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Cement

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Topics under Cement
Introduction
History
Chemical composition
Manufacturing
Cement Properties
Setting and Hardening of Cement
Testing

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Cement
Clay as cementing material Assyrians and Babylonians
Lime and gypsum as binder material Egyptians used in
pyramids
Calcareous cements, limestone material Romans
Joseph Aspedin of Yorkshire (UK) in 1824 formed
Portland cement by heating a mixture of limestone & fine
clay expelling carbonic acid gas
Isaac C. Johnson in 1845 invented cement by burning
limestone and clay to form clinker

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Cement
Cements in general are adhesive and cohesive
materials which are capable of bonding together
particles of solid matter into compact durable
mass.
For civil engineering, they are restricted to
calcareous cements containing compounds of
lime as chief constituent to bind the fine and
coarse aggregate particles together.

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Cement
Portland cement is so named because a paste of cement
with water, after it sets hard, resembles in color and
hardness a Portland stone, a limestone quarried in
Dorset (a county in South West England).
Uses of cement
Masonry work, plastering, pointing, joints for pipes & drains.
Used in concrete for laying floors, roofs, constructing lintels,
beams, stairs, pillars/columns etc.
Used in manufacturing of precast pipes, piles, fencing posts etc.
Important engineering structures e.g. bridges, culverts, dams,
tunnels, etc.

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Chemical Composition of Cement
Oxide %age Function
Lime (CaO) 60-65 Controls strength and soundness
Silica (SiO2) 20-25 Gives strength. Excess causes slow
setting
Alumina (Al2O3) 4-8 Quick setting. Excess lowers strength
Iron oxide (Fe2O3) 2-4 Color. Helps in fusion of ingredients
Magnesium oxide 1-3 Color and hardness. Excess causes
(MgO) cracking
Na2O 0.1-0.5 Residues. Excess causes cracking
Sulphur trioxide 1-2 Makes cement sound
(SO3)
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Functions of ingredients of cement
Lime (CaO)
It is the major constituent of cement . Its
proportion is important.
The excess makes the cement unsound and
causes the cement to expand and disintegrate.
In case of deficiency, the strength of cement is
decreased and cement sets quickly.
The right proportion makes cement sound and
strong.
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Functions of ingredients of cement
Silica (SiO2)
It imparts strength to the cement due to
formation of dicalcium silicate (2CaO SiO2 or C2S)
and tricalcium silicate (3CaO SiO2 or C3S).
Silica in excess provides greater strength to the
cement but at the same time it prolongs its
setting time.

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Functions of ingredients of cement
Alumina (Al2O3)
It imparts quick setting quality to the cement.
It acts as a flux (rate of flow of energy) and lowers
the clinkering temperature.
Alumina in excess reduces the strength of
cement.

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Functions of ingredients of cement
Iron oxide (Fe2O3)
It provides color, hardness and strength to
cement.
It also helps the fusion of raw materials during
manufacture of cement.

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Harmful ingredient of cement
Alkali oxides (K2O and Na2O): if the amount of
alkali oxides exceeds 1%, it leads to the failure of
concrete made from that cement.
Magnesium oxide (MgO): if the content of MgO
exceeds 5%, it causes cracks after mortar or
concrete hardness.

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Cement Manufacturing
Steps
Grinding & mixing . Raw materials are ground and mixed in right
proportions.
Burning. Burning at 1300 to 1900oC and obtaining clinker from
kilns.
Grinding. Grinding of clinker to fine powder.
Processes
Dry process. Dry mixing and grinding of constituents. Difficult
for composition control, slow, costly.
Wet process. Wet mixing and grinding into slurry which turns
into clinker on burning in kiln.
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Wet process
Raw slurry Calcareous materials Argillaceous materials
( limestone) ( clay)

elevators
Preliminary crushing Wash mills

Correction
silos Elevators (storage bins) Elevators (storage bins)

Hoppers
Lime slurry
Clay slurry Water

Wet grinding
(Ball mills)

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Wet process (contd.)
Correction silos Fuel-coal

