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Compressible Flow - TME085

Lecture 7

Niklas Andersson

Chalmers University of Technology

Department of Applied Mechanics
Division of Fluid Mechanics
Gothenburg, Sweden
Adressed Learning Outcomes

4 Present at least two different formulations of the governing

equations for compressible flows and explain what basic
conservation principles they are based on
6 Define the special cases of calorically perfect gas, thermally
perfect gas and real gas and explain the implication of each
of these special cases
8 Derive (marked) and apply (all) of the presented
mathematical formulae for classical gas dynamics
a 1D isentropic flow*
i detached blunt body shocks, nozzle flows

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Chapter 5

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Quasi-One-Dimensional Flow

I Chapter 3 - One-dimensional steady-state flow

I overall assumption:
one-dimensional flow
constant cross section area
I applications:
normal shock
one-dimensional flow with heat addition
one-dimensional flow with friction
I Chapter 4 - Two-dimensional steady-state flow
I overall assumption:
two-dimensional flow
uniform supersonic freestream
I applications:
oblique shock
expansion fan
shock-expansion theory

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Quasi-One-Dimensional Flow cont.

I Extension of one-dimensional flow to allow variations in

streamtube area
I Steady-state flow assumption still applied

streamtube area A(x)

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Quasi-One-Dimensional Flow cont.

Example: tube with variable cross-section area

cross-section area A(x)

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Quasi-One-Dimensional Flow cont. - Nozzle Flow

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Quasi-One-Dimensional Flow cont. - Stirling Engine

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Chapter 5.2
Governing Equations

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Governing Equations

Introduce cross-section-averaged flow quantities

all quantities depend on x only

A = A(x), = (x), u = u(x), p = p(x), ...

control volume
S1 left boundary (area A1 )
S2 right boundary (area A2 )
perimeter boundary

S1 S2

= S1 S2
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Governing Equations - Mass Conservation

I steady-state
I no flow through

d y {
dV + v ndS = 0

| {z } | {z }
=0 1 u1 A1 +2 u2 A2

1 u1 A1 = 2 u2 A2

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Governing Equations - Momentum Conservation
I steady-state
I no flow through

d y {
vdV + [(v n)v + pn] dS = 0

| {z }
(v n)vdS = 1 u21 A1 + 2 u22 A2

{ A2
pndS = p1 A1 + p2 A2 pdA

(1 u21 + p1 )A1 + pdA = (2 u22 + p2 )A2
Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 12 / 36
Governing Equations - Energy Conservation
I steady-state
I no flow through

d y {
eo dV + [ho (v n)] dS = 0

| {z }

which gives

1 u1 A1 ho1 = 2 u2 A2 ho2

from continuity we have that 1 u1 A1 = 2 u2 A2

ho1 = ho2
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Governing Equations - Summary

1 u1 A1 = 2 u2 A2

(1 u21 + p1 )A1 + pdA = (2 u22 + p2 )A2

ho1 = ho2

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Governing Equations - Differential Form

Continuity equation:

1 u1 A1 = 2 u2 A2
uA = c
where c is a constant

d(uA) = 0

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Governing Equations - Differential Form cont.
Momentum equation:
(1 u21 + p1 )A1 + pdA = (2 u22 + p2 )A2

d (u2 + p)A = pdA


d(u2 A) + d(pA) = pdA

u d(uA) +uAdu + Adp + pdA = pdA

| {z }

uAdu + Adp = 0

dp = udu Eulers equation

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Governing Equations - Differential Form cont.

Energy equation:

ho 1 = ho 2

dho = 0

ho = h + u2

dh + udu = 0

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Governing Equations - Differential Form cont.

Summary (valid for all gases):

d(uA) = 0

dp = udu

dh + udu = 0

I quasi-one-dimensional flow
I inviscid flow
I steady-state flow

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Chapter 5.3
Area-Velocity Relation

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Area-Velocity Relation

d(uA) = 0 uAd + Adu + udA = 0

divide by uA gives

d du dA
+ + =0
u A
Eulers equation:

dp dp d
dp = udu = = udu
Assuming adiabatic, reversible (isentropic) process and the
definition of speed of sound gives
dp p d d du
= = a2 a2 = udu = M 2
d s u
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Area-Velocity Relation cont.

