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#1 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.

INCREASE YOUR CHANCE OF PASSING THE LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR


TEACHERS, USING THESE FREE, ONLINE DRILL QUESTIONS WITH
RATIONALIZATIONS.

You don't have to attend any review center anymore. You don't have to pay even a cent.
You don't have to get out of the comfort of your home.

Develop your test-taking skills! Take the LET! Pass the LET!

1. What is the first step in planning an achievement test?

A. Select the type of test items to use.


B. Decide on the length of the test.
C. Define the instructional objectives.
D. Construct a table of specifications.

You may be tempted to answer C - Define the instructional objectives - because objectives
are always prioritized in the world of teaching. However, notice that the question does not
talk about providing instruction. Rather, it talks about test construction.

Be careful. Always consider the main thought of the whole option, not just a word or two.

The answer for this item is D - Construct a table of specifications. Remember that TOS's
are very important in the process of constructing tests. It is the "first step."

Now, let's talk about options A and B. Both A and B are processes involved in the
construction of a table of specifications.

TEST-TAKING SKILLS:

[!] Be careful about words that were slipped into the options to confuse you.
[!] Eliminate options that are under the umbrella of another option.
[!] Usually, umbrella options are the correct answers.

2. Standard deviation is to variability as mean is to _.

A. Discrimination
B. Level of Difficulty
C. Correlation
D. Central Tendency

There are three ways of measuring a data's central tendency. First, we have the mean. The
other two are median and mode. Obviously, the answer is option D.
Now, let's discuss options A, B and C. Options A and B are very similar. Isn't it that we have
two things to consider in an item analysis - the discriminatory index and the level/index of
difficulty? You don't need any choice that is the same with another option. Eliminate such
options.

Correlation, on the other hand, can be measured using special mathematical fomulae like
the Pearson R. Mean can never determine the correlation of two sets of data.

TEST-TAKING SKILLS:

[!] Eliminate similar options.


[!] Know the definition of important terms.

3. Which characteristic of a good test will pupil be assured when a teacher constructs a
table of specification for test construction purposes?

A. Scorability
B. Reliability
C. Economy
D. Content Validity

Reliability refers to the consistency of test outcomes across populations. One of the
important things that a test must have to be have consistency is validity. Validity must first
be achieved before reliability.

All tests are scorable. It is only that different types of tests have different levels of
scorability. Essays are less scorable than multiple-choice tests; this is why essays usually
need rubrics. No matter how good a teacher is in constructing TOS's, the scorability of a
type of test doesn't change.

Economy, when it comes to test construction, is the lack of need to spend too much to
administer and examination. We don't get economy from tables of specification; it is a
matter of experience and technique for the teacher.

The answer is option D.

4. In his conduct of item analysis, Teacher A found out that a significantly greater number of
the upper group of the class got the test item #5 correctly. This means that the test item:

A. Has a positive discriminating power


B. Has a negative discriminating power
C. Has a high reliability
D. Has a low validity

Item analysis is a method of increasing the reliability of a test. However, option C - Has a
high reliability - is not the correct answer.

If you try to notice, although the teacher used item analysis, the question refers to a specific
item in the test - item #5. Remember that each item in a test under item analysis is
compared to other items' index of discrimination and index of difficulty.

The answer for this item is option A - Has a positive discriminating power. First of all, option
A and B are directly opposite choices. Second of all, comparing the upper and the lower
group is a form of discrimination. Finally, the upper group is expected to perform better than
the lower group.

5. Which is implied by a positively-skewed score distribution?

A. The mean, the median and the mode are equal.


B. Most of the scores are high.
C. The mode is high.
D. Most of the scores are low.

The answer for this item is option D - Most of the scores are low. Notice that option B and D
are direct opposites.

A positively-skewed distribution shows that most scores are low; a negatively-skewed


distribution shows that most scores are high. Here is a photo that shows a positively
skewed distribution:

TEST-TAKING SKILL:

[!] Choose from two opposing options.

6. A negative discrimination index means that _.

A. Less from the lower group for the test item correctly.
B. More from the lower group answered the test item correctly.
C. The test item could not discriminate between the lower and the upper group.
D. More from the upper group answered the test item correctly.

Although options A and B are direct opposites, none of them is the correct answer. Also,
option D is the same as option A. This is the reason why you have to eliminate A, B and D.

Option C is the correct answer.

TEST-TAKING SKILLS:
[!] Eliminate options taking about the same thing.
[!] Look for key words.

7. Which guideline in test construction is NOT observed in this test item? EDGAR ALLAN
POE WROTE _.

A. The length of the blank suggests the answer.


B. The central problem is not packed in the stem.
C. It is open to more than one correct answer.
D. The blank is at the end of the question.

First of all, there is not problem if the central problem is not packed in the stem or if the
blank is at the end of the question or not. Although there really is a chance that the length of
a black can suggest the answer for the item, it's wishful-thinking to say that the black alone
can coach the student the answer.

So, the answer is actually option C - It is open to more than one correct answer. Edgar Allan
Poe had written a lot of stories.

8. Which does NOT belong to the group?

A. Completion
B. Matching
C. Multiple Choices
D. Alternate Responses

This kind of question is a bit tricky. It requires a lot of content knowledge.

The answer is actually option A - Completion. Completion is under the category of test-
types called "Objective Supply." This type or category of tests allows the students to supply
the answer and expects a convergent answer.

Options B, C and D are under "Objective Select." Under this category, students are given
choices. So, that's what makes them different from one another.
9. Q1 is 25th percentile as median to _.

A. 40th percentile
B. 75th percentile
C. 50th percentile
D. 49th percentile

Median refers to the average of a set of data. "Med" means middle. So, one only has to cut
[rough description] something half to get a median.

The answer is C - 50th percentile.

10. Which is claimed to be the overall advantage of criterion-referenced over norm-


referenced interpretation? An individual's score

A. Is compared with the set mastery level


B. Is compared with that of his peers
C. Is compared with the average scores
D. Does not need to be compared with any measure.

As teachers, we have to interpret scores as a part of the measurement and evaluation


process. Based on this premise, option D - Does not need to be compared with any
measure - must be eliminated immediately.

Option C - Is compared with the average scores - is actually a rough application of Standard
Deviation. It tries to determine the difference (how far away) a certain score is from the
average of the group.

This leaves us with only two options - A and B. Funny, because options A and B are
actually the accurate definitions of criterion-referenced interpretation and norm-referenced
interpretation, respectively.

11. Teacher A does norm-referenced interpretation of scores. Which of the following does
she do?

A. She uses a specified content as its frame of reference.


B. She describes a group of performance in relation to a level of mastery set.
C. She compares every individual student's score with others' scores.
D. She describes what should be their performances.

Based from what we have learned from the previous item, norm-referenced interpretation is
that which involves the comparison of a specific score with the achievement of the whole
class or other students. On the other hand, criterion-referenced interpretation involves the
comparison of an individual score with a level of mastery set by the teacher, the school or
the agency of education.

12. All examinees obtained scores below the mean. A graphic representation of the score
distribution will be __.
A. Negatively-skewed
B. Perfect normal curve
C. Leptokurtic
D. Positively-skewed
If all members of a group of examinees obtained scores above the mean, the distribution
will be negatively-skewed. In this case, all examinees obtained scores below the mean. So,
the distribution will be positively-skewed.

A leptokurtic distribution is a thin curve. This happens when scores are just about the mean.
A perfect normal curve is when a group of examinees got a normal distribution of scores
represented by a bell shape.

#5 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.


13. In a normal distribution curve, a T-score of 70 is _.

A. Two SDs below the mean


B. Two SDs above the mean
C. One SD below the mean
D. One SD above the mean

T-scores are set to 50 to represent the mean. a score of 10 represents 1 Standard


Deviation. If you have a t-score of 60, you have one SD above the mean and if you have a
t-score of 40, you have one SD below the mean.

So, the answer is B - Two SDs above the mean. 70 (t-score) = 50 (mean) + 10 (SD) * 2.

14. Which type of test measure higher order thinking skills?

A. Enumeration
B. Matching
C. Completion
D. Analogy
We all know that enumeration, matching and completion are usuallyused for lower order
thinking skills. It usually requires only memorization or recall.
Analogy, on the other hand, requires logic and reasoning. This is why it is under the
category HOTS.

15. Standard deviation is to variability as _ is to central tendency.

A. Mode
B. Quartile
C. Range
D. Pearson R

We have to remember that there are three measures of central tendency. First, we have the
mean. Also, we have the median and the mode. Obviously, the answer is A - Mode.
Now, let's talk about why B, C and D aren't the answers. When we mention Pearson R, we
talk about correlation. When we mention Quartile, we refer the values that divide a list of
numbers into quarters. Finally, when we mention range, we refer simply to the difference
between the lowest and the highest value.

#6 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.


16. The strongest disadvantage of the alternate-response type of test is _.

A. The demand for critical thinking


B. The absence of analysis
C. The encouragement of rote memory
D. The high possibility of guessing

Focus. You may learn a lot from this item.

The question demand a negative answer - "the strongest disadvantage." At first glance
alone, you can determine that option A - demand for critical thinking - is an advantage on
the part of the teacher.

So, we only have two more options to eliminate. Remember that an alternate-response test
requires the student to choose from two polar options. It may be "true or false," "yes or no,"
right or wrong," etc. This is why option B - absence of analysis - must immediately be
eliminated. Alternate-response test do demand analysis.

One more option to go and obviously, D - the high possibility of guessing - is the answer.

17. A class is composed of academically poor students. The distribution will more
likely be _.

A. Leptokurtic
B. Skewed to the right
C. Skewed to the left
D. Symmetrical

Considering that two opposite options contain the right answer, let's focus on B and C.
Outcomes of tests from a group of academically poor students are likely low figures. So, it
should be positively-skewed.

Positively-skewed distributions are to the right (This indicates poor scores) and negatively-
skewed distributions are to the left (This indicate high scores).
Remember that a leptokurtic curve is that which has scores about the mean. Leptokurtic
curves are also symmetrical, along with mesokurtic and platykurtic distributions. Skewed
distributions are not symmetrical.
18. Which statement about median is correct?

A. It is a measure of variability.
B. It is the most stable measure for central tendency.
C. It is the 50th percentile.
D. It is a significantly affected by extreme score.

All you have to remember here is that median is no a measure of variability but of central
tendency. Measures of variability include Standard Deviation.

No one measure of central tendency is stable. All of them are affected by different factors.

Median is significantly affected by extreme scores. Median is not that much.

#7 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.


19. What does a skewed distribution mean?

A. The scores are normally distributed.


B. The mean and the median are equal.
C. The mode, the mean and the median are equal.
D. The scores are concentrated more at one end or the other end.

If a distribution of scores is normally distributed, it will not be skewed. This question talks
about skewed distributions. Therefore, option A - The scores are normally distributed - must
be eliminated.

We should bear in mind that there there are two types of skewed distributions - positively-
skewed distributions and negatively-skewed distributions. A positively-skewed distribution is
that where scores are more on the left side (low scores). A negatively-skewed distribution is
that where scores are more on the right side (high scores).

The answer if option D - The scores are concentrated more at one end or the other end.

20. What does not belong to the group?

A. Short-answer
B. Restricted-response
C. Completion
D. Multiple-Choice

Short-answer tests and restricted-response tests are actually kinds of essay tests. None
between A and B is the answer.

Completion is a supply-type test. So are short-answer and restricted response tests. There
are the tests where students are expected to provide the answer themselves.
A, B and C are supply-type tests. Option D - Multiple-Choice - is not a supply- but a select-
test. Therefore, D is the answer.

21. Which is a type of graph in which lines represent each score or set of scores?

A. Scattergram
B. Histogram
C. Frequency Polygon
D. Scatterplot

Scattergram and scatterplot are the same things. Eliminate options A and D.

Histogram is a kind of graphic representation, using, usually, vertical bars to show


frequencies of individual items. A frequency polygon is where midpoints of the interval of
corresponding rectangle in a histogram are joined together by straight lines. It gives a
polygon i.e. a figure with many angles

#8 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.


22. It is the process of acquiring, remembering and applying knowledge, skills,
attitude and other modes of response.

A. Education
B. Learning
C. Teaching
D. Development

Notice the last phrase. "Other modes of response" is obviously a behaviorist's statement.

Do not forget that behaviorists define learning as the process of acquiring, remembering
and applying what has been observed or predicted from the environment. Therefore, the
answer is option B - Learning.

Do not be deceived by option A - Education. Not all those who are educated are learned.
One can be learned without having been educated.

Teaching, as we all know, is the process of imparting knowledge, skills, attitude and other
modes of response. So, obviously, this is not the answer for this item.

On the other hand, development is the weakest dummy option in this item. We are all aware
that development is a biological process. It exists and proceeds regardless of and even in
the absence of learning and teaching, not to mention one's lack of education.
23. Behavior changes according to its immediate results: pleasurable results
strengthen behavior, unpleasant ones weaken it. What principle of learning is
described?

A. Recency
B. Excitation
C. Extinction
D. Reinforcement

The answer for this item is option D - Reinforcement. A behavior has to be reinforced for it
to be modified. Negatively or positively reinforced behaviors are more likely to reoccur.
Negatively or positively punished behaviors are less likely to occur.

There is no such thing as law or principle of excitation in the realm of pedagogy.

24. A factor which affects learning that emphasizes that learning should be made
recent in the minds of the learners so that they will not forget what they have learned.

A. Recency
B. Excitation
C. Extinction
D. Reinforcement

Based on the previous item, option D - Reinforcement - is not the answer for this item.
Obviously, it is option A - Recency. All one has to do is to notice how the word "recent" was
used in the question.

There is no such thing as law or principle of excitation in the realm of pedagogy.

#9 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.


25. When learning occurs through association, and neutral stimulus becomes
conditioned stimulus, what theory is described?

A. Operant Conditioning Theory


B. Behaviorist Theory
C. Social Learning Theory
D. Classical Conditioning Theory

Notice how options A, C and D are under B - Behaviorist Theory. Although there is no such
thing as the "Behaviorist Theory," in a sense that it is called that way, there is a chance that
an examinee would answer B, just to be safe. However, it must be pointed out that not all
umbrella options should be considered.

First of all, the question is asking for a specific theory. We all know that behaviorism deals
with stimulus and response and that the questioned mentioned the word "stimulus." We are
now sure that we are talking about behaviorism.
However, which theory under behaviorism? There are three major theories under
behaviorism: Operant Conditioning Theory, Classical Conditioning Theory and the Theory of
Connectionism. Which among these three?

The easiest way around this is to look for keywords. The term "conditioned stimulus" was
mentioned. And, where else can we encounter this term? Yes, Classical Conditioning
Theory - D.

26. A theory that focuses on the sequence and processes by which behavior is
learned.

A. Operant Conditioning Theory


B. Behaviorism
C. Social Learning Theory
D. Classical Conditioning Theory

The same options for the previous item was used in this item. Again, there is this question
of whether to answer an umbrella option or a specific option.

This time, it seeks a more general term. It does not mention anything about punishment or
reward or conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Therefore, the answer is B - Behaviorism.

27. A law of learning which states that learning is strengthened when it results to
satisfaction but weakened when it leads to annoyance.

A. Law of Effect
B. Law of Readiness
C. Law of Exercise
D. Law of Appreciation

There is no such thing as Law of Appreciation under Connectionism. So, we are left with A,
B and C.

Law of Readiness does not talk about whether learning is strengthened or weakened. It only
deals with the most probable response a learner has for a specific stimulus based on what
he is more likely to "ready to respond" with.

Law of Exercise talks about whether learning is strengthened or weakened. However, it


does not deal with whether the learning leads to satisfaction or annoyance. It is only
concerned about whether learning is frequent and intensive.

So, the answer is A - Law of Effect. The Law of Effect deals with the consequences of
learning.
#10 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.
28. Which describes best a man with a disciplined mind?

A. A man who is able to read and write legibly


B. A man whose highest intellectual powers are developed
C. A man equipped to deal with the problems that confront him by intellectual means
D. A man who has greater ability to use his intellectual powers for controlling his emotional
life

Here, we are confronted by a rather tricky question.

The keyword to be kept in mind is discipline. One who can read or write in a way that others
may understand is not a strong proof of discipline. Moreover, having the highest intellectual
power does not guarantee discipline. Indeed, there had been a lot of instances where an
intelligent person has done mistakes characteristic of an undisciplined mind.

Letter C, to be honest, can be a very plausible option. One who can use his
mind/intellectual capabilities to deal with problems does show "discipline," to some extent.
However, we are looking for the best answer.

Option D - A man who has greater ability to use his intellectual powers for controlling his
emotional life - is the answer. This, merely, is signaled by the word "discipline" in the
question and the word "control" in the option.

We all know that disciplining oneself means controlling the same.

29. Which of the following is a method of Greek education?

A. Direct imitation of living models


B. Direct inculcation of certain qualities
C. Learning through example
D. All of the above

This here is a tough question. All of the options are plausible. This is because all of them
are the answer. Option D - All of the above - is the answer for 29.

30. One of the four medieval religious institutions which attempted to support
authority of the church by the intellect, to justify faith by reason and to substantiate
theology by logic

A. Scholasticism
B. Monasticism
C. Humanism
D. Guild System

Eliminate option D - Guild System. The Guild System is is an association of artisans or


merchants who control the practice of their craft in a particular town. The earliest types of
guild were formed as confraternities of workers. They were organized in a manner
something between a professional association, trade union, a cartel, and a secret society.
They often depended on grants of letters patent by a monarch or other authority to enforce
the flow of trade to their self-employed members, and to retain ownership of tools and the
supply of materials. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and
used as meeting places.

Now, we are only left with 3 options - A, B and C.

The answer is A - Scholasticism. Scholasticism is a movement/institution that aimed to


defend the dogma of the Catholic Church because of the pressures of a pluralistic society.

B - Monasticism - is a way of life. Humanism is a moral stance.

#11 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.


31. Student A cannot decide which course to enroll in her college. As her adviser,
what assistance are you going to give her?

A. Tell her to pursue the course she is interested in.


B. Tell her to follow the trend.
C. Inform her of the financial aspect of the course she may likely to take.
D. Advise the student to take an aptitude test to determine the area where she is likely to
succeed.

Not because it is the longest answer but because it is the best answer, option D - Advise
the student to take an aptitude test to determine the area where she is likely to succeed - is
correct.

Options A, B and C are very shallow ways of assistance. To tell and to inform belong to the
lowest levels of advisory functions.

To advise, on the other hand, involves knowledge, skills, emotion and psyche.

32. Student B was observed to be always clowning, creating distractions in your


class. It would be best for you, as a teacher, to:

A. Tell him how to behave in class.


B. Remind him of the possible consequences of his behavior.
C. Ask him why he is behaving this way.
D. Ignore what he does.

Option D - Ignore what he does - might probably the stupidest thing a teacher would do in a
situation such as this. Misbehavior in the classroom must always be handled, with
intelligence, skills and sympathy.

Options A and C are also good options but the best answer is C - Ask him why he is
behaving this way.
33. You are a parent and a teacher at the same time. Aside from that, you are also one
of those who head the PTA project - a school canteen the proceeds of which are to
finance PTA needs and the sales of which are a little bit higher. Which of the
following should you do?

A. Bring food for you and your children, but always make it a point to buy from the canteen.
B. Buy all your food from the canteen and request for a discount.
C. Bring food enough for you and your children. Don't eat in the canteen.
D. Buy all your food from the school canteen even if you cannot afford to do so every day.

Obviously, the answer is A - Bring food for you and your children, but always make it a point
to buy from the canteen.

Option B is unacceptable. Option C seems extreme. Option D seems too much.

#12 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.


34. "Every person has the same predicament and the same possibilities." This is said
by an teacher who adheres to existentialist principles. What is its implication?

A. Every person must go to school.


B. Every person must go through the same form of education.
C. Every person must earn a college degree.
D. Every person must be given access to education.

Notice how strict the first three options - options A, B and C - are. They don't seem to
provide learners any choice.

The best answer is D - Every person must be given access to education.

35. Teacher A believes that the singing of the National Anthem is essential to
education. Teacher A is an _.

A. Nationalist
B. Pragmatist
C. Naturalist
D. Socialist

Socialism is a form of economy. Eliminate option D.

The keywords here are "National Anthem." O f course, the answer is option A - Teacher A is
a nationalist.
36. Teacher B is deeply interested in quality PDP's - Professional Development
Programs. What should she look for?

A. That which is prescribed by educational leaders


B. That which is required for the renewal of professional license
C. That which is dependent on one's availability of funds
D. That which responds to one's needs as a teacher

Although option A - That which is prescribed by educational leaders, option B - That which
is required for the renewal of professional license and option C - That which is dependent
on one's availability of funds are also considerations in choosing Professional Development
Programs, we are looking for the best answer. What most better answer can be given
beside option D?

Yes. Teacher B should look for Professional Development Programs that are responsive to
her needs as a teacher.

#13 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.


37. Which of the following shows an interactive learning environment?

A. The child goes out and discovers for himself some rock fossils.
B. The child listens to a lecture on fossils.
C. The child summarizes a science textbook discussing fossils.
D. The child writes in his notes lists of fossils from the board.

It's very easy to answer this question. Obviously, the answer is option A - The child goes
out and discovers for himself some rock fossils.

There is nothing interactive about listening to a lecture. We all know how boring lectures
can get. How much more would it be for a child?

There is nothing interactive about summarizing a section of a textbook. We all know how
mentally cumbersome and torturing the task of summarizing is. It is not neither interactive
nor fun.

Although writing is one of the five (5) macro-skills, still, writing is not as interactive as option
A.

[!] Remember that there are already 5 macro-skills: reading, writing, listening, speaking and
viewing. The old four-macro-skill idea is already outdated due to the inundation of
technological advancements.
38. Teacher C wishes to stand by the belief that teachers are trustees of the cultural
and educational heritage of the nation and is under the obligation to transmit to
learners such heritage. What should she do?

A. Use interactive teaching strategies.


B. Use the latest educational technology.
C. Observe continuing educational technology.
D. Study the life of Filipino heroes.

Using interactive teaching strategies does not have even a lick of effect to a teacher's being
a trustee of cultural and educational heritage. One can stand by such an idea with only the
use of the black board or the manila paper. Eliminate option A.

Option B - Use the latest educational technology - and option C - Observe continuing
educational technology are the same with option A - Use interactive teaching strategies.
They talk about educational materials.

Basing our arguments on paragraph 1 and paragraph 2, we can safely conclude that the
best answer is option D - Study the life of Filipino heroes.

39. DepEd plans to cluster remote stand-alone school under one school head. What
factor must be prioritized?

A. Psychological factors
B. Historical factors
C. Geographical factors
D. Social factors

Do we still need to go into details? No. Any thinking person will immediately know the
answer for this question.

OPTION C - Geographical factors.

#14 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.


Develop your test-taking skills! Take the LET! Pass the LET!

40. EDUCATION FOR ALL. What is its implication?

A. The acceptance of exclusive schools for boys and girls.


B. The stress on the superiority of formal education over that of alternative learning
systems.
C. Practice of inclusive education.
D. The concentration on formal education system.

If the answer is D - The concentration on formal education system - were the correct
answer, what would become of informal education and other alternative learning systems?
What about those who cannot qualify for the formal education system?
Here, it is noticeable that option D and option B - The stress on the superiority of formal
education over that of alternative learning systems - are the same. On the other hand,
option A - The acceptance of exclusive schools for boys and girls - promotes gender
discrimination.

Therefore, option C - Practice of inclusive education - is the best answer.

41. Student A has to transfer to a private school due to the large population of
students in every classroom in the public school where he tried to enroll. From which
Republic Act can he avail assistance/support?

A. RA 7784
B. RA 6728
C. RA 7836
D. RA 7722

The answer is option B - RA 6728. This Act is also known Public-Private Partnership in
Education or more formally, AN ACT PROVIDING GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE TO
STUDENTS AND TEACHERS IN PRIVATE EDUCATION, AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS
THEREFOR.

To read more of RA 6728, please visit http://reviewlet.blogspot.com/2014/06/ra-6728.html.


However, please note that this Act has already been amended by RA 8545. To read more
of RA 8545, please visit http://reviewlet.blogspot.com/2014/06/ra-8545.html.

RA 7784, on the other hand, is known as National Centers for Teacher Education Act or
more formally, AN ACT TO STRENGTHEN TEACHER EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES
BY ESTABLISHING CENTERS OF EXCELLENCE, CREATING A TEACHER EDUCATION
COUNCIL FOR THE PURPOSE, APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR, AND FOR
OTHER PURPOSES.

To read more of RA 7784, please visit http://reviewlet.blogspot.com/2014/06/ra-7784.html.

Finally, RA 7722 is known as the Separation of Basic and Tertiary Education Act or more
formally, AN ACT CREATING THE COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION,
APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.

To read more of RA 7722, please visit http://reviewlet.blogspot.com/2014/06/ra-7722.html.

Of course, RA 7836 is very much known to all education students. RA 7836 is commonly
known as the Professionalization Act for Teacher or more formally, AN ACT TO
STRENGTHEN THE REGULATION AND SUPERVISION OF THE PRACTICE OF
TEACHING IN THE PHILIPPINES AND PRESCRIBING A LICENSURE EXAMINATION
FOR TEACHERS AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.
42. The authoritarian setting in the Filipino home is reinforced by a classroom
teacher who:

A. Encourages questions and doubts


B. Dictates what learners should do
C. Is open to suggestions
D. Ask open-ended questions

An authoritarian setting is an unpleasant, undesirable setting. Options A, C and D are all


positive options. They are all pleasant and desirable.

Option B - Dictates what learners should do - is the correct answer.

#15 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.


43. Test norms are established in order to have bases for _.

A. Establishing learning objectives


B. Identifying pupils' difficulties
C. Planning effective instructional devices
D. Comparing test score

Remember that this item talks about test-construction. By this token, it is safe to say that
option A - Establishing learning objectives - and option C - Planning effective instructional
devices - should immediately be out of the picture. This is because of the fact that they do
not deal with test-construction but with instructional-planning.

Option B also seems to be a tantalizing choice but a simple scrutiny will reveal that it should
not be the answer for this item. Remember that identifying pupil's difficulties is done through
a process called diagnostic assessment. The result of the "test" itself is proof/basis in
determining with which area students are hard up.

The answer is option D - Comparing test score. This is true because there are two kinds of
test-score comparison/evaluation: one that is criterion-referenced and another which is
norm-referenced.

44. Here is a test item: "Jose Rizal was born in Calamba, Laguna on June _, 1861."
What error is noticeable in this item?

