinker with the engine to produce different
versions of it, even increasing the cylinders from 12 to 16 later on. ALCOs hauled most
premier Expresses, many of them double-headed as a single WDM2 could haul only 12-14
coaches. The seemingly indestructible ALCO engine in its various forms is going strong even
today after ruling the Indian Diesel scene singlehandedly for 37 years! It is no longer in
production today, the last WDM2 (#16887) rolled out on August 1, 1998.
All Diesel Locomotives in India except the WDM4 and WDG4/P4X EMDs are based on the
WDM2 ALCO as they use the same old ALCO 251 diesel engine in various upgraded guises,
not to mention the looks. WDM2s are still in service though their numbers are fast dwindling
as they are either being withdrawn or converted to WDM3A. The very first ALCO,
the #18040 is preserved at the NRM, Delhi. The WDM2 has some variants :
Jumbos: Locos with a rebuilt short hood with big windows. Looks a bit like an
elephant? Here.
WDM2A: WDM2s rebuilt to feature Air Brakes. The initial ones had only vacuum brakes.
WDM2B: WDM2s with Air Brakes as standard equipment. Only a few are classified so.
WDM2S: WDM2s relegated to shunting duties when their service life was nearing
completion.

WDM2G
Latest, Unique Multi-Genset Locomotives
Has three 800 hp engines (Gensets) in Parallel instead of a single prime mover.
Rated Power Output: 2400 hp (800 hp x 3)
Production Period: 2013
2 built (80000 and 80001)
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co
Top (Rated) Speed: 120 kph
Based on the WDM3D without the ALCO engine
Tremendously energy efficient, multipurpose locomotives fully Made in India.

A breakthrough in locomotive technology, the unique WDM2G is a testimony to the brilliant


engineers at RDSO and Indian Railways. This is the latest ALCO, based on the WDM3D
with its same underframe and high-adhesion bogies. The single 3300 hp engine of the
WDM3D has been replaced by three 800 hp gensets which can work individually in
parallel. This means that one, two or three of the Gensets can be operated depending on the
situation and power required, translating into tremendous energy-efficiency (two engines can
be shut down while running light or idling). It seems under-powered, but it has been
developed intentionally as a low-powered loco to address the gap left behind by the
WDM2. The WDM2G is ideal for an entire range of low-power duties like hauling small
passenger trains and expresses of 10-12 coaches, departmental duties, at many industrial sites
and for shunting. The WDM2G can relieve all the higher powered locos wasting away doing
these duties currently, bringing about a lot of process streamlining. It is completely
indigenous, designed, developed and made in India! Looks only vaguely like the Indian
ALCOs and more like some American locomotives (CSX etc). Two WDM2Gs have been
produced and are both at Itarsi, the numbering scheme indicates many more are to come. It
does not follow the IR naming convention, the G probably stands for Genset.
WDM3
Imported Henschel & Sohn DHG 2500 BB
Mercedes Diesel Engine
Rated Power Output: 2300 hp
Production Period: 1970
Number Produced: 8
Wheel Arrangement: B-B
Top (Rated) Speed: 120 kph

Not much is known about WDM3 locomotives but they were possibly the result of IR trying
out a different manufacturer. There are no details available about what these locos were used
for,where they were housed or what they did, not even a photo is available. They were
reportedly decommissioned in Gooty in 1995, so they were in service for 25 years. And these
locomotives were diesel-hydraulic, an anomaly in India where all other locomotives are
diesel-electric! No WDM3x locos in service today has got anything to do with these locos.

WDM3A
16-Cylinder 4-Stroke Turbo Diesel (Alco 251C)
Rated Power Output: 3100 hp
Production Period: 1994 to 1998
158 built, 700+ rebuilt WDM2s (Total 1200+)
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co
Top (Rated) Speed: 120 kph
Based on the WDM2, upgraded by DLW.