Rotary kilns Crushing & grinding


(Ball mill)

Clinker Pulverized coal

Gypsum
Elevators
(Clinker storage)
Gypsum
hopper
Clinker grinding
(Cement grinding mills)

Elevator (Cement silos)

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Cement Manufacturing Process

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Cement Manufacturing Process

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Rotary Kiln (Furnace)

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Wet process
Collection of raw materials:
Calcareous materials (limestone, marl, chalk, etc.) are quarried
by blasting. Argillaceous materials (clay, slate, etc.) are
transported to the site.
Crushing, grinding & mixing of raw materials:
Chalk: chalk is finely broken up and dispersed in water in a
wash mill. The clay is also broken up and mixed with water in
similar wash mill. The mixture is passed through a series of
screens. The resulting cement slurry flows into storage tanks.
Limestone: limestone is crushed & fed into a ball mill with the
clay dispersed in water. After grinding, the resulting slurry is
pumped into storage tanks.
Slurry: it is a liquid of creamy consistency, with water content
between 35-40%
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Wet process (contd.)
Crushing, grinding & mixing of raw materials:
Slurry is kept in storage tanks. The sedimentation of suspended
solid is prevented by mechanical stirrers or bubbling of
compressed air.
The slurry is passed into silos where proportioning is finely
adjusted to ensure correct chemical composition.
Burning
Slurry is pumped into upper end of the rotary kiln set at a slight
gradient. It is 4 m in diameter and upto 150 m long. It rotates
slowly about its axis. The slurry is fed at the upper end while
pulverised coal is thrown in by an air blast at the lower end. Oil
and natural gas can also be used instead of gas.

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Zones of Rotary Kiln

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Wet process (contd.)
Burning
When slurry moves down the kiln, it encounters progressively
high temperatures.
At first water is driven off, and CO2 is liberated. The material
becomes dry.
The dry material undergoes a series of chemical reactions until
finally, in the hottest part of kiln, 20-30 % of the material
becomes liquid, and lime, silica and alumina recombine.
The mass fuses into balls, 0.3-2.5 cm dia, known as clinker.
The clinker drops into coolers.
A large kiln can produce 700 tonnes of cement a day

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Clinker

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Clinker Gypsum

Source: PCA, 2003

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Wet process (contd.)
Grinding
The cool clinker is crushed with 3-4% of gypsum (CaSO4) in
order to prevent flash setting of cement.
Once the cement has been satisfactorily ground it is ready for
packing in bags.
Each bag contains 50 kg of cement.

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Source: PCA, 2003 CE-115 Civil Engineering Materials - Concrete 25
Cement Clinker Composition
Tri-calcium silicate 3CaO SiO2 or C3S (Alite)
Best cementing material. About 40%. Main cause of hardness
and early strength
Di-calcium silicate 2CaO SiO2 or C2S (Belite)
About 32%. Resistance to chemical attacks. Hardens slow and
takes long to add to strength
Tri-calcium aluminates 3CaO Al2O3 or C3A (Celite)
About 10%. Rapidly reacts responsible for flash set, volume
changes, cracking and high heat of hydration
Tetra-calcium alumino ferrite 4CaO Al2O3 Fe2O3 or C4AF
(Felite)
About 9%. Responsible for flash set.
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Cement Properties
Fineness: Finer cements react quicker with water and
increase shrinkage and cracking of concrete.
Soundness: Change in volume of concrete after setting. It
may cause cracks, distortion and disintegration of
concrete.
Setting time: Initial setting time is that stage after which
any cracks that may appear do not reunite. Final setting
is that stage when it has attained sufficient strength and
hardness.
Compressive strength of cement and sand mortar should
not be less than
115 kg/cm2 after 3 days
175 kg/cm2 after 7 days
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Properties of cement components