A. The blank is very short.


B. It is concerned with trivia.
C. The blanks are near the end.
D. It is open to more than one correct answer.

We all know that teacher are encouraged to bring out students' higher order thinking skills
when constructing test items. The reason behind this is that knowledge level is not enough
for global competency and that anyone can memorize facts.
There nothing wrong about an item having a very short blank. Indeed, there is also no
problem about an item where the black is near at the end. Although option D - It is open to
more than one correct answer - also makes a bit of a sense, we all know that Jose Rizal
was only born within a day and was not given birth by his mother once more after that.

So, the answer is letter B - It is concerned with trivia.

45. The score distribution follows a normal curve. What does this mean?

A. Most of the scores are on the -2SD.


B. Most of the scores are on the +2SD.
C. The scores coincide with the mean.
D. Most of the scores pile up between -1SD and +1SD.

To be honest, I don't like these kinds of questions. However, we can't do away with them.

The mean covers about 68.26% of a nomarl distribution curve. The mean is represented by
the T Score 50 or 0SD. The mean of normally-distributed curve is between -1SD (T Score:
40) and +1SD (T Score: 60), just around 0SD (T Score: 50).

That's it.

#16 DRILLS FOR PROF. ED.


46. In the conduct of item analysis, Teacher Maria found out that a significantly
greater number from the upper group of the class got test item #5 correctly. This
means that the test item _.

A. Has a negative discriminating power


B. Is valid
C. Is easy
D. Has a positive discriminating power

A valid item can be easy and difficult. An easy or difficult item can be valid, either way. So,
options B and C don't make any sense.

47. Michelle obtained an NSAT percentile rank of 80. This indicates that she _.

A. Surpassed the performance of 80% of her fellow examinees


B. Got a score of 80.
C. Surpassed the performance of 20% of her fellow examinees
D. Answered 80 items correctly.
48. What is an element of norm-referenced grading?

A. The student's past performance


B. An absolute standard
C. The performance of a group
D. What constitutes a perfect score
49. Which term refers to the collection of student's products and accomplishments
for a period of time, for evaluation purposes?

A. Anecdotal records
B. Portfolio
C. Observation reports
D. Diary

50. A class is composed of bright students. This distribution will most likely be _.

A. Platykurtic
B. Skewed to the right
C. Skewed to the left
D. Very normal

51. A test is considered reliable if _.

A. It is easy to score.
B. It serves the purpose for which is constructed.
C. It is consistent and stable.
D. It is easy to administer.

52. Which is an advantage of teacher-made tests over those which are standardized?

A. Highly reliable
B. Better adapted to the needs of the students
C. Highly valid
D. More objectively scored

53. On the first day of class after introductions, the teacher administered a
misconception/preconception check. She explained that she wanted to know what
the class as a whole already knew about the Philippines before the Spaniards came.
The M/PC is a form of _.

A. Diagnostic test
B. Placement test
C. Criterion-referenced test
D. Achievement test

54. Which happens when the score distribution is positively skewed?

A. The median will be higher than the mean and the mode.
B. The mode corresponds to a low value.
C. The mean will have a higher value.
D. The mode corresponds to a high value.
55. A simple frequency distribution is a graphic representation of _.

A. Means
B. Standard Deviations
C. Raw scores
D. Lowest and highest scores

56. About what percentage of the cases falls between +1 and -1 SD in a normal
curve?

A. 43.1
B. 95.4
C. 99.8
D. 68.3

57. In which competency do my students find the greatest difficulty? In the item with
a difficulty index of _.

A. 0.1
B. 0.9
C. 0.5
D. 1.0

58. Which measure(s) of central tendency separate(s) the top half of the group from
the bottom half?

A. Median
B. Mean
C. Median and Mean
D. Mode

59. Which applies when skewness is zero?

A. Mean is greater than the median.


B. Median is greater than mean.
C. Scores have three modes.
D. Scores are normally dis4tributed.

60. Standard Deviation is to variability as mode to _.

A. Level of difficulty
B. Discrimination
C. Correlation
D. Central tendency

61. What is the mean of the score distribution: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10?


A. 7
B. 6
C. 8.5
D. 7.5

62. Standard Deviation is to variability as mean is to _.

A. Coefficient of correlation
B. Central Tendency
C. Discrimination Index
D. Level of Difficulty

63. What measure/s of central tendency do/es the number 16 represent in the
following data: 14, 15, 17, 16, 19, 20, 16, 14, 16?

A. Mode
B. Mode and Median
C. Median
D. Mean

64. Which one can enhance the comparability of grades?

A. Using common conversion table for translating test scores to ratings


B. Formulating tests that vary from one teacher to another
C. Allowing individual teacher to determine factors for rating
D. Individual teachers giving weights to factors considered for rating

65. Which describes norm-referenced grading?

A. The performance of the group


B. What constitutes a perfect score
C. The students' past performance
D. An absolute standard

66. The search for related literature by accessing several data bases by the use of the
telephone line to connect a computer library with other computers that have
database is termed _.

A. Compact disk search


B. Manual search
C. Online search
D. Computer search

67. Two students are given WISC III. One has a full scale IQ of 91, while the other has
an IQ of 109. Which conclusion can be drawn?

A. The second student has significantly higher intellectual ability.


B. The first student is probably below average, while the send has above average potential.
C. Both students are functioning in the average range of intellectual ability.
D. Another IQ test should be given to trully assess their intellectual potetial.

68. Teacher A is researching on family income distribution which is quite


symmetrical. Which measure/s of central tendency will be most informative and
appropriate?

A. Mode
B. Mean
C. Median
D. Mean and Median

69. The difficulty index of a test item is 1.0. What does this imply? The test item must
be _.

A. Moderate in difficulty
B. Very difficult because only 1 got the item correctly
C. Very easy because everybody got the item correctly
D. Neither difficult nor easy

70. Which assessment tool will be most authentic?

A. Short answer test


B. Alternate-response test
C. Essay Test
D. Portfolio

71. Which holds true to norm-referenced testing?

A. Constructing test items in terms of instructional objectives


B. Identifying an acceptable level of mastery in advance
C. Determining task that reflect instructional objectives
D. Identifying average performance of a group

72. HERE ARE TWO SETS OF SCORES:


SET A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
SET B. 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6, 6, 7, 9

Which statement correctly aplpies to the two sets of score distributions?

A. The scores in SET A are more spread out than those in SET B.
B. The range for SET B is 6.
C. The range for SET A is 5.
D. The scores in SET B are more spread out than those in SET A.a

73. Which error do teachers commit when they tend to overrate the achievement of
students identified by aptitude tests as gifted because they expect achievement and
giftedness to go together?

A. Generosity Error
B. Central Tendency Error
C. Severity Error
D. Logical Error

74. What is the mean of this score distribution: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10?

A. 8.5
B. 6
C. 7.5
D. 7

75. Which statement correctly applies to a student who got a score of 72 in a test?

A. He surpassed the scores of 72 students.


B. He correctly answered 72% of the items in the test.
C. He obtained a raw score of 72.
D. He answered 72 items in the test.

76. When a significantly greater number from the lower group gets a test item
correctly, this implies that the test item is _.

A. Very valid
B. Not very valid
C. Not highly reliable
D. Highly reliable

The lower group is expected to have difficulties with test items. If the a significantly greater
number from the lower group gets a test item correctly over the upper group, then, there's
something wrong with the item.

The answer for this item is option C - Not highly reliable.

77. Teacher X wants to make use of the most stable measure of variability. Which
one(s) should you recommend?

A. External range and Quartile range


B. Standard Deviation
C. Quartile Deviation
D. External Range

We all know that when we deal with the dispersion of data, we always use Standard
Deviation. The answer for this is B.

78. To determine student's entry knowledge and skills, which test should be given?

A. Aptitude
B. Standardized
C. Diagnostic
D. Placement

Option B - Standardized - should be eliminated immediately. Any type of test can be


standardized. Moreover, it does not belong to the same line of categorization as options A,
C and D. We all know that the opposite of standardized is teacher-made.

We're down to three.

An aptitude test assesses what a student can do or what he knows right now. It's a test of
how far has one gone in his studies. This kind of test is administered for the purpose of
identifying the teacher's effectivity and the progress of the teaching-learning process.

A diagnostic test, on the other hand, assesses what areas a student is likely to have
difficulties with. Diagnostic tests are given, usually, at the start of the school year to direct
the teacher of what learning objectives to set.

Finally, a placement test assesses what a student can do or what he know right now for the
purpose of placing him in the right section or group. Answer is option D -placement.

79. Study this group of tests which was administered with the following results, then
answer the question.

SUBJECT MEAN SD RONNEL


SCORE
Math 56 10 43
Physics 41 9 31
English 80 16 109

80. Study this group of test which was administered with the following results, then
answer the question that follows.

SUBJECT MEAN SD RONNEL


SCORE
Math 40 3 58
Physics 38 4 45
English 75 5 90

In which subject(s) were the scores most homogenous?

A. English
B. Physics
C. Math and English
D. Math

81. Under which assumption is portfolio assessment based?

A. Portfolio assessment is dynamic assessment.


B. Assessment should stress the reproduction of knowledge.
C. An individual learner is inadequately characterized by a test score.
D. An individual learner is adequately characterized by a test score.
TYPES OF VALIDITY
Validity in assessment is the degree to which an assessment instrument measures
what it is intended to measure. It also refers to the usefulness of the instrument for a
given purpose. It is the most important criterion of a good assessment instrument.

There are ways of establishing (types of) validity.

FACE VALIDITY

Face validity is the physical appearance of the instrument. Is the instrument, if written, easy
to read for the students? Are there smears or eye-irritating lines that can distract the test-
takers?

CONTENT VALIDITY

Content validity is done through a careful and critical examination of the objectives of
assessment so that it reflects the curricular objectives. Is the testing emphasis parallel to
the teaching emphasis?

CRITERION VALIDITY

Criterion validity is established statistically (i.e. by the use of statistical tools) such that a set
of scores revealed by the measuring instrument is correlated with the scores obtained in
another external predictor of measure. Criterion validity has two purposes:

a. Concurrent Validity describes the present status of the individual by correlating the sets
of scores obtained from two measures given concurrently.
b. Predictive Validity describes the future performance of an individual by correlating the
sets of scores obtained from two measures given at a longer time interval.

CONSTRUCT VALIDITY

Construct validity is, like criterion validity, established statistically (i.e. by the use of
statistical tools). However, this time, for construct validity, statistical data are compared
using psychological traits or factors that theoretically influence scores in a test.

There are two types of construct validity:

a. Convergent Validity is established if the instrument defines another similar trait other than
what it is intended to measure. For example, we have Critical Thinking Test may be
correlated with Creative Thinking Test.
b. Divergent Validity is established if an instrument can describe only the intended trait and
not the other traits. For example, we have Critical Thinking Test may not be correlated with
Reading Comprehension Test.
STANDARDS FOR TEACHER
COMPETENCE IN EDUCATIONAL
ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS
This standards was developed by the American Federation of Teacher National
Council on Measurement in Education National Education Association.

1. Teachers should be skilled in choosing assessment methods appropriate for instructional


decisions.

2. Teachers should be skilled in developing assessment methods appropriate for


instructional decisions.

3. The teacher should be skilled in administering, scoring and interpreting the results of both
externally-produced and teacher-produced assessment methods.

4. Teachers should be skilled in using assessment results when making decisions about
individual students, planning teaching, developing curriculum, and school improvement.

5. Teachers should be skilled in developing valid pupil grading procedures which use pupil
assessments.

6. Teachers should be skilled in communicating assessment results to


students, parents, other lay audiences, and other educators.

7. Teachers should be skilled in recognizing unethical, illegal, and otherwise inappropriate


assessment methods and uses of assessment information.

PURPOSES OF CLASSROOM
ASSESSMENT
There are three purposes of classroom assessment. These are assessment for learning,
assessment of learning and assessmentas learning.

ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING includes three types of assessment done before and
during instruction. Under this we have placement, formative and diagnostic assessments.

Placement assessment is done prior to instruction. From the term itself, it can be deduced
that placement assessments are done to know where to "put" the students.

A good example of a placement assessment is entrance examinations. Entrance


examinations in schools, colleges and universities determine whether to "place" aspirants in
the school or out of the school.
The purpose of placement assessments is to assess the needs of the learners to have
basis in planning for a relevant instruction. Teachers use this assessment to know what
their students are bringing into the learning situation and use this as a starting point for
instruction.

The results of this assessment place students in specific learning groups to facilitate
teaching and learning.

Formative assessment is done during instruction. Say, Teacher A planned for a two-day
lesson about adjectives. In the first day, he administered an assessment to see how the
students are doing. What she did is a formative assessment.

It is this assessment where teachers continuously monitor the students' level of attainment
of the learning objectives (Stiggins, 2005). The results of the assessment are
communicated clearly and promptly to the students for them to know their strengths and
weaknesses and the progress of their learning.

Diagnostic assessment is done during instruction. Say, Teacher B noticed that his
students don't seem to understand his lesson about adjectives. She conducted an
assessment to see where the students' weaknesses lie.

Diagnostic assessment is used to determine students' recurring or persistent difficulties. It


searches for the underlying causes of students' learning problems that do not respond to
first aid treatment. It helps formulate a plan detailed remedial instruction.

ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING is done after instruction. This is usually referred to


as summative assessment.

Summative assessment is used to certify what students know and can do and the level of
their proficiency or competency. Its results reveal whether or no instructions have
successfully achieved the curriculum outcomes.

The information from assessment of learning is usually expressed as marks or letter grades.
The results of which are communicated to the students, parents and other stakeholders for
decision making.

It is also a powerful factor that could pave the way for educational reforms.

ASSESSMENT AS LEARNING is done for teachers to understand and perform well their
role of assessing FOR and OF learning. It requires teachers to undergo training on how to
assess learning and be equipped with the following competencies needed in performing
their work as assessors.
ARTICLE XII OF THE [OLD] CODE
OF ETHICS
Disciplinary Actions

Section 1. Any violation of any provision of this code shall be sufficient ground for the
imposition against the erring teacher of the disciplinary action consisting of revocation of his
Certification of Registration and License as a Professional Teacher, suspension from the
practice of teaching profession, or reprimand or cancellation of his temporary/special permit
under causes specified in Sec. 23, Article III or R.A. No. 7836, and under Rule 31, Article
VIII, of the Rules and Regulations Implementing R.A. 7836.

ARTICLE XI OF THE [OLD] CODE


OF ETHICS
The Teacher as a Person

Section 1. A teacher is, above all, a human being endowed with life for which it is the
highest obligation to live with dignity at all times whether in school, in the home, or
elsewhere.

Section 2. A teacher shall place premium upon self-discipline as the primary principle of
personal behavior in all relationships with others and in all situations.

Section 3. A teacher shall maintain at all times a dignified personality which could serve as
a model worthy of emulation by learners, peers and all others.

Section 4. A teacher shall always recognize the Almighty God as guide of his own destiny
and of the destinies of men and nations.

ARTICLE X OF THE [OLD] CODE OF


ETHICS
The Teacher and Business

Section 1. A teacher has the right to engage, directly or indirectly, in legitimate income
generation; provided that it does not relate to or adversely affect his work as a teacher.

Section 2. A teacher shall maintain a good reputation with respect to the financial matters
such as in the settlement of his debts and loans in arranging satisfactorily his private
financial affairs.

Section 3. No teacher shall act, directly or indirectly, as agent of, or be financially interested
in, any commercial venture which furnish textbooks and other school commodities in the
purchase and disposal of which he can exercise official influence, except only when his
assignment is inherently, related to such purchase and disposal; provided they shall be in
accordance with the existing regulations; provided, further, that members of duly recognized
teachers cooperatives may participate in the distribution and sale of such commodities.

ARTICLE IX OF THE [OLD] CODE


OF ETHICS
The Teachers and Parents

Section 1. Every teacher shall establish and maintain cordial relations with parents, and
shall conduct himself to merit their confidence and respect.

Section 2. Every teacher shall inform parents, through proper authorities, of the progress
and deficiencies of learner under him, exercising utmost candor and tact in pointing out the
learner's deficiencies and in seeking parent's cooperation for the proper guidance and
improvement of the learners.

Section 3. A teacher shall hear parent's complaints with sympathy and understanding, and
shall discourage unfair criticism.

ARTICLE VIII OF THE [OLD] CODE


OF ETHICS
The Teachers and Learners

Section 1. A teacher has a right and duty to determine the academic marks and the
promotions of learners in the subject or grades he handles, provided that such
determination shall be in accordance with generally accepted procedures of evaluation and
measurement. In case of any complaint, teachers concerned shall immediately take
appropriate actions, observing due process.

Section 2. A teacher shall recognize that the interest and welfare of learners are of first and
foremost concern, and shall deal justifiably and impartially with each of them.

Section 3. Under no circumstance shall a teacher be prejudiced or discriminate against a


learner.

Section 4. A teacher shall not accept favors or gifts from learners, their parents or others in
their behalf in exchange for requested concessions, especially if undeserved.

Section 5. A teacher shall not accept, directly or indirectly, any remuneration from tutorials
other what is authorized for such service.

Section 6. A teacher shall base the evaluation of the learners work only in merit and
quality of academic performance.
Section 7. In a situation where mutual attraction and subsequent love develop between
teacher and learner, the teacher shall exercise utmost professional discretion to avoid
scandal, gossip and preferential treatment of the learner.

Section 8. A teacher shall not inflict corporal punishment on offending learners nor make
deductions from their scholastic ratings as a punishment for acts which are clearly not
manifestation of poor scholarship.

Section 9. A teacher shall ensure that conditions contribute to the maximum development of
learners are adequate, and shall extend needed assistance in preventing or solving
learners problems and difficulties.

ARTICLE VII OF THE [OLD] CODE


OF ETHICS
School Officials, Teachers, and Other Personnel

Section 1. All school officials shall at all times show professional courtesy, helpfulness and
sympathy towards teachers and other personnel, such practices being standards of
effective school supervision, dignified administration, responsible leadership and
enlightened directions.

Section 2. School officials, teachers, and other school personnel shall consider it their
cooperative responsibility to formulate policies or introduce important changes in the system
at all levels.

Section 3. School officials shall encourage and attend the professional growth of all
teachers under them such as recommending them for promotion, giving them due
recognition for meritorious performance, and allowing them to participate in conferences in
training programs.

Section 4. No school officials shall dismiss or recommend for dismissal a teacher or other
subordinates except for cause.

Section 5. School authorities concern shall ensure that public school teachers are employed
in accordance with pertinent civil service rules, and private school teachers are issued
contracts specifying the terms and conditions of their work; provided that they are given, if
qualified, subsequent permanent tenure, in accordance with existing laws.
ARTICLE VI OF THE [OLD] CODE
OF ETHICS
The Teacher and Higher Authorities in the Profession

Section 1. Every teacher shall make it his duty to make an honest effort to understand and
support the legitimate policies of the school and the administration regardless of personal
feeling or private opinion and shall faithfully carry them out.

Section 2. A teacher shall not make any false accusations or charges against superiors,
especially under anonymity. However, if there are valid charges, he should present such
under oath to competent authority.

Section 3. A teacher shall transact all official business through channels except when
special conditions warrant a different procedure, such as when special conditions are
advocated but are opposed by immediate superiors, in which case, the teacher shall appeal
directly to the appropriate higher authority.

Section 4. Every teacher, individually or as part of a group, has a right to seek redress
against injustice to the administration and to extent possible, shall raise grievances within
acceptable democratic possesses. In doing so, they shall avoid jeopardizing the interest
and the welfare of learners whose right to learn must be respected.

Section 5. Every teacher has a right to invoke the principle that appointments, promotions,
and transfer of teachers are made only on the basis of merit and needed in the interest of
the service.

Section 6. A teacher who accepts a position assumes a contractual obligation to live up to


his contract, assuming full knowledge of employment terms and conditions.

ARTICLE V OF THE [OLD] CODE OF


ETHICS
The Teachers and the Profession

Section 1. Teachers shall, at all times, be imbued with the spirit of professional loyalty,
mutual confidence, and faith in one another, self-sacrifice for the common good, and full
cooperation with colleagues. When the best interest of the learners, the school, or the
profession is at stake in any controversy, teachers shall support one another.

Section 2. A teacher is not entitled to claim credit or work not of his own, and shall give due
credit for the work of others which he may use.

Section 3. Before leaving his position, a teacher shall organize for whoever assumes the
position such records and other data as are necessary to carry on the work.
Section 4. A teacher shall hold inviolate all confidential information concerning associates
and the school, and shall not divulge to anyone documents which has not been officially
released, or remove records from files without permission.

Section 5. It shall be the responsibility of every teacher to seek correctives for what may
appear to be an unprofessional and unethical conduct of any associate. However, this may
be done only if there is incontrovertible evidence for such conduct.

Section 6. A teacher may submit to the proper authorities any justifiable criticism against an
associate, preferably in writing, without violating the right of the individual concerned.

Section 7. A teacher may apply for a vacant position for which he is qualified; provided that
he respects the system of selection on the basis of merit and competence; provided, further,
that all qualified candidates are given the opportunity to be considered.

ARTICLE IV OF THE [OLD] CODE


OF ETHICS
A Teacher and the Profession

Section 1. Every teacher shall actively insure that teaching is the noblest profession, and
shall manifest genuine enthusiasm and pride in teaching as a noble calling.

Section 2. Every teacher shall uphold the highest possible standards of quality education,
shall make the best preparations for the career of teaching, and shall be at his best at all
times and in the practice of his profession.

Section 3. Every teacher shall participate in the Continuing Professional Education (CPE)
program of the Professional Regulation Commission, and shall pursue such other studies
as will improve his efficiency, enhance the prestige of the profession, and strengthen his
competence, virtues, and productivity in order to be nationally and internationally
competitive.

Section 4. Every teacher shall help, if duly authorized, to seek support from the school, but
shall not make improper misrepresentations through personal advertisements and other
questionable means.

Section 5. Every teacher shall use the teaching profession in a manner that makes it
dignified means for earning a descent living.

ARTICLE III OF THE [OLD] CODE


OF ETHICS
The Teacher and the Community

Section 1. A teacher is a facilitator of learning and of the development of the youth; he shall,
therefore, render the best service by providing an environment conducive to such learning
and growth.

Section 2. Every teacher shall provide leadership and initiative to actively participate in
community movements for moral, social, educational, economic and civic betterment.

Section 3. Every teacher shall merit reasonable social recognition for which purpose he
shall behave with honor and dignity at all times and refrain from such activities as gambling,
smoking, drunkenness, and other excesses, much less illicit relations.

Section 4. Every teacher shall live for and with the community and shall, therefore, study
and understand local customs and traditions in order to have sympathetic attitude,
therefore, refrain from disparaging the community.

Section 5. Every teacher shall help the school keep the people in the community informed
about the schools work and accomplishments as well as its needs and problems.

Section 6. Every teacher is intellectual leader in the community, especially in the barangay,
and shall welcome the opportunity to provide such leadership when needed, to extend
counseling services, as appropriate, and to actively be involved in matters affecting the
welfare of the people.

Section 7. Every teacher shall maintain harmonious and pleasant personal and official
relations with other professionals, with government officials, and with the people,
individually or collectively.

Section 8. A teacher posses freedom to attend church and worships as appropriate, but
shall not use his positions and influence to proselyte others.

ARTICLE II OF THE [OLD] CODE OF


ETHICS
The Teacher and the State

Section 1. The schools are the nurseries of the future citizens of the state; each teacher is a
trustee of the cultural and educational heritage of the nation and is under obligation to
transmit to learners such heritage as well as to elevate national morality, promote national
pride, cultivate love of country, instill allegiance to the constitution and for all duly
constituted authorities, and promote obedience to the laws of the state.

Section 2. Every teacher or school official shall actively help carry out the declared policies
of the state, and shall take an oath to this effect.

Section 3. In the interest of the State and of the Filipino people as much as of his own,
every teacher shall be physically, mentally and morally fit.

Section 4. Every teacher shall possess and actualize a full commitment and devotion to
duty.

Section 5. A teacher shall not engage in the promotion of any political, religious, or other
partisan interest, and shall not, directly or indirectly, solicit, require, collect, or receive any
money or service or other valuable material from any person or entity for such purposes.

Section 6. Every teacher shall vote and shall exercise all other constitutional rights and
responsibility.

Section 7. A teacher shall not use his position or official authority or influence to coerce any
other person to follow any political course of action.

Section 8. Every teacher shall enjoy academic freedom and shall have privilege of
expounding the product of his researches and investigations; provided that, if the results are
inimical to the declared policies of the State, they shall be brought to the proper authorities
for appropriate remedial action.

ARTICLE I OF THE [OLD] CODE OF


ETHICS
Scope and Limitations

Section 1. The Philippine Constitution provides that all educational institution shall offer
quality education for all competent teachers. Committed to its full realization, the provision
of this Code shall apply, therefore, to all teachers in schools in the Philippines.

Section 2. This Code covers all public and private school teachers in all educational
institutions at the preschool, primary, elementary, and secondary levels whether academic,
vocational, special, technical, or non-formal. The term "teacher" shall include industrial
arts or vocational teachers and all other persons performing supervisory and /or
administrative functions in all school at the aforesaid levels, whether on full time or part-time
basis.
PREAMBLE TO THE [OLD] CODE OF
ETHICS
CODE OF ETHICS FOR PROFESSIONAL TEACHERS

Pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (e), Article 11, of R.A. No. 7836, otherwise known
as the Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994 and paragraph (a), section 6,
P.D. No. 223, as amended, the Board for Professional Teachers hereby adopt the Code of
Ethics for Professional Teachers.

Preamble

Teachers are duly licensed professionals who possesses dignity and reputation with high
moral values as well as technical and professional competence in the practice of their noble
profession, and they strictly adhere to, observe, and practice this set of ethical and moral
principles, standards, and values

OPERANT CONDITIONING
Operant Conditioning or Instrumental Conditioning is a type of learning in which a learner's
behavior is shaped and affected by reinforcements are punishments.

Burrhus Frederic Skinner or B.F. Skinner is not the first person to discover this type of
learning. It was Jerzy Konorski. However, B.F. Skinner is the one who popularized this with
his experiments with pigeons and rats.

To understand Operant Conditioning, one must be familiar with different terms related to
this type of learning. Here's where a lot of misconceptions are made, especially between
negative reinforcement and punishment.

Reinforcement is a consequence of an action that causes the behavior to occur with


greater frequency.

Examples of reinforcement:

1. Teacher A gave a student a book for topping the final examination.


2. Teacher B told her students, "Since you cleaned the room without me asking you to do
so, I am now removing the restriction in using the TV until 4:00 this afternoon."