Thanks to chalta hai complacency, it took 42 years for the Indian Railways to come out
with a new diesel locomotive after the WDM2! Even then, the WDM3A was just a
reincarnation of the same old ALCO. The 12 cylinder ALCO engine was rebuilt with 16
cylinders to output 3100 hp. These were initially classified WDM2C but later changed to
WDM3A (for 3100 hp) as per the new classification scheme. Though there are around 1200
WDM3As today, only some 150 odd were originally built as WDM3As, most of them
baldies like the one in the picture. The rest are WDM2s with their engines rebuilt to output
3100 hp. Rebuilt WDM3As can be identified by a R at the end of their Road Number.
Some of these have DBRs fitted on their short roof which makes it look like they have a
hoodie covering their short hood top, a predominantly WDM3D feature. The WDM3A also
laid the foundation for the remaining WDM3x series. Most of the ALCOs seen today are
WDM3x series and not WDM2s. All dimensions of the WDM3A are identical to the WDM2,
except for the baldies.
WDM3B
16-Cylinder 4-Stroke Turbo Diesel (Alco 251C)
Rated Power Output: 3100 hp
Production Period: 2005 to 2006
23 built. Most rebuilt into WDM3D
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co
Top (Rated) Speed: 120 kph
Stripped-down version of the WDM3D.

The WDM3B diesel locomotive class was developed in 2005 after the WDM3C and
WDM3D. It actually is a variant of the WDM3D, though it shares its power rating with the
WDM3A. Only 23 numbers were built (road numbers #14144 to #14167), making them very
rare. It has the same engine as the WDM3D, despite having a power deficit of 200 hp. It also
looks the same, shares the same body shell, control cabin, undercarriage and the high-
adhesion bolsterless bogies of the WDM3D. The difference is that unlike the WDM3D, the
WDM3B is not microprocessor controlled but uses something called E-Type Excitation for
locomotive control. The WDM3B seems to be the result of the Railways trying to cut the
WDM3D down to size by eliminating its troublesome features like microprocessor control.
But now 3Bs are being converted into 3Ds. WDM3Bs are housed at UP sheds like Lucknow,
Gonda, Jhansi, Samastipur, Patratu etc. and many are (were) famously named Gajraj. The
WDM3B does not adhere to the hp-based naming convention as WDM3A already
represented 3100 hp. IR just assigned the vacant WDM3B class to this type.
WDM3C
16-Cylinder 4-Stroke Turbo Diesel (Alco 251C)
Rated Power Output: 3300 hp
Production Period: 2002
54 built, all rebuilds of WDM2 and WDM3A
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co
Top (Rated) Speed: 120 kph
Just a more powerful WDM3A
All converted back to WDM3A or WDM2.

WDM3Cs were just upgraded and more powerful WDM3As with the ALCO engine gain
rebuilt to output 3300 hp. It was the first follow-up experiment after the WDM3A to
squeeze more power out of the ALCO engine, an intermediary that would later lead to the
development of the WDM3D. Not many were produced, all of which were rebuilds of the
WDM2 or WDM3A and were identical to the ALCOs in every aspect. You cannot find these
anywhere today because all have been reverted back to WDM2 or WDM3A.
WDM3D
16-Cylinder 4-Stroke Turbo Diesel (Alco 251C)
Rated Power Output: 3300 hp
Production Period: 2003 to today.
344 built. 20 rebuilds included.
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co
Top (Rated) Speed: 160 kph
Based on the WDM3A with EMD features.