Component Rate of Heat Ultimate


reaction liberated cementing
value
Tri-calcium silicate, C3S Medium Medium Good

Di-calcium silicate, C2S Slow Small Good

Tri-calcium aluminate, C3A Fast Large Poor

Tetra-calcium alumino Slow Small Poor


ferrite, C4AF

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Setting and hardening of cement
The chemical reaction between cement and water is
called hydration of cement.
When cement is mixed with water (25-35% by weight), a
stiff and sticky paste is formed which remains plastic for
a short period.
With passage of time, the plasticity disappears and the
cement past becomes stiff due to initial hydration of
cement. This phenomenon of plastic cement changing
into a solid mass is known as setting of cement.
On setting, cement binds the aggregates into a solid mass
which gains strength as the time passes, till hydration of
cement is complete.
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Setting and hardening of cement
The phenomenon by virtue of which the cement paste,
which is finally set, develops strength is known as
hardening of cement.
Heat of hydration: The reaction of cement with water
evolves heat known as heat of hydration.
The rate of setting and hardening of cement, the rate of
evolution of heat and resistance to chemical attack are
affected by the proportions of different cement
components.

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Setting and hardening of cement
C3S and C2S constitute about 70-80% of all Portland
cements.
Tri-calcium silicate (C3S): C3S hydrates more rapidly than
C2S and develops strength in concrete for first 28 days. It
also generates more heat.
Di-calcium silicate (C2S): C2S is next to hydrate but it
hydrates slowly and is responsible for the ultimate
strength. C2S takes 2-3 years for its complete hydration
which contributes towards ultimate strength of cement
mortar on concrete. It is more resistant to sulphate
attacks.
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Setting and hardening of cement
Tri-calcium aluminate (C3A): When cement reacts with
water, C3A is the first to react with water and causes the
initial set. It generates great amount of heat and is easily
affected by sulphates.
C3A contributes little to the strength of concrete.
C3A is rendered ineffective by addition of gypsum during
grinding of clinkers.
Gypsum reacts with C3A and turns it into calcium sulpho-
aluminate which causes expansion during setting.

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Setting and hardening of cement
C4AF (Felite)
It is comparatively
inactive and
contributes little to
the strength of
concrete and the
heat of hydration.

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Hydration
The chemical reaction between cement and water is
known as hydration of cement.
The reaction takes place between cement components
(C4Af,C3A,C3S &C2S) and water.
The chemical reaction is as follows:
C CaO
C3 S H 2O C S H CaOH 2
S SiO2
C2 S H 2O C S H CaOH 2
S SO3
C3 A H 2O C3 AH 6
A Al 2O3
C3 S H 2O CaSO4 CACS H12
F Fe2O3
C4 AF H 2O C3 AH 6 CFH
H H 2O
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Hydration
The product C-S-H gel represents the calcium silicate
hydrate also known as tobermorite gel.
The C-S-H phase makes up 50-60% of the volume of
solids in a completely hydrated Portland cement paste

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Testing of Portland cement
Fineness test
Consistency test
Setting time test
Soundness test
Tensile strength test
Compressive strength test

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Fineness of cement
Finer cements will
React more quickly
React more completely
Improve mix cohesion (or make sticky)
Reduce bleeding
Deteriorate more quickly
Be more susceptible to cracking
Generally require more water
Fineness of cement does not alter the total quantity of
heat liberated but it changes the rate of development
due to change in surface areas.

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Fineness test
Excessive fineness is not desirable because
Cost of grinding to achieve fineness increases
Excessively fine cement deteriorates more quickly
Greater fineness requires more gypsum for proper retardation
Water required for standard consistency increases for finer
cements.
The fineness of cement is tested by
Sieve test
Surface area test

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Fineness test
Sieve test: The maximum residue after sieving through
90-micron sieve should be limited to
10% by weight for ordinary Portland cement
5% by weight for rapid hardening Portland cement
Sieve test does not give any idea of smaller grains
retained on sieve.
Surface area test: also known as specific surface test.
Specific surface is the total surface of all particles of cement per
unit weight.
Determined by air permeability method or Wagners
turbidimeter.
Less than 2250 cm2/g of cement (air permeability) or 1600
cm2/g of cement (Wagners method).
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Consistency test