Punishment is a consequence of an action that causes the behavior to occur with less
frequency.

Examples of punishment:

1. Teacher C made the first group of students clean the comfort room because of breaking
the television.
2. Teacher D lessened the morning snack time from 15 minutes to 10 minutes because his
students were late for his class.

Positive is a insertion or a delivery of a stimulus after a response.


Negative is a deletion or a removal of a stimulus after a response.

Positive reinforcement, also known as only reinforcement, is the insertion or a delivery of


a favorable condition (for the learners) to make a desired behavior occur more frequently.
An example of a positive reinforcement is when Teacher E gave an additional point for a
student who honestly declared his error in the test paper.

In B.F. Skinner's Box Experiment, the rat in the cage received a pellet of sugar for each
instance that it pulled a lever. It was observed that because of such system of
reinforcement, the rat pulled the lever very frequently.

Negative reinforcement, also known as escape, is the deletion or a removal of a


unfavorable condition (for the learners) to make a desired behavior occur more frequently.
An example of a negative reinforcement is when Teacher F removed a quiz for tomorrow
because of the students' initiative to clean the room without having ordered to do so.

In B.F. Skinner's Box Experiment, a loud, sharp noise is played towards a rat in the cage.
The rat noticed that every time it stepped on a lever, the noise died out. Due to such
system, the rat stepped on the lever very frequently.

Positive punishment, also knows as only punishment, is the insertion or delivery of an


unfavorable condition (for the learners) to make a undesired behavior occur less frequently.
An example of positive punishment is when Teacher G commanded a student to pick up the
pieces of paper in the classroom for being noisy during the discussion.

In B.F. Skinner's Box Experiment, an electric shock is given to a rat in a cage whenever it
gets near to certain items in it. Because of this, it seldom got near to such items.

Negative punishment, also known as penalty, is the removal or deletion of a favorable


condition (for the learners) to make an undesired behavior occur less frequently. An
example of a negative punishment is when Teacher H lessened the snack time from 15
minutes to 10 minutes because they were late.

Remember, positive reinforcement is used by adding a favorable condition to sustain a


desirable behavior. Negative reinforcement is used by removing an unfavorable condition to
sustain a desirable behavior. Positive punishment is used by adding an unfavorable
condition to cut off an undesirable behavior. Negative punishment is used by removing a
favorable condition to cut off an undesirable behavior.
MAJOR PARADIGM SHIFT IN
EDUCATION
1. Learner-Centered and Learner-Oriented Curriculum

There has been a change in the role of the teacher in the teaching-learning process. Before,
teachers are the sole sources of knowledge. However, due to the advent of technology and
the conceptualization of the idea that learners have innate potentials, teachers are now
facilitators and motivators of learning.

Learners are no more selected using a single or fixed criteria. Due to the advent of the idea
that every child is special in his own way (the multiple intelligence and learner diversity
theories), it is no a well-established fact that student selection should be more open and
that multiple standards be taken into account. Different learners have different interests and
preferences.

Before there is what's called a prescribed pedagogy which applies across all learners. Now,
many different teaching styles are are employed, respecting the learners' uniqueness of
intelligence, motivations, needs and situations.

2. Contextualize-Learning

Pre-organized subject matters are changed to contextualize themes. These themes are
generated from the global realities and the culture that is relevant, meaningful and useful to
the learners.

Knowledge limited to the local scene is changed. It is broadened to encompass globalized


knowledge, values, attitudes and skills interfaced with local wisdom.

Traditional pedagogues are also discouraged. This is to give way to modern strategies of
teaching and learning.with the freedom to use mixed modes of instruction and more
interactive technology.

3. A Holistic Integrated Approach to Education

Before, knowledge is the only learning outcome sought in the classrooms. Now, education
also aims the development of values and attitudes, skills and competencies, not through
classroom instruction alone but the entire school culture and atmosphere. Its vision and
mission, co-curricular activities and the human climate are established by the relationship
existing therein.

There has been a change from a knowledge-dominated curriculum to more attention being
given to values education and emotional learning. The heart of education is the education of
the heart.

Rigid subject matter boundaries were felled and interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary
approaches to problems and issues were founded.
4. Lifelong Education For All

Limited access to education is now discouraged. The society is given the chance to learn
borderlessly, with the boundaries of time or space.

GUIDELINES IN ADMINISTERING
TESTS
Teachers are facilitators of learning. This is a progressive view that teachers must take
necessary steps to make learning and assessment easy for the learners.

Examination is the tool of the teacher to gauge the learners' understanding and mastery of
the subject matter in a specific period of time. It is used to measure how well the students
understand the lessons, how far has the students gone in terms of mastery, how effective
the teaching methods, strategies and techniques used by the teacher are and what
improvements should be made to better the teaching-learning process.

Examinations are inevitably essential tools for learning. This is why teachers should keep in
mind the basic things to consider in conducting an examination.

Last time we had GUIDELINES IN ARRANGING TEST ITEMS; now, let's have
GUIDELINES IN ADMINISTERING TESTS.

1. Provide a quite & comfortable setting.

Examinations require the workings of the mind and John Locke said that a sound
mind should be in a sound body. Of course, he said this to encourage physical
activities in curriculum but this could also be used to argue that examinations should
be done in a conducive environment.

Teachers should bear in mind that distractions can lessen the reliability and validity
of an examination. This could lead the students to lose focus or could give them the
chance to cheat. Either way is not good.

An examination should be conducted in a classroom where students could


comfortable sit and think. It should be away from unnecessary noise.

2. Anticipate questions that students may ask.

Examinations should be perfect but if nobody's perfect, how can a piece of paper
be? Yes, teachers should always try to make their assessment tools (exams & tests)
perfect but they should also try to expect what questions might the students ask
about.

Before the disseminating the papers, the teacher must clarify everything.
3 . Set a proper atmosphere for testing.

Setting a proper atmosphere for testing could be confused with providing it in a quiet
and comfortable setting. Yes it could but atmosphere here refers to non other than
the school's and the students' atmosphere. Conducting an examination during a time
when there are many activities in the school where the students are involved in could
lessen the validity and reliability of an examination. Also, conducting a surprise major
examination would not be a very good idea.

Teachers should announce the major examination ahead of time to set the students'
mind ready. Having prepared, the students' atmosphere would be proper enough to
conduct testing.

4. Help students keep track of time.

The students are under pressure during examinations and they are most likely to
forget that time is ticking away. It would be of great help for them if the teacher
informs them how much time they still have but overdoing it would only put more
pressure in them.

5. Implement established cheating rules.

Established cheating rules should be implemented during the exam. The students
have to see this. If someone was caught cheating and sanctions were not
implemented, it could lead to two things: the students will lose their trust and respect
and they will worsen cheating.

6. Discourage cheating.

Yes, anyone can say "hadn't you cheated when you were in college and the answer
could be affirmative but still, teachers must discourage cheating. The fact that you
cheated in high school and in college doesn't give them the chance to cheat and it
doesn't give you the rights to tell them that they can cheat.

This is more of an idealistic philosophy in the pedagogy. We should try to uphold


moral and spiritual values in the classroom. Simply saying that you don't want them
to cheat, that Jesus is looking at them or Satan will make them his disciples when
they cheat could discourage cheating.
GUIDELINES IN ARRANGING TEST
ITEMS
Grades are the figurative representations of students' scholastic performances. They show
how bright/dull or active/inactive a student is in a specific period of time. Unfortunately, fifty
percent of grades are taken from written examinations. This is why students have to write
more and speak less to acquire higher grades.

Teachers aim to collect valid and reliable results from examinations. This means that they
have to do everything to make their examinations standard enough to gauge or measure
what has to be measured -- understanding.

Aside from psychological factors that may lessen the validity or reliability of an examination,
there are also physical factors -- physical factors in the students' part and physical factors of
the examination paper itself.

Arrangement of test items, color of the exam paper, font and font size used in the paper,
font spaces used and many physical factors may affect the test's validity and reliability.

Here are some guidelines in arranging test items.

1. Should be arranged categorically

It would be really hard for a student if the test items are randomly categorized. This could
scrabble ideas in the students' minds.

This is why it has been practiced by many students that the examination is divided into
tests. Test one will focus on a specific category (say, multiple-choice), test two on another
and so on.

2. ARRANGE items logically

Test items should be logically arranged. One of the most common logical arrangement is, of
course, in numerical order. Others say that test items should also be arranged in a way that
the first items are easier than the succeeding items. They say this in light of Edward
Thorndike's Law of Effect.

3. SELECTION before supply

Examples of selection-type test-category are multiple-choice, matching type and other


examples where students only have to choose the best answer. Examples of supply-type
test-category are those which require students to identify or fill out blanks.

Psychologists say that selection-type test-categories are easier than supply-type because it
gives students choices. This is, as I've mentioned a while ago, in light of E. Thorndike's Law
of Effect. Students must first feel ease in answering so that they will not be demotivated.
4. SHORT items before essay

Essay-categories require more time and they require more thinking, sometimes. This means
that short items should go before. This will give students more time to think.

5. SPECIFY and make clear the directions.

Most of the time, students fail examinations because of vague questions and directions.
Wrong questions lead to wrong answers and wrong directions lead to wrong executions.

Teachers must be very careful in making clear the directions.

6. AVOID cramming items too closely to each other.

Not only that very closely crammed test items cost the face validity of an examination, they
also lessen the students' ability to focus on the exam. It would be hard for them to read the
questions and it would risk their understanding.

One last thing: teachers are facilitators of assessment and learning. Therefore: teachers
must make things easier for students if possible.

7. AVOID splitting test items across two pages.

I personally loathe this when I was in high school. I hate it when the question for a multiple-
choice item is in the first page and the choices are in the next page. It causes me to lose my
concentration.

One thing that the teacher should avoid is for the students to lose concentration.

8. NUMBER items consecutively.

There is no way you could write 1, 4, 6, 8, 9 2, 5... for you test items. And, what the hell is
that for, anyway!? It would be very confusing for the students.

8 STRATEGIES TO PREVENT
CHEATING BEFORE THE EXAM
Cheating, though inevitable, should be discouraged in the classroom. Teachers should
exhaust each and every possible means to prevent it from happening. This is deeply rooted
under a long-founded philosophy of education -- idealism. Idealism pushes through morale
and spirituality inside the classroom.

According to a long-existing child philosophy, the child-depravity theory, children are


naturally evil and teachers should prevent this evil to spread all over the students' bodies.
One way is get bad things nipped in the bud.
Cheating is evil, though I don't agree much. Anyway, here are the strategies to
prevent cheating BEFORE the examination.

1. Erasures mean wrong.

This is a very effective technique. This could actually encourage students to review and to
study more. For those who did well in reviewing, this isn't a problem whatsoever but for
those who didn't, this could get them in a messy situation. They could try to cheat but it will
be a dilemma.

Only, teachers should keep in mind that corrections aren't erasures. Some teachers over do
it.

2. Use idealistic principles.

Saying that cheating is a bad thing, that students who cheat are Satan's disciples and Jesus
wouldn't like to see them cheating are long-time techniques but they are as effective as they
were before.

3. Keep distance.

I had a professor who wouldn't start the exam without us arranges in a one-meter distance
from each other. She's actually disarranging us so that we couldn't sit near our closer
friends. Distance is one safe way to prevent cheating. Not only can a teacher detect easily
when someone cheats but also, the students will hesitate to extend their necks.

4. Teach well.

So far, this is the safest way to prevent cheating. The students wouldn't need to cheat if
they understood the lessons. One can say that there are also student-factors but teachers
hold the wheels. We must be responsible in doing everything to make our lessons palatable
to the taste of the students.

5. Give the students sufficient time to prepare for the test.

Give students announcements about the exam beforehand.

Imagine giving students a day to prepare for a major exam. Two things could happen: they
fail or they pass. The students cannot afford the former. They will find a way.

6. Acquaint the students with the nature of the test and its coverage.

A week before the examination, the students must be informed about the nature and the
coverage of the test. This will serve as help for them and will serve as a tool for you, as a
teacher, to prevent cheating.
Giving pointers to review and announcing the types of test are great if they aren't over done.
Be careful not to lessen the validity of the examination by giving the students too much
information.

7. Let them define cheating.

Letting them define what cheating is a great way of deterring cheating. If it came out from
their own mouths that cheating is not good, it will activate their conscience.

It's like letting them discourage one another.

8. Explain the discipline imposed when caught cheating.

Except for harsh and inhuman punishments and sanctions, you can use them. Letting the
students know what the consequences of their actions be will serve as a warning sign for
them.

Now, be sure that you will implement these disciplines because if you don't you will lose the
students' respect and trust.

INNOVATIVE TEACHING METHODS


As education students we are bound to study principles, methods, approaches and
techniques in teaching. They say we need these things to become competitive in our field
and to become effective for the learners.

We've been studying so much about these principles, methods, approaches and techniques
and there are, still, too many to learn. The remaining time isn't enough to learn all the
things which are ought to be learned. This makes us fear the day we will take the Licensure
Examination for Teachers.

***

Two of the things we've learned from our Prof. Ed. 33-a and Prof. Ed. 33-b subjects are the
two innovative teaching methods: FLIP & PORPE.

FLIP is an approach or method that could be used by teachers to establish colorful learning
environment and ambiance that are conducive to education.

Friendliness. A teacher must always keep in mind that pressure is one of the barriers of
learning. This is why smiling or befriending with the students could lead to better outcomes.
It could give them the confident to express themselves further during discussions or to
share what's wrong.

Language. A teacher must always consider the linguistic capabilities of his students.
Though it might be true that English should be the medium of instruction, it didn't mean
that a teacher could utter all the words he'd like to say. High-sounding or highfalutin are not
advisable is he wanted to ensure learning. Simple words are enough. Simplicity is beauty.
Interest. In the selection of learning content and experiences a teacher must always
consider the interest of the learners. The learners are individuals. They have different
inclinations. Therefore, a teacher must carefully think about the instrument of learning to
be used. This instrument must go in line with their interest.

Prior Knowledge. Are the learners ready for this lesson? Do they have enough schema for
a new learning experience? Can the learners relate these new things to those which they
already know? These are the questions concerning prior knowledge. What the students
know should critically be considered before plotting the objectives, procedures and contents
of the new learning experience.

***

PORPE is well known as a strategy of test preparation but it could also be applied as an
effective teaching method.

Predict. Teachers must be good fortune tellers. They must anticipate what may ever
happen in the classroom. A teacher must predict what the learners are thinking, planning or
doing. This helps the teacher to get ahead of them and to avoid being caught flat footed.

Observe. Observation is one of the scientific methods. Observation is one of the ways of
gathering data. Since students' background and prior knowledge are essential factors for the
succeeding lessons, a teacher must be very good in observing the behavior of the students.

Organize. Organization of ideas is an essential tool for smooth and understandable flow of
ideas.

Rehearse. The teacher must be prepared at all times. Teacher must rehearse what to say in
case that arguments arise. He must be well rehearsed.

Practice. Rehearsal involves foreseeing what will happen and what should happen.
Practice involves drills that teachers always have to do. Practice makes perfect what one
rehearsed.

Evaluate. Was the instruction effective? Did the students learn? Were the students able to
catch up with the lesson? There are reflective evaluations that a teacher must undergo to
improve future instructions and to determine errors in instruction.

BASIC CONCEPTS IN PEACE


EDUCATION
What is PEACE? Peace is the absence of violence. Peace is the creative transformation of
conflict.

Violence is the use of unnecessary force and conflict is the diversity of ideas towards one
problem.
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF VIOLENCE: Physical and Structural Violence.

Physical violence refers to those that can be perceived heard, seen, tasted, smelt or felt.
Examples of physical violence are robbery, murder, abuse, etc. While most structural
violence
can be penalized by the law, only some structural violence can be penalized and mostly
be seen as rottenness within the society. Examples of structural violence are nepotism,
mishandling of governmental responsibilities, misuse of power, poverty, etc.

STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE IS THE ROOT OF ALL PHYSICAL VIOLENCE.

TWO WAYS TO MAINTAIN PEACE: 1. Resolution of conflict and 2. Creative Conflict


Transformation

CREATIVE TRANSFORMATION OF CONFLICT is the use of conflict to maintain the status


quo of peace.

Conflict can be resolved through DIALOGUE and NEGOTIATION. Dialogue points out the
importance of communication between and negotiation involves the giving in of one of the
parties.

THREE WAYS OF PEACE MAKING:


1. Realism of the head
2. Idealism of the heart

Talking about peace and telling other people of your interest in peace, without the works of
the
hands, are futile and hypocrite.

THE CS OF PEACE MAKING:


1. Compassion
2. Conscientization
3. Constructiveness

CLEMEAS SPHERES OF PEACE FOR FILIPINOS

1. Egocentric Peace the peace within the person.


2. Acquiescent Peace Peace brought about by conforming to rules and laws.

3. Responsive Peace Peace attained through following orders.


4. Integrative Peace Peace that is felt when there is a spirit of brotherhood.

GOVERNMENT FRAMEWORK IN THE PEACE PROCESS:

1. Political and Economic Realities


2. Muslim Separatist Movement
3. Military Rebellion

SRA is a comprehensive action program based on the Philippines Medium Term


Development
Plan.

FRAMEWORKS OF THE SRA:

1. Community-based Peace Process


2. Social Compact or Contract
3. Peaceful Solutions of the Issues

SIX STRATEGIES OR PATH FOR PEACE (FR. MERCADO):

1. Implement political, economic and social reforms.


2. Build consensus, empower the people, and ensure participation of the people of all
levels.
3. Pursue peaceful negotiations with all rebel groups.
4. Implement programs for reconciliation, reintegration to mainstream society and
rehabilitation.
5. Ensure the welfare and protection of the civilians; reduce the impact of armed conflict on
them.
6. Build, nurture and enhance a positive climate for peace.

FIVE COMPONENTS OF THE PEACE PROCESS

1. Government and Empowerment Establishment of a political system that encourages


enduring peace.
2. Economic Development Development must be equitable and sustainable.
3. Healing and ReconciliationThe peace process must include strategies for
psychological and spiritual values formations.
4. Humanization of Conflict The con-combatant civilians must be spared from the
atrocities of war.

5 WAYS TO PREVENT CHEATING


DURING THE EXAM
Cheating cannot be totally annihilated because it's as natural as breathing but we have to
impress in the students' minds that cheating is not accepted in our society and it results in
ostracism. Teachers, even though they know all along that cheating is inevitable, should try
to do everything to plant conscience in the students' hearts.

The philosophy that cheating is not an accepted behavior in the classroom started from
idealism. Idealism pushes through morale and spirituality inside the classroom.

According to a long-existing child philosophy, the innate-goodness theory, children are


naturally good people who are only confused with the surrounding factors in the society.
The teachers should utilize strategies to make the students realize that they are good people.
1. Have students sit in alternating seats.

Sitting arrangement (you might as well look the difference of "seating" and "sitting" up in
the dictionary) could easily turn into "cheating arrangement." This is why many teachers try
to disarrange students and separate friends from friends during examination. Also, seats
must be arranged in a way that cheating will be very obvious and students would actually
hesitate to do so.

2. Go around the testing room and observe students.

In criminal psychology, this is called police visibility. It has been believed that criminals
actually hesitate to execute a crime if they see policemen around. This is also true about
conducting an exam. Students feel they are watched over if they see the teacher walking
around.

3. Prohibit borrowing things from classmates.

Borrowing the calculator during the exam is a usual scenario in a Math exam but it should
be avoided. There is no reason for students to borrow things from their classmates if the
examination was properly announced. Borrowing things gives chances the students chances
to talk and things like the calculator are subject to anomaly, if you know what I mean.

4. Prepare alternate forms of the test.

Alternate forms of tests can be given as a special exam for students who missed the exam
and also, as a punishment for a student who cheats. Preparing alternate tests and giving
them to the students alternately (also called as set-A-set-B exam) may deter cheating.

5. Have students put down unnecessary things.

Unnecessary things include bags, mobile phones, other gadgets and things which are
obviously not essential to take the test. These things can be used by the students to cheat.

REALISM, A PHILOSOPHY
Realism asserts that the learner can come to know of the truth through his senses and
reason. This philosophy stands under the belief that knowledge and information are around
us, ready to be received and to be learned.

It give importance to active learning and condemns purely receptive intake of information.
The learner should have his own initiative to open his senses and accept reality around him.

***

Like the idealist, the realist stresses the importance of separations between subject matters,
contents and knowledge. This is why we study human experiences through history, animals
through zoology, plants through botany and many more.
Mathematics and other subjects that sharpen and cultivate the mind are given stress
because rational thought and logic are considered important in realism.

***

The three R's (reading, writing and arithmetic) are centers of basic human education. This is
why Basic Elementary Education focuses on these.

Changes in subject matters are welcome since the world must adopt with changes and
changes are a part of reality but the culture of the society must be constant. If idealism
focuses on the classics and considers the classics as the main sources of information, the
realists believe that truth and reality are achieved through the help of science and art and
morality can only be maintained through the stability of a society's heritage.

***

REALISM: Changes, senses, logic, truth, reading, writing, arithmetic, separations, science,
art, etc.

IDEALISM, A PHILOSOPHY
Idealism holds that morale and spirituality should be incorporated within learning contents
and experiences of the students. This is rooted in the belief that religion is the way to a
better life and people who are morally and spiritually upright are not likely to commit any
wrong.

***

Morality is what is right and what is wrong in the society. Unfortunately, morality is relative.
What may be right for me may not be right for other people and what may be wrong for me
may be acceptable for others.

Be that the case as it may, morality should still be taught in the classroom to maintain status
quo because, as an idealistic belief, changes are chaotic and radical ideas are
unacceptable. Proper conduct in a society should be learned for someone to be able to fit
in.

This led to the incorporation of VALUES EDUCATION and PEACE EDUCATION in our
curricula. Also, this philosophy made its way to our daily routines -- we pray before we start
the day and to our classroom designs -- we have the SPIRITUAL CORNER.

***

Spirituality is the belief and the obedience to a supernaturally good deity. In the Philippine
setting, teaching religion is highly argued upon due to our diverse religious beliefs.

The Philippines has very many religious groups teaching as many different doctrines as
they are. This leads to the modification of CATECHISM as a subject to CHRISTIAN LIVING
to generalize the idea. Though many could agree with this idea, the Philippines is not totally
Christian. A percentage of its constituents is Islam.

***

Idealism promotes the study of the Classics since, according to this principle, curricula and
scholastic instructions are and must be constant, unchanged. For the idealist, knowledge
comes from the external ideas and universal truths found in the arts.

***

IDEALISM: status quo, social decorum, social restrictions, morality, spirituality,


consciousness, eternal life, life after death, purpose of life, etc.

PRAGMATISM, A PHILOSOPHY
Pragmatism is also called experimentalism. One of the most popular pragmatists is John
Dewey and his scientific method of solving problems. His contribution is one of the best in
pragmatism since pragmatism emphasizes on problem solving to attain learning.

If idealism focuses on classical knowledge (the changeless) and realism gives more
importance to stable societal heritage, pragmatism promotes and adopts changes in all
aspects.

***

Pragmatism purports that changes are products of interactions between learners and their
environment; thus, changes in our society are inevitable. To disregard social change, to
consider only the changeless or the heritage, is useless and unwise for the pragmatists.

To a pragmatist, the world goes around a pattern, an observable pattern. Even if it


undergoes changes from time to time, appropriate measures can still be used to deal with
these changes.

Since the world changes and the world undergoes a cycle of problems, the learner must be
equipped with sufficient skill to solve problems that may occur by and by. The teacher, as a
pragmatist, doesn't only have to teach the learner what to think but how to think. The
teacher, as a pragmatist, must teach the learner as a bird teaches its young. It provides
food and guidance for a while but it is clear in its mind that, someday, this young one will be
fully fledged and will, soon, soar the world alone. This forces the teacher to give the child all
the things he needs during his stay in the training ground (school) before he faces the battle
ground (the real world).

***

John Dewey, a great pragmatist, viewed education as a process of improving (not


accepting) the human condition. This line of reasoning is parallel with the belief that the
world changes. Since it changes, we must use these changes to improve our lives -- not to
maintain it nor to step backwards.
***

Because the world started to embrace science from the 1800's, the spot of pragmatism in
every person's heart grows wider. The school stopped from being a disciplinary camp and
began to become a specialized miniature social environment that resembles that which is
outside. This institution gets the learners ready for what is outside.

***

Pragmatism is an educational philosophy in line with "if you give someone a fish, you feed
him for a day. If you teach someone how to fish, you feed him forever."

***

PRAGMATISM: Scientific method, learning by doing, preparation, science, changes,


explanations, processes, step-by-step methods, experimentation, etc.

EXISTENTIALISM, A PHILOSOPHY
Existentialism stresses on human existence and emphasizes on the human as an
individual. According to this philosophy, people are bombarded with choices every hour and
every minute in their lives. There may be choices which are only of minor significance but
there are also those which have major implications. The individual is the master of his own
fate and the captain of his soul and his decisions lead to self-definition, self-affirmation, etc.

The essence that a person has and the meaning or purpose of life that he lives by are
created through his decision-makings. Every individual has his own definition, interpretation,
concept, point-of-view, perception and understanding of the things around him and the
world that moves beneath his feet. Every time we make decisions, we become more
different from the people around us in terms of how we see the world.

Existentialism assures that no one can say that a person has done the wrong thing in a
particular situation in a particular point of time since we all live inside different glasses
through which we see the world.
It is not the critic who counts; not the man who points out how the strong man stumbles, or
where the doer of deeds could have done them better. The credit belongs to the man who is
actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood; who strives
valiantly; who errs, who comes short again and again, because there is no effort without
error and shortcoming; but who does actually strive to do the deeds; who knows great
enthusiasms, the great devotions; who spends himself in a worthy cause; who at the best
knows in the end the triumph of high achievement, and who at the worst, if he fails, at least
fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls
who neither know victory nor defeat.
-- Theodore Roosevelt

***
Existentialism prefers the learners to choose what they want to study. This is the basic
principles under which we choose what to major in in college and what curriculum to belong
to during basic education. This is also why vocational high schools offer different choices of
what to study and what skills to possess.

Even though existentialism envisions almost absolute child-centered learning, many


educators still think that it's too unsystematic and laissez-faire to be incorporated in the
elementary education.

***

Existentialists believe that a free person in body, mind and spirit is more capable to be
productive. This philosophy suggests educating the young ones about freedom and
responsibility.

Freedom is the source of progress and responsibility maintains established progress. The
learners must have the freedom to choose and must take on responsibilities for their own
actions.