While still being based on the good old ALCO, the WDM3D was a pathbreaking kind of
locomotive for the Indian Railways, the real next generation after the WDM3A. With the
WDM3D, IR finally got it right on how to rebuild the old ALCO engine to produce 3300 hp.
By this time, EMDs had become a staple of the scene and along with the rebuilt engine, the
brilliant DLW and RDSO engineers were now successful at integrating the best features of
EMD locomotives like microprocessor control, larger fuel tanks and oil sump, possible
fiberglass cabin and improved control stands into the ALCO, making it a kind of EMD-
ALCO hybrid! These locomotives can be easily distinguished from other ALCOs by the
narrower body shell with lots of walkway space around it, full-length railings, predominant
platform space extended up front of the long hood, solid cowcatcher and DBRs fitted on
the roof of the unblemished, smooth short hood for some later models and rebuilds, giving
them the hoodie look. Comparing with the WDM3A, the WDM3D can carry 1.5 tonne
more axle load and generates 8 tonnes more Maximum Tractive Effort. The engine is
classified WDM3D though it outputs only 3300 hp and not 3400 hp as the name should
suggest. Earlier WDM3Ds had issues with their electronics which probably led to the interim
development of the WDM3B in 2005, basically a lower powered WDM3D without
microprocessor control. Their Road Numbers start from #11001. The WDM3D along with
the WDG3A are the only ALCO models currently in production and mostly haul
express services.
WDM3E
16-Cylinder 4-Stroke Turbo Diesel (Alco 251C)
Rated Power Output: 3500 hp
Production Period: 2008
8? built and all converted to WDM3D
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co
Top (Rated) Speed: 105 kph
Experimental class based on WDM3D

This was an experimental class developed out of the WDM3D by IR on the ever-lookout for
more power, all equipped with High Adhesion bogies and roof-mounted DBRs. However,
they never entered serial production. Some suggest that the WDM3E is actually called
WDM3D without Equalizer or WDM3Ds with 3500 hp power. The known road numbers in
service for this class are #11306 to #11311 and #11263. All are marked WDM3D and all are
used to haul only freights with speed restricted to 85 kph. They look exactly like the
WDM3D and share all its features.
WDM3F
16-Cylinder 4-Stroke Turbo Diesel (Alco 251C)
Rated Power Output: 3600 hp
Production Period: 2008
4 built and in service
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co
Top (Rated) Speed: 105 kph
Extremely rare to find.
Based on the WDM3D.

The very extremely rare WDM3F was the result of the last and final experiment in IRs drive
for more powerful ALCOs. This one is rated 3600 hp and only 4 were produced (#11287,
#11321, #11325, #11342). #11287 has a unique aerodynamic design where the ends taper
upwards (picture above). All WDM3Fs are based at Gooty (GY) and share all the features of
the WDM3D including roof mounted DBRs except the #11287. Though high powered, this
class apparently didnt work out well because after the WDM3F, IR realized that it is futile to
try and crank more power of the ALCOs as they were too old and outdated and shifted
attention to the EMD. This also marked the beginning of the end of the ALCO domination on
Indian Railways.
WDM4
16-Cylinder 2-Stroke Turbo Supercharged Diesel
Model SD24 (GT16) of GM-EMD.
Rated Power Output: 2600 hp
Production Period: 1962
72 all imported
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co
Top (Rated) Speed: 130 kph
First EMD locomotives in India

The WDM4 was originally General Motors-EMD SD24, given model number GT16 for the
India export version, was the competitor to the ALCO DL560C in IRs lookout for its perfect
diesel loco in 1962. It lost out to the ALCO despite being technically superior and faster that
it because as per the lore goes, GM was not willing to give technological transfer rights to
Indian Railways. They were all imported from the USA. It was a WDM4, #18110, that had
the honor of being the engine hauling the very first Rajdhani Express on its inaugural service
from Howrah to Delhi on March 3, 1969. WDM4s remained the dedicated link of the Howrah
Rajdhani, double headed even, until the late 1970s. Many other prestigious expresses,
especially on the Delhi-Howrah route, boasted of the WDM4 as their first Diesel link on
switchover from steam. They introduced India to high-speed diesel runs and were the
forerunners of the GT46MAC that would arrive in India 40 years later as the WDG4. They
looked somewhat same as the ALCOs with their hood unit cabs. All are decommissioned
now and one is on display at the National Rail Museum, New Delhi.
There was no WDM5.
WDM6
6-Cylinder Inline, 4-Stroke Diesel (ALCO 251D6)
Rated Power Output: 1350 hp
Production Period: 1982
Only TWO were built.
Wheel Arrangement: Bo-Bo
Top (Rated) Speed: 75 kph
Mainline Loco with Shunter specifications.