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Cement Types
Portland Cement
Ordinary Portland Cement
*Rapid Hardening or High Early Strength Portland
Cement
* Low Heat Portland Cement
Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement
Water Repellent Portland Cement
Water Proof Portland Cement
*Air Entraining Portland Cement
* Pozzolana Portland Cement
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Cement Types
Other Varieties of Cement
* High Alumina Cement
* Quick Setting Cement
* Blast Furnace Slag Cement
* White Cement
* Colored Cement
Expanding Cement
Hydrophobic Cement

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Cement Types
Rapid Hardening or High Early Strength Cement
Gains strength faster than OPC. In 3 days develops 7 days
strength of OPC with same water cement ratio
After 24 hours not less than 160 kg/cm2
After 72 hours not less than 275 kg/cm2
Initial and final setting times are same as OPC
Contains more tri-calcium silicate and finely ground
Emits more heat during setting, therefore unsuitable for mass
concreting
Lighter and costlier than OPC. Short curing period makes it
economical
Used for structures where immediate loading is required e.g.
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Cement Types
Quick Setting Cement
Sets faster than OPC
Initial setting time is 5 minutes
Final setting time is 30 minutes
Used for concreting in underwater or running water
Mixing and placing has to be faster to avoid initial
setting prior to laying

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Cement Types
High Alumina Cement
Black chocolate color cement produced by fusing bauxite and
limestone in correct proportion, at high temperature
Resists attack of chemicals, sulphates, seawater, frost action
and also fire. Useful in chemical plants and furnaces
Ultimate strength is much higher than OPC
Initial setting time is 2 hours, followed soon by final set
Most heat emitted in first 10 hours so good for freezing
temperatures in cold regions (below 18C)
Develops strength rapidly, useful during wartime emergency
Unsuitable for mass concrete as it emits large heat on setting
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Cement Types
Portland Slag Cement
Produced by mixing Portland cement clinker, gypsum
and granulated blast furnace slag
Cheaper than OPC, blackish grey
Lesser heat of hydration. Initial setting 1 hour and final
setting 10 hours
Better resistance to soils, sulphates of alkali metals,
alumina, iron and acidic waters
Suitable for marine works, mass concreting
Due to low early strength, not suitable for RCC

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Cement Types
Low Heat Cement
Low percentage (5%) of tri-calcium aluminates and
silicate and high (46%) of di-calcium silicate to keep
heat generation low
Initial and final setting times nearly same as OPC
Very slow rate of developing strength
Not suitable for ordinary structures
Shuttering required for long duration so cost will increase
Prolonged curing is required
Structure utilization will be delayed
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Cement Types
Air Entraining Cement
OPC with small quantity of air entraining materials
(resins, oils, fats, fatty acids) ground together
Air is entrained in the form of tiny air bubbles during
chemical reaction
Concrete is more plastic, more workable, more
resistant to freezing
Strength of concrete reduces somewhat
Quantity of air entrained should not be more than 5%
to prevent excess strength loss
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Cement Types
White Cement
OPC with pure white color produced with white chalk
or clay free from iron oxide
Instead of coal, oil fuel is used for burning
Much more costlier than OPC
Colored Cement
Suitable pigments used to impart desired color
Pigments used should be chemically inert and durable
under light, sun or weather
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Cement Types
Portland Pozzolana Cement
OPC clinker and pozzolana (calcined clay, surkhi and fly
ash) ground together
Properties same as OPC
Produces less heat of hydration and offers great
resistance to attacks of sulphates and acidic waters
Used in marine works and mass concreting
Ultimate strength is more than OPC but setting timings
are same as OPC

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Puzzolona

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Cement Types
Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement
Percentage of tricalcium aluminate is kept below 5%
resulting in increase in resisting power against
sulphates
Heat developed is almost same as Low Heat Cement
Theoretically ideal cement. Costly manufacturing
because of stringent composition requirements
Used for structures likely to be damaged by severe
alkaline conditions like bridges, culverts, canal lining,
siphons, etc

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Questions ?

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