It matters not how strait the gate,


How charged with punishments the scroll.
I am the master of my fate:
I am the captain of my soul.
-- William Ernest Henley

***

This philosophy also rejects societal, political and religious restrictions since it argues that a
person is a natural being.

School, therefore, is a place where students' freedom to choose and learning are restricted
and limited since students are under the control of adults inside scholastic institutions.

Learning contents and experiences which are personal, subjective, emotional, aesthetic and
philosophical are, therefore, appropriate for a curriculum that adopts this philosophy.
Literature and the arts are advisable.

***

EXISTENTIALISM: Freedom, choice, responsibilities, subjective, aesthetic, etc.

FIVE MAJOR LEARNING THEORIES


Many years ago, people from times before Jesus argued and debated about what learning
really is. There rose a lot of definitions of what learning really is and how it occurs. From
time to time, technology made its way to people's lives and innovation conquered the world
in every inch. As fast as technology and innovation grew was the birth of new learning
theories from people with applaudable explanations regarding learning.
Today, we have five prevailing learning theories that help us explain the process of learning.

***

The study of these learning theories is incorporated within professional education subjects.
Curriculum developers thought that learning what learning really is would help teacher and
future educators to make the teaching-learning process better.

Now let us have a simple overview of these theories.

***

Behavioral Learning Theories

Behavioral learning theories emphasize the importance of human behavior in defining


learning. Behaviorists define learning as a permanent change of behavior. They also stress
that certain behavioral tools may facilitate learning.

One popular BLT theory is Edward Thorndike's Laws of Learning: law of effect, of readiness
and of exercise.

Law of effect states that the learner's learning or retention may be facilitated by the pleasant
experiences that a student experiences or will experience during or after the learning
process.

Law of readiness states that the learner should be given the chance whenever he's ready
because it a delay may discourage or demotivate him.

Law of exercise is divided into two sub-laws: the law of frequency and law of intensity. The
law of frequency states that the more frequent or longer the duration of an activity or
learning process is, the more the student learns. The law of intensity states that the harder
the activity is, the more the student is stimulated to learn.

Cognitive Learning Theories

Cognitive learning theories emphasize the importance of the functions and working of the
human brain in defining learning. According to cognitivists, learning is the interaction
between the learner's senses and the working of the brain.

One popular cognitive theory is Jean Piaget's Schematic Learning. He said that the human
brain is composed of schemata where learning experiences are written. Whenever the
learner experiences a new thing, he brings out some of his schemata which relate to the
new schema.

This gives emphasis on the importance of prior knowledge in a person's learning.

Discovery Learning Theories


Discovery learning theories stress on the importance of self-discovery and self-definition.
Jerome Bruner's discovery learning theory informs educators that learning may also occur
from students' discoveries.

Reception Learning Theories

Reception learning theories underline the importance of demonstration and teacher


instruction. This is why teachers have to prepare and arrange learning contents and
experiences to facilitate their learning.

To put it simply, these theories state that the learner learns more when his part in the
teaching learning process is more on "receiving."

Social Learning Theories

Social learning theories open the importance of environment and community in the learning
of a student. a very important contribution is from Albert Bandura's Learning by Modeling.
This states that students learn by imitating the elders.

This is why teachers are demanded to act most accordingly since students look up to them.

INDICATORS TO AFFECTIVE
OUTCOMES
Learning is a change in behavior. Many people say that learning is a permanent change in
behavior but B.F. Skinner disproved that notion using his Operant Conditioning. Since then,
learning is a behavior, not permanent, which may become seldom or frequent, depending
on the reinforcements applied.

Learning occurs randomly in the school, at home, in the church, anywhere. However, since
we spend at least 16 years of our lives in academic institutions, most of the things we know
and people we befriend with are products of this social institution. Within at least 16 years,
we spend 2/3 of our days in scholastic activities, 1/3 (8 hours) in sleeping.

The way content knowledge is, affects are also learned in school. We acquire interests,
preferences, morals, habits, attitudes, etc. by interacting with people in it.

This is why affects are also assessed, measured and evaluated by teachers. Robinson and
Shaver (1993) enumerated a few indicators or approaches to the assessment of affective
outcomes. Here they are:

1. Money:

A person who spends money on cosmetics is obviously beauty-conscious. On the other


hand, a person who allots money in books has an inner motivation for learning.
2. Time:

Time is gold, as the adage goes. This is why, like money, a time spent is an indicator of a
person's interest, inclinations, etc. A person who spends time in the gym thinks that physical
fitness is of utmost importance.

3. Verbal Expressions:

But the words you speak come from the heart... -- Matthew XV : xviii

A person who talks about politics is more likely interested in politics. Though (since I already
involved the Bible), not all who speaks of God and Jesus are believers. I'm sure most of us
will agree about that.

"Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only he
who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. -- Matthew VII : xxi

This, thus, leads us to the conclusion that time and money and other indicators are more
concrete manifestations of affective outcomes.

4. Fund of Information:

A person who know a lot about the history of the Roman Catholic Church might probably
have read a lot money and time to reading and buying material about it. According to
behaviorists, we seem to choose what to learn and what to retain in our minds. Here comes
interest. Interest is a driving force to retain what and what not to.

5. Speed of Decision or Reaction Time:

My classmate, Diana, when asked anything about the periodic table, answers in
considerable speed. This is in line with Fund of Information. She surely is very familiar with
these matters and it indicated his interests.

A person who is most interested in grammar doesn't take much time to identify that a
sentence has an error.

6. Written Expressions or Personal Documents:

Edgar Allan Poe wrote a lot about love woven with death and tragedy. His experiences may
clearly let his readers understand the whys.

Ray Bradbury wrote his books and short stories dealing with the future and technology and
their implications in the lives of the people. Who knows!? May be he's a scientist.

7. Sociometric Measures:
Tell me who your friends are and I'll tell you who you are.

Though I do not believe in this, in general, it is a powerful indicator of affective learning. The
choice of friends of a person indicates a lot about himself.

8. Activity Level Methods:

A person's endurance in something or anything, his speed in reading or writing and others
speaks loudly about a person's affects.

9. Observations:

Observations of the teacher, based on some standardized or systematized recorders.

10. Specific Performances and Behavior

Sleeping in Math classes and reciting actively in the Biology class say that a learner is
bored and stimulated.

11. Memory Measures:

The ability of a student to retain and recall pieces of information despite of distractions and
other factors is an indicator.

12. Simulations:

Game-like activities and other interpersonal activities reveal a person's attitude.

12 PRINCIPLES OF HIGH QUALITY


ASSESSMENT
1. CLARITY & APPROPRIATENESS OF LEARNING TARGETS
Assessment should be clearly stated and specified and centered on what is truly important.

"Teaching emphasis should parallel testing emphasis."

LEARNING TARGETS

Knowledge Students mastery of the content.


Reasoning Students ability to use their knowledge.
Skills Students ability to demonstrate what they
have learned.
Products Students ability to create.
Affects Students emotional attainments.
2. APPROPRIATE ASSESSMENT METHODS
Assessment should utilize assessment methods suitable for a particular learning target.
ASSESSMENT METHODS LEARNING TARGETS
Objective Supply Knowledge
Objective Select Knowledge
Essay Reasoning
Performance-based Skills, products
Oral-question Knowledge, reasoning
Observation Knowledge, skills
Self-report Affects

3. BALANCE
Assessment methods should be able to assess all domains of learning and hierarchy of
objectives.
DOMAINS OF LEARNING:
Cognitive
Affective
Psychomotor

HIERARCHY OF OBJECTIVES
(BLOOM) (ANDERSON)
Evaluation Create
Synthesis Evaluate
Analysis Apply
Application Analyze
Comprehension Understand
Knowledge Remember

4. VALIDITY
Assessment should be valid. There are several types of validity that are to be established.

TYPES OF VALIDITY

Content Validity
Face Validity
Concurrent Validity
Predictive Validity
Discriminant Validity
Construct Validity

5. RELIABILITY
Assessment should show consistent and stable results. There are methods which can be
used to measure and establish reliability.

RELIABILITY CAN BE MEASURED USING:

Test-retake or Retest Method Giving the same examination after several


minutes to several years.
SPLIT-HALF This is used to establish internal
consistency using Pearson r formula.
Parallel-form/Equivalence test Giving the same examination within the
day.
Test of Stability Giving the same examination content but
not in the same manner or form after
several minutes to several years.
Measurement of stability & Equivalence Giving the same examination content but
not in the same manner or form within the
day.
Kuder-Richardson Establishment of reliability using KR 21
and KR 20 formulas.

6. FAIRNESS
Assessment should give equal opportunities for every student. There should be no
discrimination of any kind (racial, age, gender, etc.)

7. AUTHENTICITY
Assessment should touch real life situations and should emphasize practicability.

8. PRACTICALITY & EFFICIENCY


Assessment should save time, money, etc. It should be resourceful.

9. ASSESSMENT IS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS.


Because assessment is an integral part of the teaching-learning process, it should be
continuous.

ASSESSMENT FORMS:

PLACEMENT ASSESSMENT Done before instruction to assess


the needs of the learners to determine
their capacities and capabilities.

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT Done during instruction


to monitor students progress and
to reinforce learning.
DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT Done to see the problems and
learning difficulties of the students.

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT Done after instruction to assess


students achievement and to see
the result of the teaching-learning
process.

10. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT

Assessment should not be used to derogate the students. One example of this is the right to
confidentiality.

11. CLEAR COMMUNICATION

Assessment's results should be communicated to the learners and the people involved.
Communication should also be established between the teacher and the learners by way of
pre- and post-test reviews.

12. POSITIVITY OF CONSEQUENCE

Assessment should have a positive effect. It should motivate students to learn and do more
and should give way to improve the teacher's instruction.

ASSESSING AFFECTIVE OUTCOMES


The main goal of the teaching-learning process is learning. Learning is should be facilitated
and assessed. Learning doesnt only refer to substantive or content knowledge because
learning can be in many forms. It can be a knowledge learned, a skill acquired or an attitude
patterned. Within the school, a learner also learners to interact with other people and from
his experiences he learn, acquire or pattern his attitudes, beliefs, preferences, morals,
ethics, feelings, etc.. Since affects are also products of the teaching-learning process, they
should also be assessed.

FIVE LEVELS OF AFFECTIVE DOMAIN OF LEARNING

Receiving Being aware or attending to something in the environment


Responding Showing new behaviors as a result of learning/experiences
Valuing Showing some definite involvement or commitment
Organizing Integrating new values into ones general set of values and giving ranks or
prioritizing them
Characterization Acting consistently with the new rule
ASSESSMENT OF AFFECTIVE OUTCOMES

Only a few approaches to the assessment of affective outcomes have been translated into
classroom use. It is helpful for a teacher to know different approaches to assess whether
students are learning affectively.

APPROACHES TO THE ASSESSMENT OF AFFECTIVE OUTCOMES

Robinson & shaver (1993) mentioned ways to assess attitudes and dynamic outcomes.
They are as follows:

Money. A student who spends money on books has, more likely, an inclination to reading
and it can be deduced that he loves what he does. People spend most of their money in
things which they consider important.

Time. Time is gold. Gold in important. If some spends his time on something, it shows his
love or interest in what he does.

Verbal Expressions. A person who speaks of the Bible is obviously affectively inclined to
the Words of God.

Fund of Information. One who knows a lot about the solar system has more likely spends
time and money to know such information. This shows his affective inclination to the field
which interests him.

Speed of Decision or Reaction Time. A person who makes quick decision between
attending ballet recitals or seminars shows his preference, beliefs and attitudes. If he
chooses to attend the seminar, it means that he has strong belied or conviction that
seminars are more important.

Written Expression or Personal Documents. Writing reflects who a person is. Emily
Dickinsons poems are always about bravery towards death. It only shows her attitude.
Sociometric Measures. Though a lot of contentions can be said against this, it still prevails
that who your friends are is who you are.

Activity Level Methods. An activity that arouses ones interest and in which he exerts a lot
of energy is more likely the activity that he prefers.

Observations. Observing how a person conducts himself is the best way to assess his
affects.

Specific Performances and Behaviors. A persons behavior toward something is his


attitude, belief, preference, etc. A person who hurts animals may be an animal-hater or just
a violent person.

Memory Measures. Our memory absorbs the best when it is stimulated to do so. Recalling
something easily reflects affects.
Simulations. Games, role playing and other activities that represent outside interaction are
good conditions from which ones affects can be observed.

THERE ARE WAYS to gather affective data. In this part of the lecture, we will have the
following, one by one:

1. Self-report
2. Attitude scale (Forced-Choice Selection Method, Summated Ratings or Likert
Scale, The Semantic Differential Technique)
3. The Free Response and Opinionnaire Method
4. Simple Projective Techniques
5. Self-expression Techniques
6. Checklist

WRITING ITEMS FOR SELF-REPORT AFFECTIVE MEASURES

These are guidelines and criteria to be considered to develop or edit activities that measure
affective outcomes (Payne, 2003). Payne cited several things to avoid:

1. Avoid statements referring to the past. Instead, refer to the present.

2. Avoid statements that are factual or are capable of being interpreted as factual.

3. Avoid statements that can be interpreted in more than one way.

4. Avoid statements that are irrelevant to the psychological object under consideration.

5. Avoid statements that are likely to be endorsed by everyone or by no one.

6. Avoid reflecting the entire range of affectivity.

7. Avoid using complex, ambiguous or indirect language.

8. Avoid statements that are too long (more than 20 words).

9. Avoid statements that contain more than one complete thought.

10. Avoid statements that contain universals: only, just, merely, none and others of
familiar nature.

11. Avoid statements that are formed with compound or complex sentences.

12. Avoid using highfalutin words or words difficult to understand.

13. Avoid double negatives.


STEPS IN CONSTRUCTING AN ATTITUDE SCALE

Berdie et al. (1996) described an effective method to construct an attitude scale. There are
steps and they are as follows:

Collect a pool of statements. If you plan to have an attitude scale for cheating, let your
students write three or four statements towards cheating.

Select the best statements. Using a criteria cull 30 items from a pool of 50 or 60
statements.

Administer the inventory. This is not a test; there is no right and wrong answer. All the
sentences in the list represent ideas that some people hold about cheating on tests.
Students can make use of the plus (+) sign or the minus (-) sign to indicate whether they
agree or disagree, respectively. If students are uncertain, they can indicate this using a
question (?) mark. Students can intensify their responses by encircling the symbol they
incurred. For example, and encircled plus (+) sign symbolized that the student strongly
agrees with the statement. Of course, these indications can be modified.

Score the inventory. Values can be assigned to responses. Refer to the given example
below.

Symbol Points given


Encircled + 5
+ 4
- 3
Encircled - 2
? 0

If the maximum possible score is 150, this will indicate a favorable attitude. The minimum
can be 30 score and the indifference can be 90.

ATTITUDE SCALING:
FORCED-CHOICE SELECTION METHODS
This method requires/forces respondents to select among choices that differ in content. This
is instead of choosing the degree of favorableness or intensity. The respondent is to choose
the statement that best describes him. The format is the same with that of a multiple-choice
examination and can be a description of a situation.

The forced-choice selection method: minimizes the subjectivity of the exam; reduces
fakability; produces a better distribution; is quick, efficient and objective; and produces
scores that are easily analyzed.

ATTITUDE SCALING:
SUMMATED RATING OR LIKERT SCALES
In this method, respondents are to choose among numbers (1, 2,3, 4 and 5) or letter (A, B,
C, D and E) which are assigned with response categories (strongly agree, agree, uncertain,
disagree or strongly disagree). Numerical weights are best used for easiness of
computation.

ATTITUDE SCALING:
SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL TECHNIQUE
This method makes use of bipolar adjective scales. It is designed to measure attitudes,
feelings and opinions by degree from very favorable to highly unfavorable. Refer to the
examples below:

Fast ___ - ___ - ___ - ___ - ___ - ___ -____ Slow


Good ___ - ___ - ___ - ___ - ___ - ___ -____ Bad
Quite ___ - ___ - ___ - ___ - ___ - ___ -____ Active
Strong ___ - ___ - ___ - ___ - ___ - ___ -____ Weak

There are steps in developing a semantic differential scale. There are enumerated as
follows:
1. Identify the concepts to be rated.
2. Choose appropriate bipolar scales.
3. Design a response sheet.
4. Write instructions.

FREE RESPONSE AND OPINIONNAIRE METHOD

This method brings out every relevant response and ensures that all necessary questions
are asked. The students are free to respond the way they deem proper.

The following criteria are to be considered in preparing an opinionnaire (Gable, 1996):

1. Brevity

2. Inclusion of items of interest and face appeal to the respondents

3. Provision for depth responses

4. Wording should neither be suggestive nor unstimulating.

5. Phrasing of questions should allay suspicion about hidden purposes and should not
embarrass/threaten respondents.

6. Phrasing of question should not be too narrow. It should allow respondents a


reasonable latitude.

There are two types of opinionnaires the close/pre-categorized type and the open/free-
response type. A pre-categorized type is very closely related to the forced-response
technique in that it requires a respondent to choose between or among categorized
responses. The former, on the other hand, gives absolute freedom for any type of response.

There are general cautions to be considered when preparing an opinionnaire:

1. Spell out objectives, purposes and specifications for the instrument.

2. Try to limit the length of the questionnaire to ten questions.

3. Make sure that the students understand the purpose of the questionnaire.

4. Use a sequence of questions.

5. Motivate the students to answer thoughtfully.

6. Control the questionnaires administration.

7. Urge the students to express their own thoughts.

8. Be sure that directions are clear, definite and complete.

9. Urge student to ask clarifying questions.

10. Pilot-test the questions that are not clear to them.

SIMPLE PROJECTILE TECHNIQUES

SPT or (simple projectile technique) can be done


using word association, unfinished sentences or unfinished stories. Word association
is done by presenting a word and letting the student respond using the first word that comes
out from his mind. Unfinished sentences are done by letting the student fill out missing parts
of a sentence. Unfinished story is done by asking students to tell how a story should end.

SELF-EXPRESSION TECHNIQUES

SET give the student the opportunity to express their ideas and opinions about themselves
and others. Joharis Window and other modified forms are the best examples of this.

CHECKLISTS

This is the simplest way to gather affective data. Students are only required to tick items
that are either desirable/favorable or undesirable/unfavorable for them.
FIVE BASES OF POWER
[CLASSROOM POWER]
As I have mentioned last time, French and Raven (1968) qualified other definitions of power
by providing the five bases of power. These five bases of power are founded in the
perception of individuals over whom the power is exerted and are concerned with the
particular influence or effect that a specific type of power produces.

Although French and Raven did not write this for classroom management, we can see how
it relates to our context below.

1. COERCIVE POWER

Coercive power is the power of a teacher based on the expectation of the student that he
will be punished by the teacher if he does not conform to the influence exerted by the
teacher. This extends even outside the school setting.

The strength of a teacher's coercive power depends upon the student's perception of the
degree of the punishment, the probability that the punishment will actually be implemented
and the probability of greater punishment from other sources.

The punishment for nonconformity to the teacher's influence attempt has two perceived
nature. One is the punishment that the teacher may provide something unpleasant and
another is the punishment of removing something pleasant.

It is also notable that in any environment where there is a strong peer-force against the
teacher, the coercive power of the teacher is considerably low even if the teacher exert
higher degrees of punishment.

Teacher A asked student A to clean the room before leaving and teacher A said she'll be
back to check it.

2. REWARD POWER

Reward power is the power of a teacher based on the expectation of the student that he will
be rewarded by the teacher if he does conform to the influence attempt of the teacher. This
may also extend outside the school setting.

Just like the coercive power, the strength of the reward power depends upon the student's
perception of the degree of reward, the probability that the reward may actually be given
and the probability of receiving greater reward from other sources.

Reward can be perceived in two forms. One is that the teacher will provide something
pleasant and another is that the teacher may remove something unpleasant.

Reward power and coercive power are flip sides of a coin, so to speak. These two powers
work together, hand in hand.
Teacher B, who's a Math teacher, requested student B, who has low grades in Math, to
photocopy some documents for her. Student B followed the instructions immediately without
complaint.

3. LEGITIMATE POWER

Legitimate power is also perceived as the power carried by the teacher vested in him by a
higher institution or office. This power views the teacher as someone "assigned" to take
over the classroom and to manage students' behavior.

Legitimate power is based upon the perception that the teacher has the bestowed rights to
make certain demands and requests for the betterment and improvement of the classroom
or the school environment and the teaching-learning process. Since the function of the
teacher is to manage the students' behavior, the teacher has the power to demand silence,
cleanliness, respect, etc. from the students.

This power is only effective within the classroom or the school vicinity and is least likely to
be observed in other places. The strength of this power depends upon the student's
personal relationship to the teacher. The thinner the wall, the weaker the legitimate power.

Before the lesson starts, teacher C asked student C to throw the garbage and student D to
erase the writings on the board.

4. REFERENT POWER

Referent power is based upon the student's identification with the teacher. Since the
teacher is a "more powerful figure," the student, as a "less powerful figure," tries to get
himself identified by the teacher.

This is also based on the perception that the student always tries to make a connection or
relationship between him and his teacher. The stronger the student's identification with the
teacher, the stronger the referent power is.
Student E is teacher D's student in another class. One time, Student E saw teacher D
carrying heavy books and on her way to her next class. Student E immediately extended
help.

5. EXPERT POWER

Expert power is based upon the student's assumption that the teacher is competent and
knowledgeable in his area of specialization or in any field. This creates an atmosphere of
respect for the teacher every time he stands in front or talk to the students regarding that
specific course of knowledge.

Even though ideas presented by the teacher are not yet proven in any objective way, the
students still holds them true. Thus, the expert power has some kind of intellectual influence
upon the students. A change of behavior or understanding led by the teacher shows a high
degree of expert power.
The strength of this power depends upon the confidence of the teacher and the validity of
the ideas he professes. The more the students doubt or question the teacher's ideas, the
weaker the expert power is.

Student F asked his English teacher what the correct spelling for "behavior" is. After the
teacher answered, student F didn't feel the necessity of looking it up in the dictionary and
went on fully believing what the teacher said.

POWER IN THE CLASSROOM


Education, for the past centuries, has undergone developments and innovations. New
techniques, approaches and methods of teaching are being developed from time to time. In
spite of the technologies and researches that this modern world has brought to the walls of
schools and to the covers of the textbooks, the traditional view of education still prevails:
learners must submit themselves to the teacher.

This view means that the teacher's authority inside the classroom and over the learners
cannot be questioned. The foundation for this view is the belief that without the power of the
teacher, the learners wouldn't learn.

***

Some educators believe that teachers must communicate a certain degree of power to give
way for learning. This way, learning is defined as the maintenance of power of the teacher
over the students -- which is rather questionable. Others continue to suggest that the more
power the teacher employed, the more often he must use it.

The teaching-learning process aims to attain learning and what is the teaching process, by
the way? Other educators argue that communication, itself, is the teaching process.
Knowing something isn't teaching yet until it is communicated. Teaching is a skill and so is
good communication. They also stress that there are two things to be communicated among
the learners: information and power.

***

Power and communication are interrelated. Power that is not used is power that doesn't
exist and communication is required to use power. Powerless is a teacher, therefore,
without his ability to communicate. In the same way, the ways and extents that a teacher
communicates with the learners determine, in some extent, the degree of power that he
holds.

Power, when used effectively, will have a great impact on the teaching-learning process
because teaching is communication.

***

But what is power, anyway? Power can be defined differently across different cultures and
disciplines. We need the the definition of power which can describe that which the teacher
holds inside the classroom.

Three educators defined power as "the teacher's ability to affect, in some way, the student's
well-being beyond the student's control." The problem is that this view didn't take into
account intellectual assent to influence on the part of the learners.

A broader view says that power is the teacher's "ability to influence a learner's or a group of
learners' behavior." This broad view was successful to include the teacher's ability to let a
learner do something which he would not do had he not been influenced by the teacher.
This is particularly true in some instances where a teacher was able to influence a student's
decision or choice.

***

The definitions of power above are well said and well accepted until the came of French and
Raven's (1968) BASES OF POWER. They qualified these definitions by noting that the
result of a power must be the effect of a specific type of power exerted by the teacher and
not just any combination of other external forces. The result of the specific power exerted
must be specific and thus the birth of the FIVE BASES OF POWER: coercive, reward,
legitimate, referent and expert powers.

CHARACTERISTICS OF
EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST
CENTURY
Education for the 21st century is characterized by four things: quality, equity, relevance and
sustainability. These characteristics imply that education must be excellent, effective,
democratic, inclusive, functional, meaningful, futuristic and universal.

EXCELLENT. Education must not be mediocre. It must be outstanding, world-class.

EFFECTIVE. Education is expected to produce learning outcomes through contents and


experiences.

DEMOCRATIC. It should possess democratic principles such as due process and freedom.
It must be of the learners and not of the teachers. It must not dictate but suggest.

INCLUSIVE. Education must not exclude anyone only because of culture, ethnicity or
religious or political beliefs. It must be for all.

FUNCTIONAL. It must have an effect on the society and on the children. Education must be
applicable and not only theoretical.

MEANINGFUL. Education must have purposeful. The learners must be able to derive valid
or worthwhile knowledge, skills and experiences from it.
FUTURISTIC. It must look into what will happen. It must, just like what John Dewey said,
aim to improve the society and prepare it for what will come. It must not be stagnant and
rigid.

UNIVERSAL. Education must not be local or provincial. It must be integrated with what the
whole world can offer and it must bring out what the learner can do not only for his
immediate environment but for the world.

GLOBAL AND NATIONAL


DEVELOPMENT TRENDS AND
DIRECTIONS IN THE 21ST
CENTURY
1. Globalization. Globalization is the process by which all the aspects of society interact
and operate in an international scale.

2. Changing Environment or Political and Cultural Landscapes. Due to the advent of


different modes of transportation and different media of communication people all over the
world start to understand and adapt cultures from other countries. Not only this but also
people from communist or totalitarian governments are starting to realize that there such a
thing called "democracy," thus leading to changes in points of view and perspectives in
politics and governance.

3. Cultural Homogeneity. Nations all over the world are starting to adapt a single culture.
For example, the English language (language is a part of culture) is now being spoken by at
least most of the people of the world. The use of computers and the internet has becomes a
part of our "global culture."

4. The Information and Communication Technology; Revolution and High


Connectivity. Due to the advent of different media, most of the people of the world are
informed immediately of anything happening around the globe. People are connected and
brought together by new technologies in communication, thus increasing the potential for
learning.