The WDM6 is an aberration, a little locomotive that was too diminutive to do anything
substantial. Though classified as a mainline BG locomotive, this ALCO had all the specs
usually reserved for shunting locomotives including a low powered prime-mover, fabricated
Bo-Bo bogies and low top speed. It actually had the same specs as the WDS6 shunter which
was already in production. The engine was one with some minor tweaks, the same ALCO
used in Meter Gauge diesel locomotives. It also lacked the ALCO looks with a high,
hooded cab and had only two of its kind produced. One (#18901) is retired the other one
(#18902) is supposed to be still puttering around Bardhhaman. Maybe IR was experimenting
with low powered locos to pull local trains. (Pictured above, another version of the WDM6
built for export to Sri Lanka). This was not included in the new classification
scheme. UPDATE: The only surviving WDM6, #18902 has been overhauled by the BWN
shed, giving it a new lease of life, bringing it back from the verge of extinction! Bless you
Barddhaman, for giving this little loco a new lease of life!
WDM7
16-Cylinder 4-Stroke Diesel (ALCO 251D16)
Rated Power Output: 2000 hp
Production Period: 1987-1989
15 were built and all are still in service.
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co
Top (Rated) Speed: 105 kph
Low powered version of the ALCO.

The WDM7 was another loco that stood out from the rest. 15 of them (#11001 to #11015)
were built as a low-powered, lightweight version of the original ALCO and were the first
standout mainline version of the ALCO to be produced after the WDM2, 25 years later!
Funny that the first two ALCO models are at the either ends of the naming scheme. Again,
like the WDM6, maybe IR wanted a lower powered locomotive to handle small rake local
and passenger services. However, all sheds declined them and they ended up at ERS where
they were used to handle local and shuttle services (NBR-SRR-ERS-KTYM/ALLP-KYJ-
QLN-TVC-NGJ) with good degrees of efficiency. Becoming aware of their abilities, SR
moved all the WDM7s out of Ernakulam to Tondiarpet (TNP) where they are housed today.
One (#11008) has been modified to run on Bio-Diesel. They look exactly the same as the
WDM2 except for the clean SHF nose.
The railways are moving away from Mixed type locomotives and is now following the policy
of dedicated locomotives for passenger and freight services. ALCOs had been serving as
WDPs and WDGs for quite some time now, but as ALCOs were generally getting long in the
tooth, IR is now tinkering with the more modern EMDs as WDPs and WDGs. More about
those locomotives classified as such in the next part.
Diesel Locomotive Roster The WDP and WDG Series!
It took four decades after running around with the mixed WDM series that the Indian Railways finally
thought that it would be a good idea to come out with separate dedicated specialized diesel
locomotives (engines) for passenger and freight services. This resulted in a new set of two different
types of locomotive, one each for passenger (WDP) and goods (WDG). It is interesting that this split
for diesels happened only in 1995 through there were dedicated passenger locomotives for electric
traction since 1963 (WAG1) and since 1980 (WAP1) for passenger. As Explained in a previous post, it
is the difference in weight and Gear Ratios that separate locomotives into passenger and freight
hauling types. The engine usually remains the same. Here is the history, details and specifications of
dedicated passenger (WDP1, WDP3A, WDP4, WDP4B, WDP4D) and freight (WDG3A, 3B, 3C, 3D,
WDG4, WDG4D, WDG5) service Diesel Locomotives.