Now, inserting the expression for in the rewritten continuity

equation gives

du dA
(a M 2 ) + =0
u A

dA du
= (M 2 1)
A u

which is the area-velocity relation

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Area-Velocity Relation cont.

dA du
= (M 2 1)
A u

M < 1: decreasing A correlated with increasing u

M > 1: increasing A correlated with increasing u
M = 1: dA = 0

M =1
converging-diverging nozzle
M <1 M >1 only possibility to obtain
supersonic flow!

accelerating flow accelerating flow


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Area-Velocity Relation cont.

Slowing down from supersonic to subsonic flow
(supersonic diffuser)

M =1
in practice:
M <1 M >1 difficult to obtain completely
shock-free flow in this case

accelerating flow accelerating flow


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Area-Velocity Relation cont.

dA du
M 0 =
A u

dA du
+ =0
A u

[udA + Adu] = 0

d(uA) = 0 Au = c

where c is a constant

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Area-Velocity Relation cont.

Note 1: The area-velocity relation is only valid for isentropic flow

I not valid across a compression shock
(due to entropy increase)

Note 2: The area-velocity relation is valid for all gases

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Area-Velocity Relation Examples - Rocket Engine


chamber M >1 high-velocity gas
M <1

High-temperature, high-pressure gas in combustion chamber expand through the nozzle to very high velocities. Typical
figures for a LH /LOx rocket engine: po 120 [bar], To 3600 [K], exit velocity 4000 [m/s]

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Area-Velocity Relation Examples - Wind Tunnel

nozzle test section diffuser

M <1 M >1
M >1 M =1 M <1

accelerating flow constant velocity decelerating flow

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Chapter 5.4

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Nozzle Flow - Relations

Calorically perfect gas assumed:

From Chapter 3:

To  ao 2 1
= = 1 + ( 1)M 2
T a 2

po To 1
p T

o To 1

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Nozzle Flow - Relations cont.

Critical conditions:

To  a 2 1
= = ( + 1)
T a 2

po To 1
p T

o To 1

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Nozzle Flow - Relations cont.

2 u2 u2 a2 u2 a2 a2o
M = = =
a2 a2 a2 a2 a2o a2

2 ( + 1)
M = M2 1 2
1+ 2 ( 1)M

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Nozzle Flow - Relations cont.

For nozzle flow we have

uA = c

where c is a constant and therefore

u A = uA

or, since at critical conditions u = a

a A = uA
which gives

A a o a
= =
A u o u

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Nozzle Flow - Relations cont.

A o a
A o u


o To 1



1 + 12 ( 1)M 2 1

1 A

To 1
= A 1
o T

2 ( + 1)




u M

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Nozzle Flow - Relations cont.

2  2
1 + 12 ( 1)M 2 1

A  2

2 ( + 1)
M 2

2 ( + 1)

M = M2

1 2
1+ 2 ( 1)M

2  +1
1 + 12 ( 1)M 2 1
A 1
2 ( + 1)

which is the area-Mach-number relation

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Area-Mach-Number Relation

Area-Mach-Number Relation


Mach number, M



0 2 4 6 8 10

Area ratio, A/A

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Area-Mach-Number Relation cont.

Note 1: Critical conditions used here are those corresponding to

isentropic flow. Do not confuse these with the conditions
in the cases of one-dimensional flow with heat addition
and friction

Note 2: For quasi-one-dimensional flow, assuming inviscid

steady-state flow, both total and critical conditions are
constant along streamlines unless shocks are present
(then the flow is no longer isentropic)

Note 3: The derived area-Mach-number relation is only valid for

calorically perfect gas and for isentropic flow. It is not
valid across a compression shock
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