5. The Changing World of Work. Work nowadays are becoming easier and easier. Typist
don't have to encode anymore. Instead, they only have to encode. Teachers don't have to
teach everything anymore. Instead, they only have to bring out knowledge from the
learners. The nature of works has shifted from completely-manual to technology-assisted.
This increases the demand for different skills such as encoding, lay-outing, photo-editing,
web-designing, etc.

6. Human Development. The things around us are not the only ones that have changed.
Our values, morals and attitudes were also influenced the changing world. We have
adopted, for the past decades, a concern for the dignity of all human persons, not only
those within our society but also those without and not only those who share the same skin
color with but also those who do not.

Attitude towards gays have changed. Many years ago, personality aberration is considered
a psychological disorder. Now, we consider is as a gender preference.

ARTICLE IV OF R.A. 7836


ARTICLE IV
PROVISIONS RELATIVE TO THE PRACTICE OF THE TEACHING PROFESSION

Sec. 27. Inhibition Against the Practice of the Teaching Profession. Except as otherwise
allowed under this Act, no person shall practice or offer to practice the teaching profession
in the Philippines or be appointed as teacher to any position calling for a teaching position
without having previously obtained a valid certificate of registration and a valid professional
license from the Commission.

Sec. 28. Penal Provisions. The following shall be punishable by a fine of not less than
Five thousand pesos (P5,000.00) nor more than Twenty thousand pesos (P20,000.00) or
imprisonment of nor less than six (6) months nor more than five (5) years, or both, at the
discretion of the court:cralaw

(a) Any person who practices the teaching profession in the Philippines without being
certified in accordance with the provisions of this Act;

(b) Any person who represents or attempts to use as his own certificate of registration that
of another;

(c) Any person who gives any false, or fraudulent evidence of any kind to the Board or any
member thereof in obtaining a certificate of registration as teacher;

(d) Any person who impersonates any registrant of the same or different name;

(e) Any person who uses a revoked or suspended certificate of registration;

(f) Any person who, in connection with his name, otherwise assumes, uses or advertises
any title or description tending to convey or conveys the impression that he is a teacher
without holding a valid certificate; and

(g) Any person who violates or who abets the violation of any of the provisions of this Act.

The penalty of fine or imprisonment or both, as provided in this section, shall also apply to
any school official who shall cause or be responsible for the commission of any of the
above-enumerated acts.

Sec. 29. Appropriations. Such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of
this Act shall be included in the 1996 General Appropriations Act and thereafter.

Sec. 30. Implementing Guidelines. The Board shall formulate and adopt the necessary
guidelines for the effective implementation of the provisions of this Act within sixty (60) days
of its approval.cralaw

The Board shall submit to both Committees on Education, Arts, and Culture; and the
Committees on Civil Service and Professional Regulation of the Senate and House of
Representatives, copies of the implementing rules and guidelines within thirty (30) days
after its promulgation.

Any violation of this section shall render the official/s concerned liable under Republic Act
No. 6713, otherwise known as the "Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public
Officials and Employees" and other pertinent administrative and/or penal laws.

Sec. 31. Transitory Provision. All incumbent teachers in both the public and private
sector not otherwise certified as professional teachers by virtue of this Act, shall be given
(5) years temporary certificates from the time the Board for Professional Teachers is
organized within which to qualify as required by this Act and be included in the roster of
professionals.

Provided, however, That the Professional Board Examination for Teachers (PBET) shall still
be administered by the Civil Service Commission and the Department of Education, Culture
and Sports for the year 1995.cralaw

Sec. 32. Separability Clause. If, for any reason, any section or provision of this Act or the
application of such section or provision to any person or circumstance is declared
unconstitutional or invalid, no other section or provision of this Act shall be affected thereby.

Sec. 33. Repealing Clause. All laws, presidential decrees, executive orders, rules and
regulations or parts thereof inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed
or modified accordingly.

Sec. 34. Effectivity Clause. This Act shall take effect after fifteen (15) days following its
complete publication in the Official Gazette or in two (2) newspapers of general circulation.

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7836


AN ACT TO STRENGTHEN THE REGULATION AND SUPERVISION OF THE PRACTICE
OF TEACHING IN THE PHILIPPINES AND PRESCRIBING A LICENSURE
EXAMINATION FOR TEACHERS AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.

ARTICLE I
TITLE
SECTION 1. Short Title. This Act shall be known as the "Philippine Teachers
Professionalization Act of 1994."

Sec. 2. Statement of Policy. The State recognizes the vital role of teachers in nation-
building and development through a responsible and literate citizenry.Towards this end, the
State shall ensure and promote quality education by proper supervision and regulation of
the licensure examination and professionalization of the practice of the teaching
profession.cralaw

Sec. 3. Objectives. This Act has the herein objectives:

(a) The promotion, development and professionalization of teachers and the teaching
profession; and

(b) The supervision and regulation of the licensure examination.

Sec. 4. Definition of Terms. For purposes of this Act, the following terms shall
mean:chanroblesvirtualawlibrary

(a) "Teaching" refers to the profession concerned primarily with classroom instruction, at
the elementary and secondary levels in accordance with the curriculum prescribed by the
Department of Education, Culture and Sports, whether on part-time or full-time basis in the
private or public schools.

(b) "Teachers" refers to all persons engaged in teaching at the elementary and
secondary levels, whether on full-time or part-time basis, including industrial arts or
vocational teachers and all other persons performing supervisory and/or administrative
functions in all schools in the aforesaid levels and qualified to practice teaching under this
Act.

(c) "Board" refers to the Board for Professional Teachers duly established and
constituted under this Act.

(d) "Commission" refers to the Professional Regulation Commission.

ARTICLE II
BOARD FOR PROFESSIONAL TEACHERS

Sec. 5. Creation and Composition of the Board. There is hereby created under this Act a
Board for Professional Teachers, hereinafter called the Board, a collegial body under the
general supervision and administrative control of the Professional Regulation Commission,
hereinafter referred to as the Commission, composed of five (5) members who shall be
appointed by the President of the Philippines from among the recommendees chosen by
the Commission.The recommendees shall be chosen from the list of nominees selected by
the accredited association of teachers, who duly possess all the qualifications prescribed in
Section 8 of this Act.

The chairman and the voice-chairman of the Board shall be appointed from these five (5)
members by the President: Provided, That the members of the first Board appointed under
this Act shall be automatically registered as professional teachers and issued with the
certificate of registration and professional license upon payment of the fees for examination,
registration, and other fees prescribed by the Commission.

Sec. 6. Duties and Function of the Board. The Board shall have the following duties and
functions:

(a) Promulgate, administer and enforce rules and regulations necessary for carrying out the
provisions of this Act in accordance with the charter of the Professional Regulation
Commission;

(b) Determine and fix the frequency, dates, and places of examination, appoint supervisors,
proctors, and other personnel as needed who shall be entitled to a daily allowance to be
fixed by the Board for every examination day actually attended, use buildings and facilities
of public or private schools for examination purposes;

(c) Issue, suspend, or revoke the certificate of registration for the practice of the teaching
profession;

(d) Prescribe and collect examination and other fees as it may deem proper;

(e) Prescribe and/or adopt a code of ethical and professional standards for the practice of
the teaching profession.Such ethical standards, rules and regulations to take effect sixty
(60) days after its publication in the Official Gazette or in any newspaper of general
circulation;

(f) Administer oaths in connection with the administration of this Act;

(g) Supervise and regulate the registration, licensure and practice of professional teachers
in the Philippines;

(h) Adopt an official seal of the Board;cralaw

(i) Look into the conditions affecting the practice of the teaching profession and whenever
necessary, adopt such measures as may be deemed proper for the enhancement and
maintenance of high professional and ethical standards of the profession;

(j) Ensure that all educational institutions offering elementary and secondary education
comply with the essential requirements for curricula, faculty and facilities for the elementary
and secondary levels;

(k) Investigate such violations of this Act, the rules and the code of ethical and professional
standards for professional teachers as it may come to the knowledge of the Board, and for
this purpose, to issue subpoena and subpoena duces tecum to secure the appearance of
witnesses and the production of documents in connection therewith; and

(l) Discharge such other powers, duties and functions as the Board may deem necessary
for the practice of the teaching profession and the upgrading, enhancement, development
and growth of education in the Philippines.

Sec. 7. Term of Office. The members of the Board shall hold office for a term of three (3)
years from the date they assume office: Provided, That the first appointees to the Board
under this Act shall hold office according to the following terms: one (1) member shall serve
for one (1) year; one (1) member for two (2) years; the chairman, vice-chairman, and one
(1) member for three (3) years. Vacancies shall be served for the unexpired term only. No
person who has served for two (2) consecutive terms shall be eligible for
reappointment.Appointment to fill an unexpired term shall be considered an appointment to
a complete term.

The chairman or any member shall take his oath of office prior to the performance of his
duties.

Sec. 8. Qualification of Board Members. Each Board member must at the time of his
appointment:

(a) Be a citizen and resident of the Philippines;

(b) Be at least thirty-five (35) years of age, of proven integrity, and possessed of high moral
values in his personal as well as professional conduct and has not been convicted of any
offense involving moral turpitude;

(c) Be a holder of the degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science in Education and
preferably a holder of a master's or doctorate degree in education, or their equivalents, from
a university, school, college, academy or institute duly constituted, recognized and/or
accredited by the Philippine government;

(d) Be a professional teacher with a valid certificate of registration and valid professional
license, save those members who shall compose the first Board for Professional Teachers;

(e) Has been a professional teacher in the active practice of the teaching profession for at
least ten (10) years in the elementary and secondary level; and

(f) Not be an official or member of the faculty of, nor have pecuniary interest in any
university, college, school, or institution conferring a bachelor's degree in education or its
equivalents for at least three (3) years prior to his appointment, and neither connected with
a review center or with any group or association where review classes or lectures in
preparation for the licensure examination are offered or conducted.

Provided, however,That, the membership to the Board shall be evenly distributed to cover
all levels of education, including equitable representation of the different fields of
specialization.
Sec. 9. Compensation of the Board. The chairman, vice-chairman, and members of the
Board shall receive compensation comparable to the compensation received by existing
regulatory boards under the Professional Regulation Commission, computed on the basis of
the number of examinees/candidates.

Sec. 10. Supervision of the Board and Custodian of its Records. The Board shall be
under the supervision and control of the Commission. All records, including applications for
examination, examination papers and results, minutes of deliberation, administrative cases
and investigative cases and investigations involving professional teachers shall be kept by
the Commission.

Sec. 11. Secretariat and Support Services. The Professional Regulation Commission,
through its chairman, shall provide the secretariat and other support services to implement
effectively the provisions of this Act.cralaw

Sec. 12. Removal of a Board Member. The chairman or any member of the Board may
be removed by the President of the Philippines upon recommendation of the Commission
for neglect of duty, incompetence, unprofessional, unethical, immoral or dishonorable
conduct, commission or toleration of irregularities in the examination, after having been
given the opportunity to defend himself in a proper administrative investigation.

In the course of investigation, the President may preventively suspend the respondent.

ARTICLE III
EXAMINATION AND REGISTRATION

Sec. 13. Examination, Registration and License Required. Except as otherwise


specifically allowed under the provisions of this Act, all applicants for registration as
professional teachers shall be required to undergo a written examination which shall be
given at least once a year in such places and dates as the Board may determine upon
approval by the Commission. A valid certificate of registration and a valid professional
license from the Commission are required before any person is allowed to practice as a
professional teacher in the Philippines, except as otherwise allowed under this Act.

Sec. 14. Scope of Examination. The examinations for the elementary and secondary
school teachers shall be separate. The examination for teachers in the elementary level
shall consist of two (2) parts, namely: professional education and general education. The
examination for teachers in the secondary level shall consist of three (3) parts, namely:
professional education, general education, and field of specialization.

Sec. 15. Qualification Requirements of Applicants. No applicant shall be admitted to take


the examination unless, on the date of filing of the application, he shall have complied with
the following requirements:
(a) A citizen of the Philippines or an alien whose country has reciprocity with the Philippines
in the practice of the teaching profession;

(b) At least eighteen (18) years of age;

(c) In good health and of good reputation with high moral values;

(d) Has not been convicted by final judgment by a court for an offense involving moral
turpitude;

(e) A graduate of a school, college or university recognized by the government and


possesses the minimum educational qualifications, as follows:

(1) For teachers in preschool, a bachelor's degree in early childhood education (BECED) or
its equivalent;

(2) For teachers in the elementary grades, a bachelor's degree in elementary education
(BSEED) or its equivalent;

(3) For teachers in the secondary grades, a bachelor's degree in education or its equivalent
with a major and minor, or a bachelor's degree in arts and sciences with at least ten (10)
units in professional education; and

(4) For teachers of vocational and two-year technical courses, a bachelor's degree in the
field of specialization or its equivalent, with at least eighteen (18) units in professional
education.

Sec. 16. Report of the Results of the Examination. The Board shall, within one hundred
twenty (120) days after the examination, report the ratings obtained by each candidate to
the Professional Regulation Commission for approval and appropriate action.

Sec. 17. Issuance of Certificate of Registration and Professional License. The


registration of a professional teacher commences from the date his name is enrolled in the
roster of professional teachers.

Every registrant who has satisfactorily met all the requirements specified in this Act shall,
upon payment of the registration fee, be issued a certificate of registration as a professional
teacher bearing the full name of the registrant with serial number and date of issuance
signed by the chairman of the Commission and the chairman, vice-chairman, and members
of the Board, stamped with the official seal, as evidence that the person named therein is
entitled to practice the profession with all the rights and privileges appurtenant thereto. The
certificate shall remain in full force and effect until withdrawn, suspended and/or revoked in
accordance with law.cralaw

A professional license signed by the chairman of the Commission and bearing the
registration number and date of issuance thereof and the month of expiry or renewability
shall likewise be issued to every registrant who has paid the annual registration fees for
three (3) consecutive years. This license shall serve as evidence that the licensee can
lawfully practice his profession until the expiration of its validity.
Sec. 18. Oath Before Practice. Every registrant shall be required to take his professional
oath before practicing as a professional teacher.

Sec. 19. Periodic Merit Examination of Teachers. To encourage continuing professional


growth and development and to provide additional basis for merit promotion, in addition to
their performance rating, teachers may take an oral and written examination at least once in
five (5) years as basis for merit promotion. In taking this examination, no fee shall be
required.

Sec. 20. Failure to Pass the Merit Examination. If a teacher fails to pass the merit
examination, he or she shall be allowed to take the examination for a second time. Should
he or she fail to pass the merit examination for the second time, then he or she shall be
required to take a DECS accredited refresher course or program before being allowed to
retake the examination.

Failure of any permanent teacher to pass the merit examination shall not, however, be used
as a ground for his/her dismissal or demotion.

Sec. 21. Incentives. Teachers who pass the merit examination shall:

(a) Be awarded a diploma of merit by the Board;

(b) Earn merit points for purposes of promotion in salary or to a higher position or grade
level;

(c) Be placed in the priority list for government scholarship; and

(d) Enjoy such other benefits as may be promulgated by the Board.

Similar incentives shall be given to teachers who make inventions, develop new methods of
teaching, write a book or books and create works of artistic merit.

Sec. 22. Integration of the Teaching Profession. The teaching profession shall be
integrated into one national organization which shall be recognized by the Board and the
Commission as the one and only integrated and accredited association of professional
teachers. Upon registration with the Board, every professional teacher shall be encouraged
to become a member of the integrated national organization. Those who have been
registered with the Board but are not members of the said integrated organization shall be
allowed to register as members of the said integrated organization within three (3) years
after the effectivity of this Act. Membership in the integrated organization shall not be a bar
to membership in other associations of the teaching profession. The professional teachers
shall receive the benefits and privileges appurtenant to their membership in the said
integrated and accredited organization of professional teachers only upon payment of the
required membership fees and dues.

Sec. 23. Revocation of the Certificate of Registration, Suspension from the Practice of the
Teaching Profession, and Cancellation of Temporary or Special Permit. The Board shall
have the power, after due notice and hearing, to suspend or revoke the certificate of
registration of any registrant, to reprimand or to cancel the temporary/special permit of a
holder thereof who is exempt from registration, for any of the following causes:

(a) Conviction for any criminal offense by a court of competent jurisdiction;

(b) Immoral, unprofessional or dishonorable conduct;

(c) Declaration by a court of competent jurisdiction for being mentally unsound or insane;

(d) Malpractice, gross incompetence, gross negligence or serious ignorance of the practice
of the teaching profession;

(e) The use of or perpetration of any fraud or deceit in obtaining a certificate of registration,
professional license or special/temporary permit;

(f) Chronic inebriety or habitual use of drugs;cralaw

(g) Violation of any of the provisions of this Act, the rules and regulations and other policies
of the Board and the Commission, and the code of ethical and professional standards for
professional teachers; and

(h) Unjustified or willful failure to attend seminars, workshops, conferences and the like or
the continuing education program prescribed by the Board and the Commission.

The decision of the Board to revoke or suspend a certificate may be appealed to the
regional trial court of the place where the Board holds office within fifteen (15) days from
receipt of the said decision or of the denial of the motion for reconsideration filed in due
time.

Sec. 24. Registration by Reciprocity. No teacher of a foreign nationality shall be admitted


to the examination, or be given a certificate of registration or be entitled to any of the rights
and privileges provided under this Act; unless the country or state of which he is a subject
permits Filipino professional teachers to practice within its territorial limits on the same basis
as subjects or citizens of said country or state: Provided, that the requirements of
certification of teachers with said foreign state or country are substantially the same as
those required and contemplated under this Act: Provided, further, That the laws of such
state or country grant the same privilege to Filipino professional teachers on the same basis
as the subject or citizens of such foreign country or state.

Sec. 25. Roster of Professional Teachers. A roster of professional teachers containing


the names and addresses of professional teachers, date of registration or issuance of
certificate, and other data which in the opinion of the Board may appear pertinent shall be
maintained. Copies of the roster shall be provided by the Commission to the Board, the
Department of Education, Culture and Sports, and the integrated and accredited
organization of professional teachers.

Sec. 26. Registration and Exception. Two (2) years after the effectivity of this Act, no
person shall engage in teaching and/or act as a professional teacher as defined in this Act,
whether in the preschool, elementary or secondary level, unless he is a duly registered
professional teacher, and a holder of a valid certificate of registration and a valid
professional license or a holder of a valid special/temporary permit.

Upon approval of the application and payment of the prescribed fees, the certificate of
registration and professional license as a professional teacher shall be issued without
examination as required in this Act to a qualified applicant, who at the time of the approval
of this Act, is:

(a) A holder of a certificate of eligibility as a teacher issued by the Civil Service Commission
and the Department of Education, Culture and Sports; orcralaw

(b) A registered professional teacher with the National Board for Teachers under the
Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) pursuant to Presidential Decree No.
1006; or

(c) Not qualified under paragraphs one and two but with any of the following qualifications.
to wit:

(1) An elementary or secondary teacher for five (5) years in good standing and a holder of
Bachelor of Science in Education or its equivalent; or

(2) An elementary or secondary teacher for three (3) years in good standing and a holder of
a master's degree in education or its equivalent.

Provided, That they shall be given two (2) years from the organization of the Board for
professional teachers within which to register and be included in the roster of professional
teachers: Provided, further, That those incumbent teachers who are not qualified to register
without examination under this Act or who, albeit qualified, were unable to register within the
two-year period shall be issued a five-year temporary or special permit from the time the
Board is organized within which to register after passing the examination and complying
with the requirements provided this Act and be included in the roster of professional
teachers: Provided, furthermore, That those who have failed the licensure examination for
professional teachers shall be eligible as para-teachers and as such, shall be issued by the
Board a special or temporary permit, and shall be assigned by the Department of
Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to schools as it may determine under the
circumstances.

ARTICLE IV
PROVISIONS RELATIVE TO THE PRACTICE OF THE TEACHING PROFESSION

Sec. 27. Inhibition Against the Practice of the Teaching Profession. Except as otherwise
allowed under this Act, no person shall practice or offer to practice the teaching profession
in the Philippines or be appointed as teacher to any position calling for a teaching position
without having previously obtained a valid certificate of registration and a valid professional
license from the Commission.

Sec. 28. Penal Provisions. The following shall be punishable by a fine of not less than
Five thousand pesos (P5,000.00) nor more than Twenty thousand pesos (P20,000.00) or
imprisonment of nor less than six (6) months nor more than five (5) years, or both, at the
discretion of the court:cralaw

(a) Any person who practices the teaching profession in the Philippines without being
certified in accordance with the provisions of this Act;

(b) Any person who represents or attempts to use as his own certificate of registration that
of another;

(c) Any person who gives any false, or fraudulent evidence of any kind to the Board or any
member thereof in obtaining a certificate of registration as teacher;

(d) Any person who impersonates any registrant of the same or different name;

(e) Any person who uses a revoked or suspended certificate of registration;

(f) Any person who, in connection with his name, otherwise assumes, uses or advertises
any title or description tending to convey or conveys the impression that he is a teacher
without holding a valid certificate; and

(g) Any person who violates or who abets the violation of any of the provisions of this Act.

The penalty of fine or imprisonment or both, as provided in this section, shall also apply to
any school official who shall cause or be responsible for the commission of any of the
above-enumerated acts.

Sec. 29. Appropriations. Such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of
this Act shall be included in the 1996 General Appropriations Act and thereafter.

Sec. 30. Implementing Guidelines. The Board shall formulate and adopt the necessary
guidelines for the effective implementation of the provisions of this Act within sixty (60) days
of its approval.cralaw

The Board shall submit to both Committees on Education, Arts, and Culture; and the
Committees on Civil Service and Professional Regulation of the Senate and House of
Representatives, copies of the implementing rules and guidelines within thirty (30) days
after its promulgation.

Any violation of this section shall render the official/s concerned liable under Republic Act
No. 6713, otherwise known as the "Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public
Officials and Employees" and other pertinent administrative and/or penal laws.

Sec. 31. Transitory Provision. All incumbent teachers in both the public and private
sector not otherwise certified as professional teachers by virtue of this Act, shall be given
(5) years temporary certificates from the time the Board for Professional Teachers is
organized within which to qualify as required by this Act and be included in the roster of
professionals.

Provided, however, That the Professional Board Examination for Teachers (PBET) shall still
be administered by the Civil Service Commission and the Department of Education, Culture
and Sports for the year 1995.cralaw

Sec. 32. Separability Clause. If, for any reason, any section or provision of this Act or the
application of such section or provision to any person or circumstance is declared
unconstitutional or invalid, no other section or provision of this Act shall be affected thereby.

Sec. 33. Repealing Clause. All laws, presidential decrees, executive orders, rules and
regulations or parts thereof inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed
or modified accordingly.

Sec. 34. Effectivity Clause. This Act shall take effect after fifteen (15) days following its
complete publication in the Official Gazette or in two (2) newspapers of general circulation.

BASIC CONCEPTS ON RELEVANT


LAWS
Here are basics concepts that are essential to one's understanding of this
course, RELEVANT LAWS FOR TEACHERS.

R.A. 7836 (Philippine Teachers' Professionalization Act of 1994) defines teaching this
way:

"Teaching refers to the profession concerned with the classroom instruction at the
elementary level and secondary levels n accordance with the curriculum prescribed by the
Department of Education whether on part-time or full-time basis in public or private schools.

Moreover, R.A. 7836 mentions a definition for teachers. According to it:

"Teachers are all persons engaged in teaching at the elementary and secondary levels,
whether on full-time or part-time basis, including industrial arts or vocational teachers and
all other persons performing supervisory and/or administrative functions in all schools in the
aforesaid levels and qualified to practice teaching under this act.

Finally, it must also be understood that RELEVANT LAWS refer to legal acts, decrees,
ordinances, orders, memoranda, circulars and the like that were approved by proper
authorities and have become legal bases in the conduct of educational process, in general,
and of teaching, in particular, in the Philippine setting.

BASIC CONCEPTS IN ASSESSMENT


AND EVALUATION
Here are terms that a student of this course should first fully understand:

Test. A test is an instrument designed to measure any characteristic, quality, ability,


knowledge or skill. It is comprised of items in the area which it intends to measure.

Measurement. Measurement is a process by which the teacher quantifies the degree to


which someone or something projects a specific trait.

Assessment. Assessment is a process of gathering and organizing quantitative or


qualitative data into an interpretable form to have a basis for judgment or decision-making.
It must also be noted that assessment is prerequisite to evaluation. It provides
the information which enable evaluation to take place.

Evaluation. Evaluation is a process of systematic interpretation, analysis, appraisal or


judgment of the worth of organized data as basis for decision-making. It involves judgment
about the desirability of changes in students.

Traditional Assessment. Traditional assessment refers to the use of pen-and-paper


objective test.

Alternative Assessment. Alternative assessment refers to the use of methods other than
pen-and-paper objective test which includes performance test, projects, portfolios, journals
and the likes.

Authentic Assessment. Authentic assessment refers to the use of assessment methods


that simulate true-to-life situations. This could be objective tests that reflect real life
situations or alternative methods that are parallel to what we experience in real life.

REMEMBER:

A test is an assessment

Teacher A administered a 30-item quiz; this is a form of assessment.

Teacher B, using a standardized rubric, graded the first performer with score of 89; this is a
form of measurement. The teacher assigns a quantitative values to the performance.

Teacher C decided that Student A fail in the subject due to very low scores and very sparse
attendance; this is a form of evaluation. The teacher judges whether the student is going to
pass or fail the subject. Of course, judgment should be based upon what the assessment
and measurement reflect.

Assessment is a prerequisite to evaluation. No teacher can judge a student's stand in the


subject without sufficient assessment.

On the other, assessment feeds the teacher results which he will, in turn, measure. To
measure is to assign numerical or symbolical value to a given, measure trait.
EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
Educational technology is a process, a product, a profession and a discipline.

As a process, it is the theory and practice of designing, developing, utilizing, managing and
evaluating processes and resources intended for learning (AECT, 1994).

As a product, educational technology refers to results of the education-technological


processes like programmed texts, TV progras, computer software, audio-visual media,
interactive multimedia and entire courses of instruction (Hackbarth, 1996).

As a profession, it is composed of various job categories such as media technicians,, media


specialists, instructional developers and others (Ibid.).

As a discipline, it is an academic field of specialization within the larger discipline of


education (Ibid.).

[Technology Integration is the process of determining where and how technology fits into
teaching and learning (Williams, 2000).

A READING TEACHER
A reading teacher is someone who goes through an active, purposeful, organized cognitive
process that is used to make sense of the world, such process being improve by:

Becoming aware of one's thinking process. A teacher must always be aware of the
workings of his own mind. He must fully understand the way he thinks and the way he best
learns.