WDP1
Low Powered version of the ALCO WDM2
V12 4-Stroke Turbo Diesel ALCO 251V12
Rated Power Output: 2300 hp
Production Period: 1995 to 1999
Number Produced: 69
Wheel Arrangement: Bo-Bo
Top (Rated) Speed: 140 kph
Weight: 80.1t; AL: 20t; TE: 20t

The WDP1s were IRs first attempt at a dedicated passenger diesel locomotive. The aim was to
create a low-power locomotive to haul short-raked passenger services at better speeds, an
experiment inspired by the WDM7. As the ALCOs were highly malleable, IR engineers tinkered
around to rebuild the V16 of the WDM2 to produce a lower powered V12 which would power the
WDP1. The locomotive was very light at 20t axle load and had a Bo-Bo wheel arrangement to make it
more suited for speed and light loads. But the entire experiment fell flat as the locos performed poorly
with lots of ride and maintenance problems, never getting to haul any substantial Express services.
They are still in service and are homed either at TKD or BZA to haul short commuter trains around the
area. They look just like all other ALCOs and are easily identified by the laterally sculpted and
baldies grille-less short hood.
WDP3A (WDP2)
ALCO with a completely reworked shell
V16 4-Stroke Turbo Diesel ALCO 251C
Rated Power Output: 3100 hp
Production Period: 1999 to 2002
Number Produced: 69
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co
Top (Rated) Speed: 160 kph

The WDP2 later renamed WDP3A was Indian Railways first success at creating a high-speed, high
performance dedicated diesel passenger service locomotive with modern aerodynamic looks and
dual cab forward design. Despite the swashbuckling exterior, inside the WDP3A still remains through
and through ALCO with the same 3100 hp engine doing duty making it the almost identical brother of
the WDM3A and WDG3A. They took the WDM3A, re-geared it, did away with the hood-unit driving
structure and replaced it with two driving cabs at either end and extended the body shell all the way to
the edge of the superstructure, giving it the full look, all the first of its diesel kind. But sadly
production was stopped after it was decided to procure newer, more powerful and contemporary
locomotives from EMD. A problem with the WDP3A was that it would get uncomfortably hot inside the
driving cabin on the radiator side and the locos were nicknamed toasters by the loco pilots. The
WDP3A is best known as the power for the Trivandrum Rajdhani on the Konkan Railway and are
homed at Golden Rock Trichy (GOC) (SR) and Tughlakhabad (TKD) NR sheds. TKD WDM3As are
named Pushpak. The WDP3A still remains one of IRs most handsome locomotives.
WDP4 (EMD GT46PAC)
Brand new modern locos from EMD, USA.
V16 2-Stroke Turbo Diesel GM-EMD 16-710
Rated Power Output: 4000 hp
Production Period: 2002 to 2011
Number Produced: 102
Wheel Arrangement: Bo1-1Bo
Top (Rated) Speed: 160 kph

The WDP4 would change Indian passenger diesel services for ever. These 4000 hp single cab-
forward behemoths that took India by storm were originally the GT46PAC exclusively built and
supplied for the Indian Railways by EMD, USA in 2001. The first few units were fully imported and
then some were assembled in India from CKD units before DLW started manufacturing them in
India. #20012 Baaz was the first fully-Indian produced unit and most were homed at Hubli (UBL).
These EMDs were light-years ahead of most ALCOs by being technologically well advanced with unit
fuel injection, self-diagnostics, microprocessor control for optimum power delivery to traction motors
etc. However, the WDP4 had two major flaws. The well-known one is their single-cabin design which
seemingly caused visibility problems while being driven in LHF mode. Maybe to save cost, IR decided
to go with only one cabin with a second control stand in it to drive it in LHF mode which it wasnt really
designed to. The second not-so-well-known problem with the WDP4 was that they had only 4 traction
motors (2 per bogie) or only four out of the total six axles were powered, resulting in a weird Bo1-1Bo
wheel arrangement. This was apparently aimed at reducing weight (and cost?) and for increased
speed, but their resulting low tractive effort of 28t caused magnitudes of performance problems and
unending wheel slips, though they were fantastically fast hauling shorter, lighter trains. Its
shortcomings led to the development of the WDP4B (based on the WDG4). The WDP4s did good
service though they are not being produced anymore.
WDP4B
Improved version of the WDG4 EMD
V16 2-Stroke Turbo Diesel GM-EMD 16-710
Rated Power Output: 4500 hp
Production Period: 2010 to Present
Number Produced: 85+
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co
Top (Rated) Speed: 130 kph