Carefully examining the thinking process. A teacher is expected to be able to example


how he thinks and how other people think.

Practicing one's thinking ability. A teacher should and must train body and, most
especially, his mind. Mens sana encorpore sano: A health mind inside a health body. He
must engage himself in continuous mental activities that will develop his cognitive skills to
the fullest.

Moreover, a reading teacher is expected to think critically. He must carefully examine his
and other people's thinking, in order to clarify and improve his own understanding. A
person's lack of knowledge on the way other people think usually end up having vague
understanding on certain aspects.

Critically thinking, reading teachers should also examine and test suggested solutions to
see whether they work. He must not reject suggestion and he must not stick to one solution
to problems. Having a duplicate key for a lock is always better.

Finally, a teacher is also expected to engage in critical thinking activities such as thinking
actively, carefully exploring situations with questions, thinking for oneself, viewing situations
from different perspectives and discussing ideas in organized ways.

CURRICULUM
Like learning and teaching, the term "curriculum" has also had a lot of definitions by
different experts.

Curriculum is defined or described as the learning experiences and intended outcomes


formulated through systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the
auspices of the school for the learners' continuous and willful growth in personal-social
competence; the cumulative tradition of organized knowledge. (Tanner, D. and Tanner, L.)

It is a plan for learning (Hilda Taba); a course of study on a specific topic; includes all the
learning experiences of students as planned and directed by the school to attain its
educational goals (Ralph Tyler) or for which the school assumes responsibilities (Popham
and Baker).

Curriculum is that which is taught in school; set of subjects, materials and performance
objectives; everything that goes on within the school, including extra-class activities,
guidance and interpersonal relationships in the school (Olvia).

It is also known as a structured set of intended learning outcomes that come in the form of
knowledge, skills and values; affected by important factors of program philosophy, goals,
objectives and evaluation.

***

Do you have your own definition of curriculum? Let's here that!

TRIADIC ELEMENTS OF TEACHING


There are three elements of the teaching-learning process: the teacher, the learner and the
content.

THE TEACHER

The teacher is the key factor in any teaching-learning process. He constructs well-designed
plans to achieve objectives of the lesson. He prepares the learning environment which is a
direct factor to the students' learning. He selects appropriate contents, based on the
learners' interests and preferences. He selects appropriate activities in the same way he
selects appropriate contents. Finally, he adjusts the contents and activities to the learners'
environment.

THE LEARNER

The learner is the most important element of learner. His characteristics -- age, maturity,
grade level, health, abilities, family background, experiences, motivation, cultural
background, values attitudes and traditions, among others -- influence the teachers' choices
and decisions in the classroom.

THE CONTENT

The contents of the teaching-learning process are directly guided by the teaching strategies
that the teacher employs. The teaching contents are chosen to be taught, by the teacher, to
achieve desired objectives of the lesson. Subject matter, the other term for content, is
carefully paralleled with specific teaching materials that aim to facilitate learning.

TEACHING, DEFINED
Teaching is a very abstract idea and can never be adequately defined in a simple sentence.
This is why there have always been an attempt to explain or, at least, define, this
phenomenon. This time, let us consider the following definitions which are more accepted in
the field of education.

Teaching is a process. It is not a phenomenon done by chaotic occurrences. It involves


planning and planning is the backbone of teaching, tutoring or educating.

It stands for the method or practicing of disseminating academic or theoretical concepts. It


is anchored in training and nurturing.

It also refers to the process of engaging students into activities which aim to induce learning
among them. By this definition, we can conclude that the direct purpose of teaching is to
produce learning. Learning may be in the form of knowledge, skill, values, attitudes and
others.

It is an aggregate or an overall cluster of organized activities or strategies aimed to produce


learning. This is through explaining, questioning, demonstrating and motivating.

Teaching is also labeled as a field of science and a form of art. It is a field of science
because it is based on findings and results of psychological and neurological researches
which identify the underlying cause and effect of teaching and learning. It is a form of art
because it involves personal and aesthetic touches.

Teaching is composed of stuff that are not easily assessed, measured, explained or
observed. These stuffs include, but are not limited to, values, experiences, insights,
imaginations and perceptions.

It is the interplay of the triadic elements of teaching. To know more about the triadic
elements of teaching, click the link below.

LEARNING, DEFINED
There has been a lot of attempts to explain and define what learning really is but still there
are raging disputes. However diverse the definitions are, my favorite definition of learning is
"the state in which a learning acquires permanent change of behavior." I define learning as
"permanent" since if something learned is forgotten, there's no learning at all.

Here are other definitions of learning:

1. Learning is a process by which behavior is either modified or wholly changed through


experience or training.

2. It is an ongoing process of continued adaptation to one's environment assimilation of


new information and accommodation of new input to fir prior knowledge.

7 CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT
Development among children is a very broad idea. However, it can be understood, at least
in a further extent, by being able to identify the seven things around which development
takes place.

These are the seven concepts of development which include growth, development (as a
term), maturation, heredity, environment, stages of development and developmental tasks.
Let's discuss each of these concepts in the following paragraphs.

GROWTH

Growth refers to the progressive increase and continuous advancement of the child from
birth to maturation. This term usually refers to the physical traits of the individual. Increase
in height, weight, number of bones, capacity and proportions is referred to as "growth."

DEVELOPMENT

Development refers to the gradual and orderly unfolding of the characteristics of an


individual as he goes through the successive stages of growth. This term refers to a sense
of simplicity to a sense of complexity.

Development is also compared to growth in that a person in a specific stage of growth


(physical) is also expected to show development (psychological, emotional, linguistic, etc.)
For example, a two-year-old baby is expected to be able to utter simple words like "mama,"
"papa," etc.

Further understanding of the term "development" with reference to growth can be acquired
by considering this next example. An individual who has attained the growth of, say,
eighteen years is expected not to act like three-year-old children. This is why the term
"developmental retardation" is used to label those who have attained a specific level of
growth but do not operate in the level of development expected from their level of growth.

Moreover, there are different types of development. We have physiological, cognitive, socio-
emotional and moral developments.
Physiological development is a kind of progress where an individual acquires an improved
control of the functions of his body. Examples of this include the ability to write, the ability to
jump, etc.

Cognitive development is a kind of progress where an individual acquires an improved use


of his brain. Examples of this include the ability to do mathematical operations, the ability to
process written language, etc.

Socio-emotional development, on the other hand, is a kind of progress where the individual
acquires an improved use of his social and emotional skills. Those who operate in the
highest socio-emotional development are believed to be able to handle relationships and to
be able to adjust, depending on circumstances. They are also believed to be have a good
control of their emotions.

Finally, moral development is a kind of progress where the individual acquires an improved
sense of what is right or what is wrong, depending on the context of the society in which he
lives. Those whose moral developments are well-advanced are believed to have better
decision-making and benefit-harm-weighing skills.

MATURATION

Maturation refers to that part of development that is honed through experiences. It is usually
referred to as "the internal ripening" aspect of an individual, indicating that growth has
already reached optimal level.

Maturation is, simply, structural changes within an individual which are caused by
experiences and metacognition. Signs of maturation are readiness and higher-level of
mental functions.

HEREDITY

Heredity is the process of transmitting traits fro parents to offspring through genes, the basic
unit of heredity. Heredity is usually the predetermination of an individual's maturation,
growth and development. There are arguments regarding the roles of nature and nurture to
an individual's life and nature seem to be ahead.

ENVIRONMENT

Environment is the opposite of heredity. If heredity is nature, then environment is nurture.

Environment refers to an individual's total surrounding conditions that are believed to be the
keys unlocking his heredity traits. It is one of the risk factors for developmental problems.

The society in which an organism lives is the whole picture of his environment. This means
that the dimensions of his society all contribute to his development.

The social dimensions that affect one's development include the family, the basic and most
direct social dimension, the school, the peers, the neighborhood, the church, etc. These are
all contributory to a person's behavior, belief, attitude, preferences, etc.
STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

Stages of development are referred to as the number of periods in the life cycle in which the
functions and relative emphasis of a given type of behavior differ from those at
other periods of life. Life span is arbitrarily divided into these stages or periods, with each
period being a part of a whole.

DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS

Developmental tasks are traits or behaviors expected from a certain stage of development.
Speaking for one-year-olds, walking for two-year-olds, writing for six-year-olds and writing
essays for fifteen-year-olds are but a few examples of the very many developmental tasks.

PRIMITIVE EDUCATION
Education did not start just a millennium or two in past; it has always existed. For since our
species began to use language -- verbal or nonverbal -- we have already started educating
people, especially those within our communities and those within our families.

The primitive form of education, which started 100,000 to 50,000 years ago, is also known
by the name "education for conformity. Why is this? Well, it's because of the fact that
education before did not involve anything other than how to survive and how to blend in with
the tribe to which one belonged.

There are two type of education within this form of education. First is the practical education
and second is the theoretical education. Practical education involves activities and skills
necessary for one to stay alive like hunting and fighting skills. Theoretical education, on the
other hand, involves spiritual and worship activities. These are necessary for one's
acceptance into the society. Beliefs traditions, rituals and customs are taught to the young
so that they can carry on with what the tribe also learned from their fathers and their fathers'
fathers and so on.

There were no schools or other educational institutions during the time when primitive
education was prevalent in the world. As a consequence, the family had become the agent
of education and the center of practical and theoretical training.

Fathers were tasked with the duty to train the boys how to hunt, how to build huts, how to
swim, how to produce fire and many more. Mothers, as counterparts, on the other hand,
were tasked to train the girls to manage the household. Tribe elders, those who reached
considerable age, were considered the high priests -- wisdom and moral counselors of the
tribe.

There were no levels of instruction. Children were taught of whatever, whenever the adults
have time to discuss and show the skills.
Contents of primitive education were usually ritualistic and prescriptive.They were organic
and trial-and-error in nature. The methods used were enculturation, indoctrination and tell-
me-and-show-me.

Culture was passed on and preserved for generations, through the words of mouth. This
medium allowed little changes to occur and accumulate into enormous changes over the
decades.

People were able to adjust and adapt to political and social life since primitive education is
flexible and pliant. Due to this flexibility, primitive people, the proponents of primitive
education, were able to meet their economic needs and were able to survive.

Recurring questions
1. The words "inadequate," "disembark," "uneducated" and "illegitimate" have prefixes that
are:

A. POSITIVE
B. COMMON
C. NEGATIVE
D. NEUTRAL

The answer for this item is letter C -- Negative.

Yes, it is tempting to answer letter B -- common -- because the words are, indeed, common.
(They are all negative.) However, to answer that general idea only disregards the specific
fact that they are negative.

TEST TAKING SKILLS: Always prefer specific descriptions over general descriptions,
especially when the specific description is logically under the general description.

TEST TAKING SKILLS: If there are two opposite choices, one of them is the correct
answer.

2. Which does not belong?

A. ASSUMPTION
B. SUMMARY
C. SYNTHESIS
D. GENERALIZATION

The answer for this item is letter A -- Assumption.

Generalization, summary and synthesis are all methods of producing or creating a


composition. Assupmtion is just a guess or a hypothesis.

3. Which of the following does not belong?


A. FAHRENHEIT
B. CENTIGRADE
C. CELSIUS
D. METER

The answer for this is, obviously, letter D -- Meter.

Choices A, B and C are temperature-related terms. Meter, on the other hand, is a distance-
related term.

4. "Blessed are __ poor."

A. YOU
B. THEY
C. THE
D. THOSE

The answer is letter C -- The.

The article the, when attached to a positive-degree adjective, makes a collective noun. The
phrase "the poor" means "all those who are poor at the time being." The other choices are
completely irrelevant.

5. What do you mean when you say "Please try to put your finger in the pie."

A. PLEASE TRY TO TASTE THE PIE BY DIPPING YOUR FINGER.


B. PLEASE TRY TO PARTICIPATE IN THE GROUP.
C. PLEASE TRY TO JOIN THE GROUP.
D. PLEASE TRY TO SUPPORT THE GROUP.

The answer for this is to participate -- letter B.

The closest distractor is letter D -- to support. However, supporting something does not
directly and actually mean participating in it.

RECURRING QUESTIONS #3
1. Drafting is considered as the universal language of?

A. Artistry
B. Humanity
C. Industry
D. Pottery

The answer for this item is C -- Drafting is considered as the universal language of industry.

Of course, you can immediately cross out letter D. Pottery does not make use of drafting.
On the other hand, the other two choices -- artistry and humanity -- are very broad ideas;
even drafting and pottery are under them. Drafting is known to be the universal language of
industry because it is a form of communication that is very technical and very exact. It
drives economic activities in all phases of the society.

TEST-TAKING SKILL: Immediately cross out very broad ideas.

2. If a drawing is generally made without the aid of any instrument, it is classified as _.

A. An orthographic drawing
B. An isometric drawing
C. A freehand drawing
D. An axonometric drawing

The answer for this item is letter C -- A freehand drawing.

Freehand drawing refers to the method of drawing in which the artist completes the piece
without the help of any instrument.

Letter A -- orthographic drawing -- cannot be the answer since it refers to the phenomena of
projecting three-dimensional images in a two-dimensional medium. Isometric drawing is
related to orthographic drawing in that it also is the projection of three-dimensional objects
in a two-dimensional plane. However, the only difference between the two is that
orthographic drawing is art in itself while isometric drawing is a method of clarification using
labels (for planning, etc.). Finally, axonometric drawing is a three-dimensional projection
used to create a pictorial drawing of an object, where the object is rotated along one or
more of its axes relative to the plane of projection.

3. The solidity of this object is shown by gradual darkening of its particular portions. What
process was used?

A. Darkening
B. Shading
C. Shadowing
D. Lighting

The question already contains a clue that the answer is letter A -- Darkening.

Darkening is the method of showing an object's solidity by the use of gradual strokes that
darken its portions. Shading, on the other hand, is the technique of showing the object's
depth by darkening the portions around it. Lighting and shadowing are by-products of
darkening and shading.

4. One of the best practices of good draftsman is never to letter without what?

A. Guidelines
B. Pencil
C. Lettering pens
D. Ink
The answer is obviously letter A -- Guidelines.

One can still letter with the use of B, C and D. Also, there's nothing wrong about not using
any of them because there are alternatives to serve the same purpose. However, there is
no other alternative, in manual lettering, for accuracy, than guidelines.

5. The lightest or the finest line that represents the axis or center of objects with
symmetrical shapes is know as what?

A. EXTENSION LINE
B. CENTER LINE
C. VISIBLE LINE
D. CUTTING PLANE LINE

The answer for this item is letter B -- Center line.

The clue in the question is the word "symmetrical." In a symmetry, the center separates the
two parts of an object in congruent halves.

To have letter C as an answer is vague since visible lines are the heaviest and the most
obvious lines in a draft.

RECURRING QUESTIONS #2
1. Who was the first to translate Jose Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adios to Tagalog?

A. Jose Gatmaitan
B. Apolinario Mabini
C. Andres Bonifacio
D. Jose Corazon de Jesus

The answer for item #1 is A -- Jose Gatmaitan.

Here is the first line of Jose Gatmaitan's translation of Mi Ultimo Adios, entitled "Huling
Paalam":

"Hulng Paalam"

Paalam, sintang lupang tinubuan,


bayang masagana sa init ng araw,
Edeng maligaya sa amiy pumanaw,
at perlas ng dagat sa dakong Silangan.

2. He constructed the lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem.

A. Andres Bonifacio
B. Graciano Lopez Jaena
C. Marcelo H. del Pilar
D. Jose Palma

The answer for this item is D -- Jose Palma. Let's summarize the history of the Philippine
National Anthem:

Juan Felipe composed the tune of the anthem under the name "Marcha Filipino Magdalo,"
which was later renamed to "Marcha Nacional Filipina." Jose Palma wrote the first original,
Spanish version entitled "Filipinas."

In 1919, one of greatest poets, Paz Marquez Benitez, the author of Dead Stars, constructed
an English version entitle "Land of the Morning." In 1956 the Surian ng Wikang Pambansa
or the Institute of National language composed the current Filipino version, "Lupang
Hinirang."

3. What is the country song of the people of Pampanga?

A. Pamulinawen
B. Ati Cu Pung Singsing
C. Dandansoy
D. Leron Leron Sinta

The answer for this item is letter B -- Ati Cu Pung Singsing. This song, when translated to
English, means "I once had a ring." It's a Kapampangan song, a ballad, in fact, relating a
story about a person who lost his ring when he thought he hid it in a chest. At the end of the
song, he promises to worship anyone who can bring his ring back to him.

Pamulinawen is an Ilocano song, Dandansoy is a Visayan song and finally, Leron Leron
Sinta is a Tagalog song.

4. This is a story in poem-form which includes the the adventures, life and heroism of the
main character who possesses extraordinary skills and unusual characteristics.

A. Bugtong
B. Alamat
C. Epiko
D. Awit

The answer for this item is letter C -- Epiko. Epiko is a Fililpino term for epic.

Alamat is what we call in English "legend." Legends are fictitious stories believed to have
happened, which explain the existence or occurrence of someone or something. An
example of an alamat in Tagalog mythology is Mariang Makiling.

Bugtong, in English, is "riddle." Riddles are short oral-puzzles. An example of a Tagalog


alamat is "Isang bangin, puno ng patalim." [A well full of knives].

Awit is a Filipino term for song. However, the term awit can also refer to one of the two
types of metrical romances -- awit and korido. Awit refers to a metrical story, usually sung to
the accompaniment of a guitar, in fandango style. On the other hand, 'koridos' or 'corridos,'
as Philippine romances are generally called, are heavily influenced by foreign literature.
They were the most popular among the Spanish colonial literary forms. They are of uniform
stanza pattern -- mono-riming and assonant quatrain -- and vary in length, from a few
hundred to several thousand lines. It must also be pointed out that korido deals with events
and happenings.

5. During Japanese colonization, Filipinos faced many trials and tribulations. One of these is
_.

A. Fall of Corregidor
B. Fall of Bataan
C. Landing in Leyte
D. Death March

The answer for this item is letter D -- Death March.

The Death March, which began on April 9, 1942, was the forcible transfer by the Imperial
Japanese Army of 60,000-80,000 Filipino and American prisoners of war after the three-
month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during World War II. In Japanese, this is called
Batn Shi no Kshin. All told, approximately 2,50010,000 Filipino and 100-650 American
prisoners of war died before they could reach their destination at Camp O'Donnell.

The 128 km (80 mi) march was characterized by wide-ranging physical abuse and murder,
and resulted in very high fatalities inflicted upon prisoners and civilians alike by the
Japanese Army, and was later judged by an Allied military commission to be a Japanese
war crime.

Letter A cannot be the answer since the Fall of Corregidor was only the part of history when
Lt. Jonathan Wainwright was forced to surrender the troops on Corregidor and the other
three fortified islands.

Letter be cannot be the answer because the Fall of Corregidor is, in itself, the same as the
Fall of Bataan. Bataan is a province within which Corregidor lies.

Landing in Leyte, letter C, cannot be the answer because it refers to the coming of General
Douglas Arthur McArthur in the Leyte on Oktubre 20, 1944. This is a fulfillment of his
promise, "I shall return," before he went Australia from Corregidor with the behest of the
then-President Franklin Roosevelt.

Here's a timeline one should remember:

Fall of Corregidor (April 9, 1942)


Death March (April 9, 1942)
Landing in Leyte (Oktubre 20, 1944)

NEXT RECURRING QUESTIONS>>>


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Labels: GENERAL EDUCATION, HISTORY AND LITERATURE,RECURRING QUESTIONS
RECURRING QUESTIONS #1
1. Sound is produced by the vibration of a body and as the vibration becomes faster, the
pitch normally _.

A. Remains the same


B. Becomes higher
C. Becomes lower
D. None of the above.

The answer for this item is letter B -- the pitch normally becomes higher.

Imagine a guitar. The pitch is higher for thinner strings. This is because thinner strings
vibrate faster than thicker strings. This is a consequence of their weight.

TEST TAKING SKILL: Choices B and C are opposite; therefore, between them is the
correct answer. Disregard A and D for this instance because of the opposite choices.
Choice D is an obvious dummy because there are only three possibilities and other than the
three, nothing else can happen to a pitch.

Remember, a pitch is the highness and lowness of a tone.

2. A French horn was developed by the French kings for elaborate hunting calls. French
horn is under _.

A. Percussion group
B. Rondalla
C. Woodwind group
D. Brasswind group

The answer for this item is letter d brasswind group. The French horn belongs to the
brasswind group.

Brasswind instruments are called that because they are USUALLY made of brass and
metal. Brasswind instruments are basically tubular and they produce different pitches by the
use of slides, valves, crooks and keys.

Brasswind and woodwind instruments have similarities. They are both played by being
blown and they are usually tubular.
The differences between them are as follows. (1) Brasswind instruments only amplify the
vibration created by the players blow; woodwind instruments have reeds that convert the air
into vibrations (except for flutes). (2) Brasswind instruments change their pitch by the
change of the length of the tube; woodwind instruments, on the other hand, change their
pitch by the change of where the air escapes from the instrument.

Here are examples of brasswind instruments: trumpets, French horns, baritone horns,
euphoniums, tubas, cornets, piccolo trumpets, alto horns and trombones. Now, we have
examples of woodwind instruments: flutes, hornpipes, saxophones, clarinets, oboes and
bassoon.

The French horn does not belong to the percussion group since percussion instruments are
musical instruments that are sounded by bring struck or scraped by a beater, by hand or by
the similar instrument. The most popular example of a percussion instrument struck by a
beater is the drum set. Examples of hand percussions are the triangle, maracas, sticks,
xylophones and the tambourine. Cymbals, on the other hand, are the most familiar example
for percussion instruments that are sounded by being struck against the same instrument.

Finally, Rondalla is an ensemble of stringed instruments. The Rondalla basically has the
following instruments: banduria, the laud, the octavina, the guitar and the bass-guitar.

3. Enables us to distinguish between sounds of various instruments and voice levels.

A. Pitch
B. Tone
C. Timbre
D. Intensity

Letter c timbre is the answer for number 3.

Timbre is defined as the character or quality of a musical sound or voice as distinct from its
pitch and intensity. Pitch is the highness or lowness of a sound while intensity is the
loudness or quietness of a sound or also known stress or dynamics.

Anyone who knows this definition will easily cut down the choices into two: tone or timbre.
Tone, on the other hand, can be defined as the overall quality of a sound but is generally
known as a step in the musical scale.

4. The letter name of the fourth space of a staff (treble staff) is __.
A. F
B. A
C. C
D. E

The answer for this item is letter d E.

Basically there are two staffs in a musical notation: the treble and the bass staff. The treble
staff is the upper staff and the bass staff, the lower. The treble staff is represented by a G-
clef and the bass staff is represented by an F-clef.

The mnemonics for the spaces in the treble staff is FACE. For the lines in the treble staff, it
is EGBDF (Every Good Boy Does Fine). For the bass staff, the mnemonics for the spaces is
ACEG (All Cows Eat Grass) and for the lines, GBDFA (Good Bikes Dont Fall Apart).

5. A higher register, male voice

A. Bass
B. Alto
C. Soprano
D. Tenor

For this item, the answer should be letter d tenor. There are generally two types of male
voice and the female voice. The male voice generally has four registers: the bass (the
lowest), the baritone (between the lowest and the highest), the tenor (one of the highest)
and the countertenor (one of the highest; in range with contralto). The female voice, on the
other hand, has three registers: the contralto (also known as alto; lowest), the mezzo-
soprano (between the lowest and the highest) and the soprano (the highest).

RECURRING QUESTIONS #2
1. Who was the first to translate Jose Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adios to Tagalog?

A. Jose Gatmaitan
B. Apolinario Mabini
C. Andres Bonifacio
D. Jose Corazon de Jesus

The answer for item #1 is A -- Jose Gatmaitan.

Here is the first line of Jose Gatmaitan's translation of Mi Ultimo Adios, entitled "Huling
Paalam":

"Hulng Paalam"

Paalam, sintang lupang tinubuan,


bayang masagana sa init ng araw,
Edeng maligaya sa amiy pumanaw,
at perlas ng dagat sa dakong Silangan.

2. He constructed the lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem.

A. Andres Bonifacio
B. Graciano Lopez Jaena
C. Marcelo H. del Pilar
D. Jose Palma

The answer for this item is D -- Jose Palma. Let's summarize the history of the Philippine
National Anthem:

Juan Felipe composed the tune of the anthem under the name "Marcha Filipino Magdalo,"
which was later renamed to "Marcha Nacional Filipina." Jose Palma wrote the first original,
Spanish version entitled "Filipinas."

In 1919, one of greatest poets, Paz Marquez Benitez, the author of Dead Stars, constructed
an English version entitle "Land of the Morning." In 1956 the Surian ng Wikang Pambansa
or the Institute of National language composed the current Filipino version, "Lupang
Hinirang."

3. What is the country song of the people of Pampanga?

A. Pamulinawen
B. Ati Cu Pung Singsing
C. Dandansoy
D. Leron Leron Sinta

The answer for this item is letter B -- Ati Cu Pung Singsing. This song, when translated to
English, means "I once had a ring." It's a Kapampangan song, a ballad, in fact, relating a
story about a person who lost his ring when he thought he hid it in a chest. At the end of the
song, he promises to worship anyone who can bring his ring back to him.

Pamulinawen is an Ilocano song, Dandansoy is a Visayan song and finally, Leron Leron
Sinta is a Tagalog song.

4. This is a story in poem-form which includes the the adventures, life and heroism of the
main character who possesses extraordinary skills and unusual characteristics.

A. Bugtong
B. Alamat
C. Epiko
D. Awit

The answer for this item is letter C -- Epiko. Epiko is a Fililpino term for epic.

Alamat is what we call in English "legend." Legends are fictitious stories believed to have
happened, which explain the existence or occurrence of someone or something. An
example of an alamat in Tagalog mythology is Mariang Makiling.

Bugtong, in English, is "riddle." Riddles are short oral-puzzles. An example of a Tagalog


alamat is "Isang bangin, puno ng patalim." [A well full of knives].

Awit is a Filipino term for song. However, the term awit can also refer to one of the two
types of metrical romances -- awit and korido. Awit refers to a metrical story, usually sung to
the accompaniment of a guitar, in fandango style. On the other hand, 'koridos' or 'corridos,'
as Philippine romances are generally called, are heavily influenced by foreign literature.
They were the most popular among the Spanish colonial literary forms. They are of uniform
stanza pattern -- mono-riming and assonant quatrain -- and vary in length, from a few
hundred to several thousand lines. It must also be pointed out that korido deals with events
and happenings.

5. During Japanese colonization, Filipinos faced many trials and tribulations. One of these is
_.

A. Fall of Corregidor
B. Fall of Bataan
C. Landing in Leyte
D. Death March

The answer for this item is letter D -- Death March.

The Death March, which began on April 9, 1942, was the forcible transfer by the Imperial
Japanese Army of 60,000-80,000 Filipino and American prisoners of war after the three-
month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during World War II. In Japanese, this is called
Batn Shi no Kshin. All told, approximately 2,50010,000 Filipino and 100-650 American
prisoners of war died before they could reach their destination at Camp O'Donnell.

The 128 km (80 mi) march was characterized by wide-ranging physical abuse and murder,
and resulted in very high fatalities inflicted upon prisoners and civilians alike by the
Japanese Army, and was later judged by an Allied military commission to be a Japanese
war crime.

Letter A cannot be the answer since the Fall of Corregidor was only the part of history when
Lt. Jonathan Wainwright was forced to surrender the troops on Corregidor and the other
three fortified islands.

Letter be cannot be the answer because the Fall of Corregidor is, in itself, the same as the
Fall of Bataan. Bataan is a province within which Corregidor lies.

Landing in Leyte, letter C, cannot be the answer because it refers to the coming of General
Douglas Arthur McArthur in the Leyte on Oktubre 20, 1944. This is a fulfillment of his
promise, "I shall return," before he went Australia from Corregidor with the behest of the
then-President Franklin Roosevelt.

Here's a timeline one should remember:

Fall of Corregidor (April 9, 1942)


Death March (April 9, 1942)
Landing in Leyte (Oktubre 20, 1944)

RECURRING QUESTIONS #3
1. Drafting is considered as the universal language of?

A. Artistry
B. Humanity
C. Industry
D. Pottery

The answer for this item is C -- Drafting is considered as the universal language of industry.

Of course, you can immediately cross out letter D. Pottery does not make use of drafting.
On the other hand, the other two choices -- artistry and humanity -- are very broad ideas;
even drafting and pottery are under them. Drafting is known to be the universal language of
industry because it is a form of communication that is very technical and very exact. It
drives economic activities in all phases of the society.

TEST-TAKING SKILL: Immediately cross out very broad ideas.

2. If a drawing is generally made without the aid of any instrument, it is classified as _.

A. An orthographic drawing
B. An isometric drawing
C. A freehand drawing
D. An axonometric drawing

The answer for this item is letter C -- A freehand drawing.

Freehand drawing refers to the method of drawing in which the artist completes the piece
without the help of any instrument.

Letter A -- orthographic drawing -- cannot be the answer since it refers to the phenomena of
projecting three-dimensional images in a two-dimensional medium. Isometric drawing is
related to orthographic drawing in that it also is the projection of three-dimensional objects
in a two-dimensional plane. However, the only difference between the two is that
orthographic drawing is art in itself while isometric drawing is a method of clarification using
labels (for planning, etc.). Finally, axonometric drawing is a three-dimensional projection
used to create a pictorial drawing of an object, where the object is rotated along one or
more of its axes relative to the plane of projection.

3. The solidity of this object is shown by gradual darkening of its particular portions. What
process was used?

A. Darkening
B. Shading
C. Shadowing
D. Lighting

The question already contains a clue that the answer is letter A -- Darkening.

Darkening is the method of showing an object's solidity by the use of gradual strokes that
darken its portions. Shading, on the other hand, is the technique of showing the object's
depth by darkening the portions around it. Lighting and shadowing are by-products of
darkening and shading.

4. One of the best practices of good draftsman is never to letter without what?

A. Guidelines
B. Pencil
C. Lettering pens
D. Ink

The answer is obviously letter A -- Guidelines.

One can still letter with the use of B, C and D. Also, there's nothing wrong about not using
any of them because there are alternatives to serve the same purpose. However, there is
no other alternative, in manual lettering, for accuracy, than guidelines.

5. The lightest or the finest line that represents the axis or center of objects with
symmetrical shapes is know as what?

A. EXTENSION LINE
B. CENTER LINE
C. VISIBLE LINE
D. CUTTING PLANE LINE

The answer for this item is letter B -- Center line.

The clue in the question is the word "symmetrical." In a symmetry, the center separates the
two parts of an object in congruent halves.

To have letter C as an answer is vague since visible lines are the heaviest and the most
obvious lines in a draft.

RECURRING QUESTIONS #4
1. The words "inadequate," "disembark," "uneducated" and "illegitimate" have prefixes that
are:

A. POSITIVE
B. COMMON
C. NEGATIVE
D. NEUTRAL

The answer for this item is letter C -- Negative.

Yes, it is tempting to answer letter B -- common -- because the words are, indeed, common.
(They are all negative.) However, to answer that general idea only disregards the specific
fact that they are negative.

TEST TAKING SKILLS: Always prefer specific descriptions over general descriptions,
especially when the specific description is logically under the general description.

TEST TAKING SKILLS: If there are two opposite choices, one of them is the correct
answer.

2. Which does not belong?

A. ASSUMPTION
B. SUMMARY
C. SYNTHESIS
D. GENERALIZATION

The answer for this item is letter A -- Assumption.

Generalization, summary and synthesis are all methods of producing or creating a


composition. Assupmtion is just a guess or a hypothesis.

3. Which of the following does not belong?

A. FAHRENHEIT
B. CENTIGRADE
C. CELSIUS
D. METER

The answer for this is, obviously, letter D -- Meter.

Choices A, B and C are temperature-related terms. Meter, on the other hand, is a distance-
related term.

4. "Blessed are __ poor."

A. YOU
B. THEY
C. THE
D. THOSE

The answer is letter C -- The.

The article the, when attached to a positive-degree adjective, makes a collective noun. The
phrase "the poor" means "all those who are poor at the time being." The other choices are
completely irrelevant.

5. What do you mean when you say "Please try to put your finger in the pie."

A. PLEASE TRY TO TASTE THE PIE BY DIPPING YOUR FINGER.


B. PLEASE TRY TO PARTICIPATE IN THE GROUP.
C. PLEASE TRY TO JOIN THE GROUP.
D. PLEASE TRY TO SUPPORT THE GROUP.

The answer for this is to participate -- letter B.

The closest distractor is letter D -- to support. However, supporting something does not
directly and actually mean participating in it.

LEARNING THEORIES
Kristel Nacion contributed this post. Hope to hear from you again soon, Kristel!

Proponent Theory Points to Remember


Ausubel Subsumption Clue: AuSUBel
Theory

SUBsumption- creation of
ADVANCE ORGANIZERS to
link newly learned materials
into existing ones
Bandura Observational Learning is brought about by
Learning OBSERVING. (Use of five
Theory senses)
Bruner Constructivist Construction of knowledge
Theory comes from SCHEMA or
previously learned concepts
Comenius Pansophism Clue: COMEnius COMET
(Father of (Universal found in
Modern Knowledge) the UNIVERSE= Universal-
Education) Learning, emotional and
spiritual growth are
INTERWOVEN. Teaching
must involve SENSES, not
merely MEMORIZATION.

Dewey Learning by Clue: Dewey: sounds like DO


Doing IT! (Imagine how Americans
pronounce do it)

Learning by EXPERIENCE
Erikson Socioemotional 8 STAGES of MAN which
Development describes the CRISES met by
man in every stage of LIFE.
Ex. 1st stage INFANCY: trust
vs. mistrust
Festinger Cognitive CHANGE is brought about by
Dissonance INCONSISTENCIES between
BEHAVIOR and BELIEF.
Freud Levels of MIND functions in different
Consciousness levels: conscious vs.
unconscious
MIND has THREE DIVISIONS
a. ID- primitive, self-centered
b. EGO- logical portion,
equilibrium
c. SUPER-EGO- conscience
Gagne Conditions of Different LEARNING
Learning STYLE means different
CONDITIONS of
LEARNING means different
TEACHING STRATEGIES
Gardner Multiple There are 9 different kinds of
Intelligences INTELLIGENCES
Kohlberg Stages of a. Pre-conventional- self-
Moral centered interest
Developmentb. Conventional- conforms to
expectations
c. Post- conventional- based on
higher principles
Locke Tabula Rasa Students: blank slates or blank
tablets
Teachers: writer of
knowledge
Maslow Hierarchy of Humans must satisfy the five
Needs levels of needs.

*lower needs must be satisfied


first before one can satisfy the
other needs
Posted by Mark Pea No comments:
Labels: PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING, PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING, PSYCHOLOGY

6 ELEMENTS OF THINKING
When we were in first-year college, we had a General Psychology course. As education
students we have to be trained to speak and teach in front. So that is why we always have
to have reportorial presentations. In the Psychology course, I was designated to present the
Elements of Thinking.

It was very hard for me to search what the Elements of Thinking are. I tried the library and
the internet but to no avail. This is the part where I had to ask help from my professor. LOL.

Now, I thought of posting this so that it could help people in their General Psychology
lessons. Here they are:

1. Inner speech
2. Body Movement
3. Mapping
4. Imagery
5. Reasoning
6. Masking

INNER SPEECH

Every time I'm asked a problem or anything to solve, I talk to myself and I guess I'm not the
only one who's doing it. This is inner speech. Lev Vygotsky used this in his cognitive
development theory, THOUGHT AND LANGUAGE. He said that we learn by instructing
ourselves what to do.

One of the manifestations of inner speech is what we do in the bathroom and in front of the
mirror. We talk to ourselves.

BODY MOVEMENT

When I think of a problem -- a really big problem --, I hold or scratch my head or forehead. I
don't command my hands through my circuit of system of nerves to this this but it naturally
happens. This is very common to many people. My friend, for one, blinks more often than
usual when he's thinking.

This proves that our mind is over our body. Our bodies are affected by what is happening in
our minds.

MAPPING

To put it in a smaller box, when we learn something, we put it somewhere in our storage
house where we can retrieve it easily when we need the information. We place it near
information which are similar. We arrange the information in our minds logically if possible.
This way we are MAPPING the concepts in our minds.

The time I learned how to play the guitar, I placed it near music information in my mind. This
way, whenever I think about music, I think about piano guitar. Because of this concept
mapping, I learned to relate guitar and piano in playing chords.

Of course, I don't do this intentionally. The whole process is done subconsciously as if the
brain is designed for sorting and arranging.

IMAGERY

Imagery is the visual description we see in our minds when we are thinking, especially when
reading or listening to stories.

When I was reading Jack London's To Build A Fire, I imagine blue and white. I see in my
mind how cold the setting was.

There are many types of imagery.

VISUAL IMAGERY. We see what we hear. While reading or hearing the part where
Juliet makes her monologue in the balcony, we see Juliet making her monologue in our
minds.
TACTILE IMAGERY. While Geoffrey Chaucer is describing Allison's dress as one of
the pilgrims, I picture in my mind how smooth her dress was.
GUSTATORY IMAGERY. Talking about food, I and my friend usually imagine in our
minds how delicious the food would be. Most of the time, it makes us salivate.
OLFACTORY IMAGERY. How did you feel while reading William Faulkner's A Rose
for Emily? How did you imagine the smell that the neighborhood complained about in the
story? We picture the smell in our mind.
AUDITORY IMAGERY. Imagine the some of long nails scratching the blackboard.
Your mind gives you the information the sound would be really awful because you are
picturing it in your mind.
KINESTHETIC IMAGERY. Every time I dream about myself falling down from a
building, I wake up kicking.
THERMAL IMAGERY. Temperature means a lot to the body and especially to the
mind.
VISCERAL IMAGERY. Upon hearing the word SAD, HAPPY, EXCITED or any
emotion, we imagine the feeling in our minds.

REASONING

Said Rene Descartes, DUBITO ERGO COGITO ERGO SUM. This means I DOUBT
THEREFORE I THINK THEREFORE I AM. Also, according to what I read, from a book I
can't remember, INTELLIGENCE IS NOT THINKING ABOUT THE THINGS YOU DOUBT
BUT DOUBTING THE THINGS YOU THINK YOU KNOW.
As a part of the thinking process, we doubt all information that comes in our mind and verify
them by the use of our logically arranged and systematized storage house. We reason out
based on our prior knowledge.

MASKING

Jean Piaget can still remember the time when some guys attempted to kidnap him and his
nanny. The memory in his mind is so clear that he's very sure that it really happened. But
everything was a hoax. His nanny tried to make a alibi when they arrived home late. Even if
Jean Piaget already knows the fact, he still can't erase in his mind the mask that it made.

As a natural function, our mind masks things we think we should know.

People who saw the news about the 9/11 Terrorist Attack thought that they saw in the
television the fall of both of the towers in the same day; only to find out that the video of the
second tower falling only went out to the public after a week but people say that they have a
clear memory of seeing the two towers collapse in the same video in the same day.

RA 1425
AN ACT TO INCLUDE IN THE CURRICULA OF ALL PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS,
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES COURSES ON THE LIFE, WORKS AND WRITINGS OF
JOSE RIZAL, PARTICULARLY HIS NOVELS NOLI ME TANGERE AND EL
FILIBUSTERISMO, AUTHORIZING THE PRINTING AND DISTRIBUTION THEREOF,
AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

WHEREAS, today, more than any other period of our history, there is a need for a re-
dedication to the ideals of freedom and nationalism for which our heroes lived and died;

WHEREAS, it is meet that in honoring them, particularly the national hero and patriot, Jose
Rizal, we remember with special fondness and devotion their lives and works that have
shaped the national character;

WHEREAS, the life, works and writing of Jose Rizal, particularly his novels Noli Me Tangere
and El Filibusterismo, are a constant and inspiring source of patriotism with which the minds
of the youth, especially during their formative and decisive years in school, should be
suffused;

WHEREAS, all educational institutions are under the supervision of, and subject to
regulation by the State, and all schools are enjoined to develop moral character, personal
discipline, civic conscience and to teach the duties of citizenship; Now, therefore,

SECTION 1. Courses on the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal, particularly his novel Noli
Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, shall be included in the curricula of all schools, colleges
and universities, public or private: Provided, That in the collegiate courses, the original or
unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo or their English
translation shall be used as basic texts.

The Board of National Education is hereby authorized and directed to adopt forthwith
measures to implement and carry out the provisions of this Section, including the writing
and printing of appropriate primers, readers and textbooks. The Board shall, within sixty
(60) days from the effectivity of this Act, promulgate rules and regulations, including those of
a disciplinary nature, to carry out and enforce the provisions of this Act. The Board shall
promulgate rules and regulations providing for the exemption of students for reasons of
religious belief stated in a sworn written statement, from the requirement of the provision
contained in the second part of the first paragraph of this section; but not from taking the
course provided for in the first part of said paragraph. Said rules and regulations shall take
effect thirty (30) days after their publication in the Official Gazette.

SECTION 2. It shall be obligatory on all schools, colleges and universities to keep in their
libraries an adequate number of copies of the original and unexpurgated editions of the Noli
Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, as well as of Rizals other works and biography. The said
unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo or their translations in
English as well as other writings of Rizal shall be included in the list of approved books for
required reading in all public or private schools, colleges and universities.

The Board of National Education shall determine the adequacy of the number of books,
depending upon the enrollment of the school, college or university.

SECTION 3. The Board of National Education shall cause the translation of the Noli Me
Tangere and El Filibusterismo, as well as other writings of Jose Rizal into English, Tagalog
and the principal Philippine dialects; cause them to be printed in cheap, popular editions;
and cause them to be distributed, free of charge, to persons desiring to read them, through
the Purok organizations and Barrio Councils throughout the country.

SECTION 4. Nothing in this Act shall be construed as amendment or repealing section nine
hundred twenty-seven of the Administrative Code, prohibiting the discussion of religious
doctrines by public school teachers and other person engaged in any public school.

SECTION 5. The sum of three hundred thousand pesos is hereby authorized to be


appropriated out of any fund not otherwise appropriated in the National Treasury to carry
out the purposes of this Act.

SECTION 6. This Act shall take effect upon its approval.

Approved: June 12, 1956

Published in the Official Gazette, Vol. 52, No. 6, p. 2971 in June 1956.
Posted by Mark Pea No comments:
Labels: RELEVANT LAWS, RIZAL

FREE SCRIPT FOR THE LIFE OF DR.


RIZAL (Chapter 20-25)
Scene 1:
| Ang matapang na pagbabalik ni Jose sa Pilipinas mula sa ibat
ibang bahagi ng mundo ay noong Hunyo, 1892. Ito ang pangalawa
niyang pagbabalik sa Pilipinas, pangalawa sa kanyang paguwi noong
Agosto, 1887. Alam ni Jose na papasukin nanaman niya ang isang
magulo at mapanganib na mundo ngunit determinado siyang ang laban
ay hindi na sa Espanya, kundi sa Pilipinas na mismo.

(Makikipagkamay at makikipagusap si Jose sa ilan sa mga kasapi ng


Liga at pagkatapos ay tutungo sa palpito at magsasalita.)

Jose: Tinitawagan ko ng pansin ang lahat! Magsisimula na ang


pagpupulong na ito.a

(Uupo ang lahat at tatahimik, tila nagaabang sa sasabihin ni Jose.)

Jose: Salamat. Salamat, mga kasama, sa inyong pagpapaunlak sa


pagpupulong na ito. Nais ko ring magpasalamat sa mabuti nating
kasamang si Doroteo Ongjuangco na buong pusong nagpahintulot sa
paggamit nating ng kanyang tahanan ngayon.

Alam nating lahat na ang La Liga Filipina ay bunga ng hinanakit at


karaingan ng La Solidaridad at ng Propaganda ngunit kailangan din
nating malaman na ang pinakalayunin nito ay ang pagpapasaayos ng
buhay at pamumuhay ng ating mga kababayan. Naniniwala tayong sa
bansag na Unus Instar Omnium o Isa, Gaya ng Lahat. Kaya naman,
lahat tayo ay magtutulungan na gaya ng iisang katawan sa ikabubuti
ng lahat.

Sa bahaging ito ay ipaliliwanag sa atin n gating kasamang si Pedro


Serrano ang mga layunin ng Saligang-Batas ng Liga.

(Tatayo si Pedro Serrano at ipapaliwanag ang mga layunin.)

Pedro Serrano: An gating Liga ay naglalayon na buuin ang buong


kapuluan at bigkisin bilang iisa at nagkakasundong katawan, adyain
ang bawat gusto at pangangailangan ng mga kapwa natin Pilipino,
ipagtanggol ang mga Pilipino sa karahasan at kawalang-hustisiya,
himukin ang edukasyon, agrario at kalakalan, at, bilang panghuli,
pagaralan at palaganapin ang mga pagbabago.

Jose: Salamat kasamang Pedro. Mayroon bang anumang katanungan?

Mariano Crisostomo: Paano naman nating matutustusan ang bawat gusto


at bawat pangangailangan ng Liga at ng mga kasapi nito?

Jose: Magandang tanong yan. Kailangan nating malaman na ang bawat


miembro ay magbabayad ng dalawampiso sa kanilang paganib sa liga at
dalawang sentimong ambag sa bawat buwan.
(Maguusap sa kanilang sarili ang mga kasapi at tila aayon ang
lahat. Biglang tatayo at magsasalita si Estanislao Legaspi.)

E. Legaspi: Maganda yan! Hindi kakayaning magpatuloy ng anumang


samahan kung walang paghuhugutan ng mga pangangailangan nito at ng
mga kasapi.

D. Ramos: Hindi ba mukhang labis ang presyo na iyon para sa inyo?

(Tatayong bigla si Faustino Villaruel.)

F. Villaruel: Kung kaya nga nating magbayad ng limpak-limpak ng


salapi para sa buwis ng mga bangus, kaya din natin para sa kapwa
natin mga Pilipino.

(Tatawa ang lahat.)

Jose: Tama ang sinabi ng kasama nating si Faustino Villaruel.


Gayong nagkasundo na ang lahat sa aspetong iyan, maaari na tayong
umusad. Sa bahaging ito ay ipaliliwanag naman sa atin ng kasamang
Juan Zulueta ang mga gampanin ng bawat kasapi sa Liga.

(Tatayo si J. Zulueta ay ipagliliwanag ang mga gampanin.)

J. Zulueta: Ang gampanin ng bawat kasapi ng Liga ay kabilang ngunit


hindi lang natatapos sa pagtalima sa Kataastaasang Konseho ng Liga,
pagtuling sa pagpapalawak ng mga kasapi, pagpipitagan sa hatol ng
Kataastaasang Konseho ng Liga, pagkakaroon ng simbolikong pangalan
ng hindi maaaring palitan ninoman maliban nalang siyay maging
presidente ng kanyang koseho, pagsumbong sa awtoridad ng Liga ng
anumang may kinalaman ditto, pagkilos ng ayon saan batayan ng
pagiging mabuting Pilipino at pagtulong sa lahat ng kasapi sa
anumang mga paraan.

Jose: Salamat sa pagpapaliwanag, kasamang Juan. At ngayon, bilang


panghuli ay pakinggan natin ang president n gating Liga, ang
kasamang Ambrosio Salvador!

(Papalakpak ang lahat hanggang magsalita si Ambrosio Salvador.)

A. Salvador: Salamat kasamang Pepe. Gusto kong ihatid ang aking


pagpapasalamat sa inyong lahat sa inyong pagtitiwala sa aking
kakayahan. Ipinangangako ko na ang ating Liga ay magiging masigla
at matibay sa aking pamumuno at sa mga susunod pang panahon. Umaasa
din akong gagampanan ninyo ang lahat ng inaasahan sa inyo. Dadating
ang araw na aalaalahin ng lahat ng mga Pilipino na sa taong ito,
1892, naitatag ang La Liga Filipina. Mabuhay ang Liga!

Lahat: Mabuhay ang Liga!


A. S.: Mabuhay ang Pilipinas!

Lahat Mabuhay!

(Unang kakamay si Rizal kay Salvador, kakamay ang lahat kay


Salvador at aalis na si Jose.)

TELON

Scene 2:

| Pagkatapos ng pagpupulong ng La Liga Filipina, dumeretso si Jose


kay General Despujol sa Malacanan. Kinailangan niyang makipagkita
sa General upang pagusapan ang kaso ng kanyang pamilya.

(Papasok si Jose, akmang kakamayan ang General ngunit pipigilan


siya nito.)

GD: Por favor, permanecer de pie!

Jose: Si, General.

GD: Su nombre?

Jose: Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda.

GD: Ah, el exiliado!? Ha-ha-ha! Sentarse

Jose: Gracias, senor

GD: Bakit ka naparito, Jose?

Jose: Gusto ko hong kumustahin ang kaso ng aking pamilya ng aking


ama, ng aking mga kapatid.

GD: Mukhang mas magandang pagusapan nalang natin ang kinalaman mo


kay Bonifacio?

Jose: (Gulat) Wala akong alam sa sinasabi mo, General.

GD: (Ngingiting sandali) Bueno. Napatawad na ang iyong ama, Jose,


at malaki ang posibilidad na mapatawad na rin ang iyong mga
kapatid. Ang kaso mo ang problema, Jose. Malabo kang mapatawad
dahil malakas ang kaso laban sa iyo.

Jose: Malakas ang kaso labang sa akin? Pero

GD: Tiniente!
Tiniente: Si, General!?

GD: Donde estan los papeles y los pruebas?

(Kukunin ng tinienta ang mga papeles at iaabot kay General. Bago pa


man niya maiabot ay sinunggaban ni General ang mga ito.)

Tiniente: Aqui lo tienes

GD: (Tatayo at lilibot habang nagbabasa) Ayon sa kaso mo, Jose,


sumulat ka ng mga libro at mga polieto na laban sa Espaniya at
laban sa Simbahan, isinulat mo ang El Filibusterismo bilang
pagaalaala sa tatlong traydor na mga pari Gomez, Burgos at Zamora
at ang layunin mo sa pagsusulat ay para sirain ang Kabanalbanalang
Iglesia Katolika Apostolika Romana.

Jose: Wala ni isa sa mga yan ang may prueba, General. Ang mga
akusasyong gaya ng mga yan ay maaaring manggaling kahit kanino
lang. Wala akong ki

GD: Huwag mo nang paikut-ikutin ang ulo naming Jose! No somos


idiotos!

Jose: General, nagsasabi akong ng totoo

GD: (Dahan-dahan) Ano ang kinalaman mo sa mga pagaalsa at ano ang


alam mo kay Bonifacio?

Jose: Wa

GD: Hindi kami mga tanga, Jose. (Ihahagis niya ang mga polieto sa
harapan ni Rizal.) Pobres Frailes isang satirika laban sa
simbahan at sa mga pari!

(Papalakpak si General Despujol at akmang dadalpin si Rizal ng


isang guardia. Papalag siya sa unang pagkakataon.)

Jose: Wala akong alam sa mga ito, General!

GD: Nasabat ang mga polietong yan sa Ate Lucia mo. Sige, kunin na
yan at ipatapon kay Capitan Carcinero!

Jose: Kailangan ko ng patas ng paglilitis, General! Hindi tama ito!

TELON

Scene 3: STEAMER
| Dinala si Jose sa isang steamer, Cebu, patungong Dapitan. Bago
tumuloy ang steamer ay binasahan siya ng hatol ni Capitan Carcinero
at nakatanggap siya ng sulat mula kay Padre Pastells.

(Hawak pa rin si Rizal ng guardia habang binabasahan siya ng hatol


sa kanya. May mga taong nakaupo sa steamer.)

CC: Anong pangalan mo?

Jose: Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda.

CC: (May isusulat sa isang papel, tatayo at babasahan si Jose.)


Ikaw, Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda, ay
ipinatatapon sa Dapitan sa kasong panguupat ng pagaalsa laban sa
Espaniya at sa Simbahan. Ikaw ay mananatili doon sa loob ng apat na
taon sa ilalim ng aking superbisyon. Naiintindihan mo ba ang hatol
na ito sa iyo?

(Hindi sasagot si Jose. Uupo siya sa gitna ng steamer, aalis ang


guardia at si CC. Darating ang isang kartero na may dalang sulat
para kay Jose.)

Kartero: Donde estan Jose Rizal?

Jose: Si! Tengo una carta?

Kartero: Galing ho kay Padre Pablo Pastells.

Jose: Akin nga iyan. (May ipapipirma ang kartero. Bubuksan ni Jose
ang sulat at babasahin ito. Iparirinig sa voice over ang nilalaman
ng sulat.)