Though classified WDP and designed to overcome the shortcomings of the WDP4, the WDP4B is
actually a modified version of the WDG4 and not of the WDP4. It has 6 traction motors for all the six
axles like the WDG4, has a tractive effort of 40t (385 kN) compared to the WDG4s 55t (570kN) and
the WDP4s 28t (270kN) and axle load of 20.2t slightly lesser than the WDG4s 21t and same
operational speed (130 kph) of the WDG4. The reworked EMD engine outputs 4500 hp. The WDP4B
also has a much more rounded softer aerodynamic front-end with the cabin slightly wider than the
loco body to provide bigger windows for better visibility, which also took away the fierce, menacing
front-end look of the original EMD. All other specs remained the same as that of the WDG4 including
all the technological goodies. However, they did not do anything about the cab design and the LHF
end was unfortunately left untouched retaining its weird house-shaped look as the loco continued with
one cab. The WDP4B hence was suited for hauling longer trains at somewhat higher speed than the
WDP4.
WDP4D
Dual cab (longer) version of the WDP4B
V16 2-Stroke Turbo Diesel GM-EMD 16-710
Rated Power Output: 4500 hp @ 900 RPM
Production Period: 2010 to Present
Top Rated Speed: 130 kph
Number Produced: 245+
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co
Top (Rated) Speed: 130 kph
Axle Load: 20.5t, Tractive Effort: 39.5t

The WDP4B with its tweaked GM engine got a facelift with the WDP4D. After numerous complaints
from loco pilots, engineers, media and the general public who refused to allow trains with WDP4s to
operate in LHF mode, IR finally realized that it would be a good idea to add another cab to the EMD.
The WDP4D was the result where D stands for Dual Cab and not for horsepower. These are
long, very looooong locos which apart from the extra cab share all features with the WDP4B. The
extra cab is a bit wider than the other one and looks slightly ungainly but is more efficient, easier to
operate and better looking, besides being more safer, faster and comfortable for the poor loco pilots.
It was only the second dual-cab diesel locomotive after the WDP3A. Some of the newer locos also
have air-conditioning and toilets built in as standard features and also have one of the cabs lo0king a
bit odd (flat). They all were initially housed at Tughlakabad, but are now also seen at Siliguri and
Golden Rock sheds and as far south as Ernakulam. Very powerful with a starting TE of 39500 kg.

WDG1
There is surprisingly no locomotive classified WDG1 on Indian Railways. However, there is evidence
enough to believe that a WDG1 class could have actually existed once as an experimental or
prototype class which never went into production. The existence of the WDG2 (later reclassified
WDG3A) points to the existence of the WDG1 class, because locomotives those days were classified
chronologically or version-wise.
WDG3A (WDG2)
Dedicated freight version of the WDM3A
V16 4-stroke Turbo Diesel ALCO 251C-16
Rated Power Output: 3100 hp @ 1050 RPM
Production Period: 1995 to Present
Number Produced: 1171+
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co
Top (Rated) Speed: 100 kph
Axle Load: 20.5 t; Total Weight: 123 t.
Starting Tractive Effort: 37.9 t at 30.8% adhesion

The WDG3A was also developed to overcome the shortcomings of the WDM2 and is the triplet
brother of the WDM3A and WDP3A. All WDX3As share the same 3100 hp powerpack but are
different on how they were specifically engineered for the work they are supposed to do. The WDG3A
has higher Tractive Effort (37.9 t) and Axle Load (20.5 t) compared to the WDM3A which are 30.4 t
and 18.8 t. Freight locomotives have to haul far heavier loads as compared to passenger services and
hence require to be heavier and have higher effort to get moving. The WDG3A is one of IRs most
successful locomotives and most common locomotive today with 1171 produced and still going
strong, the only ALCO currently in production along with the WDM3D. The older WDG3As look
exactly like the WDM3A in all aspects while the newer ones look like the WDM3D and share all its
characteristics and features including microprocessor control and short-hood mounted DBRs. Very
rugged and very reliable though tad underpowered, WDG3As are still drive a huge chunk of Indias
economy, moving coal, petroleum products, cement, grain, containers and what not across the nation.
Many are famously known as Shakti and have lightning bolts pained on them. Found all over the
country from Ludhiana to Ernakulam but more famously along the dusty plains of the Deccan and
Andhra Pradesh, at Pune, Guntakal, Gooty, Kazipet and Vizag.
WDG3B
Experimental higher powered variant of WDG3A?
Class does not exist today, no confirmed sightings
V16 4-stroke Turbo Diesel ALCO 251C
Rated Power Output: 3200 hp?
Production Period: 2004?
Number Produced: 4?
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co

Nothing much is known about this (WDG3B) loco class. Apparently around four of these were built
with all of them homed at Gooty. Maybe they were a technical variant of the WDG3A with an
upgraded ALCO engine to output 3200 hp as the name suggests. But it looks like the experiment
didnt work out because there is no record of any locomotives of this class today and no confirmed
sightings of any of WDG3Bs except for a 2004 account by a railfan reporting a Gooty WDG3B #14796
(pictured here). This loco is now a WDG3A with SWR KJM.
WDG3C
Supposedly Higher powered WDG3A?
V16 4-stroke Turbo Diesel ALCO 251C
Rated Power Output: 3300 hp
Production Period: 2001?
Number Produced: 1
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co.

The WDG3C was another one of those experiments to crank out higher power from the ALCO but
didnt really succeed. Only one was produced (#14962) and was homed at Gooty. It had a brilliant and
unique Dark Rose-Yellow livery with Cheetah 3300 painted on its sides. It was the only confirmed
WDG3C to be produced and remained so until 2011 when it was derated to 2600 hp (but marked
WDG3A) and painted in standard Katni (Orange and twin Cream bands) colors, marking the demise
of the class. The 14962 is still in service.
WDG3D
WDG3A variant with microprocessor control
Supposedly a freight version of WDM3D?
V16 4-stroke Turbo Diesel ALCO 251C
Rated Power Output: 3400 hp
Production Period: 2001
Number Produced: 1
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co

Another upgraded variant of the WDG3A. The WDG3D also had only one unit
produced #13301 which was first homed at Andal and later at Vatva. It supposedly had 3400 hp
engine power, better cabin ergonomics and microprocessor control, seemingly a freight version of the
WDM3D, sharing most of its features. Present status unknown. Photo courtesy IRFCA.
WDG4
Totally new and modern locos from EMD USA
V16 2-stroke Turbo Diesel GM 16-710G3B
Rated Power Output: 4000 hp @ 900 RPM
Engine Displacement: 186160 cc
Production Period: 1999-2012
Number Produced: 431
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co

The massive WDG4 changed everything! It was the first ever mainline production EMD in India after
the (experimental) WDM4 four decades ago. Their looks, stance and power were intimidating (at least
from one end) and were totally unlike anything India had seen until then. It predated the WDP4 by two
years and was originally the GT46MAC designed and built by Electro-Motive Diesel (EMD) of USA.
First few were imported and then DLW started building them in India and most were sent to Hubli
(UBL). With 53 tonnes tractive effort, 21 tonnes axle load and 4000 hp power with self-driven
bolsterless bogies and 3-phase traction motors (3 per bogie), the WDP4 was the most powerful diesel
locomotive in India at the time and could pull a fully loaded 58-wagon BOXN load up a 2.5% gradient
without breaking a sweat. Two WDG4s coupled together could haul more than what took three
ALCOs previously. Though they dont look so, the EMDs are extremely hi-tech equipment filled to the
brim with electronic wizardry. Computers control almost everything right from valve control and fuel
injection to voltage and power delivery. It also features ABS, traction control, self diagnostics,
automatic sanding and it even has a radar and autopilot and later EMDs including the WDP4 share
all of its features. The mileage of the WDP4 EMD diesel locomotive is 4 liters of diesel per kilometer,
remarkably cost effective considering what they haul. The earlier WDG4s had the rough-cut look
frontal look while the later ones share the blunter, wider cab of the WDP4B. The WDG4/WDP4 will
cost you 12 Crore a piece and the WDG4 is also my favorite loco model. However, the single cab
design was a pain point as it was for all EMDs. Read here a full review of the WDG4 EMD (PDF).
WDG4D (Vijay)
Completely developed and built in India.
Based on EMD WDG4 but with a modified engine.
V16 2-stroke Turbo Diesel GM 16-710G3B
Rated Power Output: 4500 hp @ 900 RPM
Top Speed: 105 kph
Production Period: 2013+
Number Produced: 215+
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co

Named Vijay, the WDP4D is the latest entrant to the Indian Railways locomotive fleet. It is Indias
first ever dual-cab diesel freight locomotive and can be said to be the freight version of the WDP4D or
a WDG4 with cabs at both ends thereby finally eliminating its biggest shortcoming. It is built around
the same upgraded 4500 hp EMD 710 G3B engine doing duty in the WDP4B and WDP4D. Like all
EMDs, the WDG4D is extremely high-tech being fully computer controlled and most functions being
automated including optimum power delivery to the 3-phase traction motors using IGBT (transistors),
the same technology used in 3-phase AC locomotives (WAP5/7, WAG9). The loco design also gives
lot of attention to the comfort of loco pilots who until now were the most neglected souls when it
comes to locomotive design. Both cabs are fully air conditioned with ergonomic and comfortable
reclining seats and the driving console has been substantially digitized with TFT display screens
showing all parameters of loco function, performance and fault diagnostics like an airplane, if you will.
The first one to be built is #12681 and is homed at Sabarmati (SBI) shed of Western Railway in
Gujarat.
WDG5 (Bheem)
Loosely based on the EMD SD80MAC (engine)
Developed jointly by RDSO and EMD in India.
V20 2-stroke Turbo Diesel GM 20-710G3B
Rated Power Output: 5500 hp @ 900 RPM
Top Speed: 105 kph
Production Period: 2012
Number Produced: 4
Wheel Arrangement: Co-Co

The WDG5 Bheem is Indian Railways latest attempt at high powered diesel locomotives and is
currently the most powerful diesel locomotive in India. This very, very long locomotive was was
derived from the American locomotive EMD SD80MAC and was developed fully in India jointly by
EMD and RDSO for Indian Railways. It was classified as the GT50AC by EMD. The WDG5 boasts of
the very first 20-Cylinder (v20) locomotive engine, the V20-710G3B prime mover of the SD80MAC,
which has been tweaked to output 5500 hp at its existing top speed of 900 RPM to do duty on the
WDG5. The locomotive is crammed with high-tech features and also includes an air-conditioned cabin
with a fully digital control stand and a toilet for the loco pilots. The cabin looks a bit awkward but is
highly functional and of course, air-conditioned. However, everything is not so cool with this loco,
despite its high-power and advanced features. The biggest problems was the design of the LHF end
which is worse than that of the WDG/P4 and has come in for much criticism. The WDG5 is
supposedly still under testing as it apparently has a lot of ride and performance problems and of
course visibility problems. Only one (50001) was produced and was not assigned to any shed. Future
prospects unknown. UPDATE: 3 more have been produced but they seem to have not entered
serious service yet.