Padre Pastells
Compana de Jesus
Filipinas
Jose,
Magandang araw sa iyo! Sana ay natanggap mo ang liham na ito na
nasa mabuti kang kalagayan. Kung ako naman ang iyong tatanungin,
ako ay mabuti naman sa awa at tulong ng Dios.
Nabalitaan ko ang pagpapatapon sa iyo sa Dapitan kaya dali-dali
akong sumulat kay Padre Obach upang ipaalam sa kanya ang iyong
kalagayan at pangangailangan. Sinabi niya sa akin na maaarin kang
tumira sa kumbento ng Simbahan kung susundin mo lang ang mga payo
niya sa iyo.
Una, gusto niyang bawiin mo ang lahat ng sinabi mo laban sa Iglesia
Katolika at na gumawa ka ng mga pahayag na kontra-rebolusyon.
Pangalawa, gusto niyang magbalikloob ka sa Simbahan at magkumpisal.
Panghuli, gusto niya na kumilos ka ng naaayon sa mga gawi ng alipin
ng Espaniya at gawi ng mga pananampalataya.
Sana ay basbasan ka ng Dios sa mga plano mo.
Laging gumagabay,
Padre Pastells

(Tatayo si Jose at mananalumpati ng sagot niya sa sulat ni Padre


Pastells.)

Jose: Hindi! Hindi ako papaya sa mga kundisyong ito para lang
makapanirahan ng walang bayad sa kumbento kasama ng mga prayle.
Hinding hindi ko babawiin ang mga nasabi ko laban sa relihiyon
dahil ang lahat ng mga iyon ay tama. Aso lang ang kumakain ng
sarili niyong iniluwa.

Bakit ako magbabalikloob sa Simbahan at magkukumpisal? Bakit ako


magkukumpisal sa mga taong gaya ko ay makasalanan? Maninindigan ako
sa mga bagay na ipinaglalaban ko at hinding hindi ako magpapataboy
sa mga kundisyon ng sinuman.

TELON

Scene 4:

|Dahil hindi pumayag si Jose sa mga kundisyon ni Padre Obach,


kinailangan niyang tumira kasama ng kanyang warden, si Capitan
Ricardo Carcinero. Di naglaon ay naging magkaibigan ang dalawa.
Nagustuhan ni Capitan Carcinero ang pagiging magalang at matalino
ni Jose. Nagkaroon sila ng magaganda at malalalim na mga paguusap
sa harap ng hapagkainan. Alam ni Capitan Carcinero na hindi isang
kriminal si Jose kaya naan pinayagan niya siyang maglibot sa
Dapitan na wariy malaya.

(Nasa loob ng bahay si Jose. Isaisang darating ang tatlo niyang mga
bisita si Francisco na magbabalita sa kanya ng napanalunan niya
sa bolahan, si Padre Sanchez na makikipagtalo sa kanya tungkol sa
relihiyon at si Pablo Mercado na espiyang ipinadala para manmanan
siya. Kakatok si Francisco.)

Francisco: Tao po!

Jose: (Ititigil ang pagbabasa ng diaryo) Sandali lang! Sino yan?

Ah, Francisco! Ikaw pala halika tul

Francisco: Jose, may maganda akong balita sa iyo!

Jose: Oh, kalma lang Francisco, ano ba yan? (Uupo)


Francisco: Nananalo tayo sa bolahan!

Jose: (Mapapatayo) Ano? Bolahan? Talaga? Magkano?

Francisco: Tumama tayong tatlo ng bente mil ikaw, ako at si


Capitan Carcinero.

Jose: Tingnan mo nga naman ang swerte ano!?

Francisco: Tama ka diyan! Kaya maghahati tayong tatlo at makakukuha


tayo ng tig-sais mil dos cientos!

Jose: Marami akong paggagamitan ng perang makukuha ko

Francisco: -- Anu ano naman?

Jose: Una, magbibigay ako ng dalawang-libong piso sa aking ama.


Tapos, Dalawandaan naman ang ibibigay ko sa kaibigan kong si Basa
na nasa Hong Kong

Francisco: -- Eh ang iba?

Jose: -- Ang iba naman ay ikakapital ko sa agrikiltura, isang


munting paaralan at negosyo dito sa Dapitan!

Francisco: Oh, siya, Jose! Aalis na muna ako. Bukas idadaan ko dito
ang bahagi mo sa bolahan!

Jose: Huwag mong kalilimutan Francisco ha? Bukas! Sige! (Bubulong


sa sarili) Swerte nga naman oo.

(Pagupo ni Jose ay may kakatok nanaman sa pinto. Aakalain niyang si


Francisco. Yun pala ay si Padre Sanchez)

Jose: Bakit, ay nakalimutan ka ba Francisco? Ha-ha! (Bubuksan ang


pinto.)

FS: Jose!

Jose: Padre Sanchez! Kumusta na kayo? Tuloy kayo! Buti naman at may
panahon kayong dalawin ako dito?

FS: Lagi akong may panahon para sayo Jose. Nabalitaan ko sa labas
na tumama ka raw sa higit anim na libo sa bolaha?

Jose: Ah, oo, Padre

FS: Alam ko namang magaling kang magmeneho ng pera. Huwag mong


iisiping hihingi ako ng balato kaya ako naparito ah? (Tatawa ang
dalawa.)

Jose: Susubukan kong palaguan ang perang makukuha ko habang nandito


ako sa Dapitan.

FS: Maganda yan, Jose. Siya nga pala. Gusto ko nang puntuhin ang
ipinunta ko dito. Sandali lang din akot di ako pwedeng magtagal.

Jose: Anu iyon, Padre?

FS: Nawawalan ka na ng pananampalataya, Jose?

Jose: Magkakaiba tayo ng pangmalas sa pananampalataya, Padre.

FS: Hindi ka na nagkukumpisal, Jose.

Jose: (Tatayo si Jose) Padre, hindi ang pangungumpisal ang batayan


ng pananampalataya ng isang tao. Isa pa, hindi ko kailangang
mangumpisal.

FS: Bakit hindi, Jose? Isa ang pangungumpisal sa mga tungkulin mo


sa Dios.

Jose: Sa Dios o sa tao? Bakit ko nga ba kailangan mangumpisal?


Bakit ko kailangang humingi ng tawad sa mga taong gaya ko ay
makasalanan din? Sa Dios ako nagkukumpisal, Padre.

FS: Hindi naman bababa ang Dios dito sa lupa para pagkumpisalin ka,
Jose. Kaya nga siya nagpapadala ng mga kasangkapan niya.

Jose: Para saan pa ang panalangin, Padre? Alam nating dalawa na ang
panalangin ang nagiisang komunikasyon natin sa Dios. Hindi ko
kailangan ng anumang ritual para mapalapit sa Kanya.

FS: (Nanlulumo) Huwag mong sabihin yan, Jose. Alam kong marami
kang mapait na karanasan sa Simbahan pero hindi yan dahilan para
lumaban ka sa Santa Iglesia. Nasa Simbahan ang kaligtasan, Jose;
huwag mong kalilimutan yan. (Hindi sasagot si Jose.)

Oh, siya, Jose. Tutuloy na rin ako. Hinihiling ko sa Dios na naway


basbasan niya ang isip mo bago pa mahuli ang lahat.

Jose: Salamat sa dalaw mo, Padre. (Ihahatid ang pari sa pintuan.)


Hanggang sa huling pagkikita!

FS: Magingat kang lagi, Jose.

(Babalik si Jose sa kanyang pagkaupo si Jose at susulat kay


Blumentritt. Wariy magsusulat si Jose at maririnig sa VOICE OVER
ang isinusilat niya.)

Dear Blumentritt;
My friend,
I shall tell you how we live here. I have three houses, where I
live with my mother, my sister Trinidad, my nephew and my students.
One of the three houses is for my chickens. I have many farm
animals, many fruit trees and many vegetables. I actually have a
small boat in which to ride to kill time. I wake up very early in
the morning to prepare food and prepare things I need for the day.
I hope that you come here and see how idyllic life is in Dapitan.
Take care, always.
Your friend,
Jose Rizal

(Matapos magsulat ay makaririnig si Jose ng katok sa pintuan.)

Jose: Sandali lang!(Bubuksan ang pinto at makikita ang hindi


pamilyar na mukha Pablo Mercado.)

PM: Magandang hapon sa iyo, Jose! Kumusta ka na?

Jose: Maayos naman ako. Anung maitutulong ko sa iyo?

PM: Ah! Pasensiya na kung nakaabala ako sa iyo. Ako si Pablo


Mercado; kamag-anak mo ako!

Jose: Ah, halika tuloy ka. Pagpasensiyahan mo na ang hamak ko


tirahan. Anu uli kamo? Kamag-anak kita?

PM: Ah, oo. Hindi mo na siguro ako maalala. Ako si Pablo Mercado.
Heto, isang butones na may markang PM, ako yan Pablo Mercado at
heto nga pala ang isang retrato mo.

Jose: Nakatutuwa namang may kopya ka ng retrato kong ito. Pasensiya


ka na ano pero hindi talaga kita maalala. Ipaalala mo nga ulit sa
akin kung paano kita naging kamag-anak?

PM: Naku! Mahabang kuwento yan, Jose! Aabutin tayo ng siyam-siyam!


Siya nga pala. Hirap na hirap akong hanapin ka. Naipatapon ka raw
dito?

Jose: Ah, oo. Mukhang kailangan kong manatili ng ilang taon dito.
Sulat lang ang tangi kong komunikasyon sa Maynila.

PM: Nakalulungkot namang malaman iyan, Jose. Sa tingin moy may


maitutulong ako sa iyo?
Jose: Wala naman sa ngayon pero huwag kang magalala, sasabihin ko
sayo kung sakaling kailanganin ko ng tulong mo.

PM: Ah, may naisip ako! Anu kayat ako nalang ang maghatid ng mga
sulat mo papuntang Maynila? Isang munting tulong ko nalang sa
matagal ko nang hindi nakitang kamag-anak?

Jose: Magandang ideya yan pero mukhang mas magandang ang mga
kartero nalang ang gumawa ng paghahatid ng sulat. Alam naman nating
bihasa sila sa mga ganung gawain.

PM: Ah, oo naman, siyempre. Naku, maggagabi na pala. Salamat sa


oras mo, Jose. Baka tutuloy na rin ako.

Jose: Aalis ka na? Gagabihin ka na sa daan. Mahirap mangapa sa


dilim. Mas mabuti pay dito ka na magpalipas ng gabi. Bukas ka
nalang ng magang-maga tumuloy.

PM: Salamat, Jose. Nakakatakot na rin ngang lumabas.

Jose: Halika at maghanda na tayo ng hapunan.

TELON

Scene 5:

|Nakaramdam na ng hindi maganda si Jose sa taong nagpakilala sa


kanya bilang Pablo Mercado. Di naglaon ay nalaman niyang siya pala
si Florencio Namanan, isang espiya ng mga prayle na nagbabalak
makakalap ng mga ebidensiyang magpapadiin kay Jose. Sa loob ng apat
na taong pananatili ni Jose sa Dapitan ay naging produktibo ang
kanyang buhay. Naging manggagamot siya ng mga naninirahan duon,
naging guro sa mga maliliit na mga bata, naging bihasa sa agham,
nagsulat ng mga tula, nagpinta ng magagandang mga obra maestro at
naging negosyante. Kahit abala si Rizal ay hindi naging hadlang ang
mga gawain niya para makilala niya si Josephine Bracken.

(Nakaupo si Jose, darating si Josephine Bracken kasama ang kanyang


ama. Ihahatid ni Josephine ang kanyang amain sa receiving area ng
klinika ni Jose. Bubuksan ni JB ang pinto.)

JB: Hello, good day! (Romantic music)

Jose: Good day to you too, miss. Come in!

JB: You must be Dr. Rizal. Im Josephine Bracken from Ireland.

Jose: Ireland? They say women from Ireland are beautiful. I see
theyre not mistaken.

JB: (Mahihiya) Thank you very much, Dr. Rizal.

Jose: I think it would be more fitting if you call me Jose. People


call me by that name.

JB: Uh, yes. Dr. Jose. Weve heard of your expertise as an eye
physician even in my home town. I really need your help.

Jose: Why, Josephine, is there a problem with those big, beautiful,


blue eyes of yours? (Hahawakan ang mga mata ni JB.)

JB: (Mahihiya) Not me. My father.

Jose: Oh, Im sorry. Would you mind bringing him in? (Dadalhin ni
JB ang kanyang ama sa loob ng klinika ni Jose. Susuriin sandal ni
Jose ang mga mata ng ama ni JB.)

JB: Weve already consulted doctors from other countries. They fail
to give any help.

Jose: Im afraid your fathers case is really a difficult one. If I


conduct an operation on his eyes, chances are low for us to recover
his eyesight; nevertheless and rest assured, I will try my best and
will exhaust everything that I can.

JB: Thank you, Dr. Jose.

Jose: (Titipunin ang buhok sa likod ng tainga ni JB.) Dont call me


Dr. Jose ; just Jose is enough.

JB: Alright.

Jose: So, I guess you have to come back here on Wednesday so that I
can have plenty of time to prepare the necessary tool that I will
use. Dont worry about your fathers condition.

JB: Thank you, Jose. Well come back on Wednesday. (Pagbubuksan ni


Jose ng pinto si JB at ang kanyang ama. Uupo siya at susulat ng
tula para kay Josephine na maririnig sa VOICE OVER.)

Josephine, Josephine
Who to these shores have come
Looking for a nest, a home
Like a wandering swallow;
If your fate is taking you
To Japan, China or Shanghai,
Dont forget, on these shores
A hear for you beats high

(Papasok bigla si JB)

JB: Dr. Rizal! Dr. Rizal!

Jose: Josephine, you have come back? Whom are you with?

JB: I came here alone. I escaped from home them; I wanted to see
you again.

Jose: Its a good thing you came back. Ever since I saw you, I
already felt strange inside me. See, (Ipakikita sa kanya ang ginawa
niyang tula) I made a poem especially for you. I think Im in love
with you, Josephine!

JB: Yes, I know. I feel the same for you, Dr. Rizal

Jose: (Pipigilan sa pagsasalita si JB.) Remember, I told you, not


to call me Dr. Rizal. Call me Jose, as if your own.

(Biglang makararamdam ng pagsisisi si JB. Tatayo at lalayo kay


Jose.)

JB: What am I doing!? Am I crazy? Is it really possible to fall


in love with someone Ive only seen a few moments ago?

Jose: Dont be afrain, Josephine. We share the same feelings. If it


is insanity to love, then I, too, am insane.

JB: I love you, Jose.

Jose: I love you and I would love to marry you.

JB: Lets marry

Jose: -- and have children?

JB: Yes! Lets make a family, Jose. You and me!

Jose: I will contact a priest as soon as possible! I will marry you


now! Today!

(Iiwan ni Jose si JB sa kaniyang klinika, kukunin si Padre Obach at


ipakikita sa kanya si Josephine. Papasok si Jose at Padre Obach.)

Jose: There she is, father, the love of my life!


Padre Obach: (Hihilahin siya sa tabi) Jose, anung bang naiisip mo?
Maghulusdili ka! Nababaliw ka na ba? Kakikilala mo lang sa babaeng
yan, gusto mo na ng kasal!?

Jose: Padre, nagmamahalan kami. Hindi bat yun naman ang mahalaga
sa isang kasal? Ang pagmamahal?

PO: Pagmamahal? Nababaliw ka na, Jose! (Nanggigigil) Kakikilala mo


palang sinasabi mo na yan na wariy ilang taon mo na siyang
kasama! Isa pa, Jose, hindi ko kayo pwedeng ikasal ng basta-basta.
Kailangan ko pang sumulat sa Obispo ng Cebu. Siguradong hindi rin
siya papayag kung malalaman niya ang bagay na ito!

Jose: Padre, ikasal mo na kami!

JB: Jose, my love, is there any problem?

Jose: No, darling. Please wait. I and father Obach are discussing
some matters. (Babalik kay Padre Obach.) Padre, wala akong
nakikitang mali sa pagmamahalan naming!

PO: Jose, wala na akong maitutulong pa sa iyo. Kung malalaman ito


ng iyong ina, tiyak na magiging kahihiyan niya ang inyong kasal at
magiging kahihiyan ng simbahan kung papayagan ko kaya. Pasensiya
na. (Lalabas na si PO. Hahabol si Jose.)

Jose: Padre!
JB: Doesnt the priest want to solemnize our wedding?

Jose: He told me that our wedding could be a problem. Dont worry,


Josephine. Weddings are not important! Whats important is that we
love each other.

JB: But people might say bad things about us.

Jose: I dont care! What I care about is that we live in together


and make a family.

JB: I love you, Jose!

Jose: I love you too, Josephine. Today, I promise to you, in the


presence of God, that we are husband and wife.

WEDDING MARCH BY MEDDLESON

TELON

Scene 6:
|Naging maganda ang pagsasama ni Jose at ni Josephine kahit na
hindi sila kasal ng simbahan. Naging masipag si Josephine sa
pagtulong sa kanyang asawa at matiya niyang pinagaaralan ang wika
ni Jose, Filipino. Nagdalang-tao si Josephine ngunit sa kasamaang
palad ay hindi nabuhay ang bata.

(Ipapakitang buntis si Josephine at nagaayos sa bahay. Nadaring ang


isa sa mga kapitbahay ni Jose na nagkukumahog. Dalaldala naman ng
dalawa pang iba si Josephine.)

Bebang: Jose! Jose! Manganganak na ata si Josephine, Jose!

Jose: Kalma lang ho, Aling Bebang. Pumutok na bang panubigan niya?

Bebang: Ay naku, oo, Jose!

Jose: Nasaan ho ba siya?

(Papasok si Josephine na bitbit-bitbit ng dalawang kapitbahay.


Nagaalala si Aling Bebang at kinakabahan na ang dalawa.)

JB: Jose! Jose! Ahh! It hurts!

Jose: Just calm down, Josephine. Just calm down. (Ihihiga si JB sa


isang papag.) Breath in, breath out! Just follow me: breath in,
breath out. Come on!

(Magpapatuloy sa paghingal at pagiri at pagiyak si Josephine habang


pinupunansan ni Aling Bebang ang ulo ni Jose at iniaabot kay Jose
ng iba pang dalawa ang mga kagamitan. Pagkatapos ng ilang sandal)

Jose: Its a boy. (Dismayado)

(Magugulat ang tatlong babae. Kakausapin ni Jose si Aling Bebang.)

Aling Bebang: Jose, patay ang bata. Paano mo sasabihin kay


Josephine?

Jose: Huwag muna nating sasabihin sa kanya, Aling Bebang. Hayaan


nalang muna nating makapagpahinga ang isip at katawan niya.

Aling Bebang: Tama ka diyan. Hindi rin magandang sabihin sa kanya


agad at baka mabigla siya.

Jose: (Tatango si Jose.) Aling Bebang, maghanda ka ng ataol na gawa


sa makikinis na kahoy. Maliit lang. Ililibing ko ngayong gabi ang
bata.

Aling Bebang. Sige, Jose.


Music: Funeral March by Chopin

TELON

Scene 7

|Nang gabing iyon ay inilibing ni Jose ang kanyang siyam-na-buwang


anak sa isang kakahuyan sa Dapitan. Pinangalanan niya itong
Francisco bilang pagalaala sa kanyang amang si Don Francisco. Labis
na naghinagpis si Jose sa pangyayaring ito sa kanyang buhay. Mabuti
nalang at nandoon ang mga kaibigan at kapitbahay niya sa Dapitan
upang makiramay sa kanyang pangungulila.

(Unang makikita si Jose na nakatayo kasama ang ilang mga tao.


Nakaupo naman si JB. Nakikiramay sila at nagpapaalam nang aalis.)

Tao1: Nakikiramay kami sa nangyari sa iyong anak, Jose. Inaasan din


naming magkakaroon ka na ng anak.

Jose: Salamat, kasama. Hindi ko rin inaasahang ganun ang


mangyayari.

Tao2: Kung nabuhay siguro si Francisco ay magiging kasing galing


niya ang kanyang ama.

Tao3: Oo, at malamang ay magiging manananggol din siya n gating


Inang Bayan.

Jose: (Ngingiti si Jose sandali.) Salamat sa inyo.

Tao4: Oh, siya Jose tutuloy na kami.

Jose: Magiingat kayo. (Uupo si Jose at tatabihan si JB. Tulala si


JB.) I know the sorrow that you feel, Josephine. I know how it
feels to lose a child. (Titingnan ni JB si Jose at hindi
magsasallita.)

(Papasok ang isang kaibigan ni Jose dala ang balitang pumayag na si


Governor Blanco sa pagtulong niya sa Cuba.)

Kaibigan: Jose! Jose! Pagpasensiyahan mo na ang pagaalaba ko.

Jose: Walang anuman yon, kasama. Ano bang maipaglilingkod ko sa


iyo.

Kaibigan: Isang sulat galing kay Governador Blanco, Jose. Mukhang


papayagan ka na sa pagtulong mo sa labanan sa Cuba.
Jose: Nakapagtataka naman. (Binubuksan ang sulat.) Matagal ko nang
ipinadala ang sulat ko sa kanila. Ngayong lang darating ito.
(Babasahing sandal.)

Kaibigan: Oh, anong eka, Jose?

Jose: Sulat nga mula sa Gobernador. Pinapayagan na akong tumulong


sa labanan sa Cuba pero hinihiling sa aking dumaan muna sa Maynila
para mapagbilinan ako sa pagpunta ko sa Espaniya.

Kaibigan: Maganda yan, Jose! Nakatutuwa namang isipin na


pinagyagan ka ng Gobernador sa iyong kahilingan.

Jose: Tama ka pero kailangan kong iwanan ang Dapitan. Napamahal na


ako dito, kasama.

JB: What is that, Jose?

Jose: Its a letter from Governor General Blanco Josephine. Hes


notifying me that he is accepting my help for the war in Cuba.

Kaibigan: Salamat sa tulong mo dito sa Dapitan, Jose. Marami kang


nagawang proyekto dito at dahil sa mga yun ay umunlad ang buhay at
pamumuhay naming rito. Salamat din sa pagtuturo mo sa mga kabataan
dito; mula ngayon ay may maiiwan kang marurunong sa bayan na ito.

Jose: Walang anuman yun kaibigan. Itinuring ko naring sarili kong


tahanan itong Dapita. Sa apat na taong pananatili ko dito ay
naramdaman ko ang pagkalingan naramdaman ko sa Calamba.

Kaibigan: Hindi ka naming makalilimutan kailan man, Jose. Salamat.

TELON

|Noong Hulyo 31, 1897 natapos ang pagpapatapon kay Jose. Apat na
taon din siyang nanatili sa Dapitan. Labis ang lungkot at
pangungulilang naramdaman ng mga naninirahan duon nang umalis si
Jose. Nawalan sila ng isang pangulo, ng isang manananggol at ng
isang kaibigan. Nagpaalam kay Jose lahat ng mga mamamayan ng
Dapitan at untiunti silang lumuha habang untiunting lumalayo ang
Espaniya, ang steamer na sinakyan ni Jose papuntang Maynila.

Scene 8

|Nang nasa Maynila na si Jose ay marami siyang nalaman na lubhang


bumagabag sa kanya.

(May isang kababayan niya na kakausap sa kanya.)


Kb: Magandang araw, Jose!

Jose: Magandang araw din naman sa iyo, kaibigan.

Kb: Nabalitaan kong kailangan mo raw pumunta sa Espaniya para


makatulong sa labanan sa Cuba?

Jose: Tama ka diyan, kaibigan! Sasakay sana ako sa Isla de Luzon


ngunit nahuli ako dahil nakaalis na pala ito kahapon ng alas
singko.

Kb: Kaya naman hihintayin mo ang susunod na steamer, tama ba?

Jose: Tama at hindi na magtatagal at darating na ang Castilla, dun


ako sasakay.

Kb: Mabuti. Hiling ko ang kaligtasan mo sa iyong paglalakbay

Jose: -- Salamat

Kb: Nabalitaan mo na ba ang mga pagyayari sa ating bayan?

Jose: Mukhang nahuhuli na ako sa mga pangyayari dito. Maaari mo


bang ikuwento sa akin?

Kb: Nalaman ng ga prayle ang planong pagpapatapon ng mga miembro ng


Katipunan sa pamamahala ng Espaniya dito sa Pilipinas. Dahil don ay
naguguluihanan na ang mga mga Kastilang opisyal.

Jose: May mga pagaalsa na bang sumiklab?

Kb: Pumutok na ang mga paghihimagsikan sa ibat ibang mga


probinsiya gaya ng Bulacan, Cavite, Batangas, Laguna, Pampanga,
Nueva Ecija at Tarlac.

Jose: Nalulungkot akong malaman yan, kaibigan.

Kb: Nalulungkot? Hindi bat dapat kang matuwa at nagsisimula nang


kumilos ang mga Pilipino upang bawiin an gating kalayaan?

Jose: Huwag mong isipin na hindi ko nais ang kalayaan. Ibon mang
may laying lumipad, kulungin mo at iiyak. Ngunit sa tingin koy
hindi pa tayo handa. Ano ang laban ng sumpit at bolo sa malalakas
na mga armas ng mga kastila? Dadanak lang ang dugo at madadamay ang
mga inosenteng mga Pilipino at mga Kastila.

TELON

Scene 9
|Ala sais ng hapon, noon Setyembre dos, mil nueve cientos nuventa y
sais, inilipat si Jose sa steamer na Isla de Panay mula sa
Castilla. Nakasama niya sa steamer na iyon si Don Pedro Roxas,
isang mayamang taga-Maynila. Nakarinig siya ng babala mula sa mga
kapwa niyang Pilipinong nakasakay sa steamer na iyon.

P1: Jose, Jose, nabalitaan naming may planong dakpin ka bago tayo
makarating sa Barcelona.

P2: Tumakas ka na, Jose, habang may pagkakataon ka pa!

Jose: Nangako ako kay Gobernador General Blanco na pupunta ako sa


Barcelona at tutulong ako sa labanan sa Cuba bilang isang
manggagamot. Hindi ko pwedeng baliin ang pangako ko.

P3: Jose, walang magagawa ang tapang mo. Puputulin ng mga Kastila
ang ulo mo. Kung gusto mong mabuhay nang mas mahaba, tumakas ka
nalang at manahimik sa isang tagong lugar.

Jose: Hindi ko pwedeng gawin yon. Mayroon akong palabra de honor


at prisipyo na kailangan kong alagaan.

(Uupo si Jose at aalis ang mga Pinoy na nagbabala sa kanya.


Magbabasa siya ng diaryo sa steamer at biglang darating ang mga
tropa ng mga Kastila na aaresto sa kanya.)

TK1: Eres Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado? (Titingin lang si Jose at


hindi magsasalita.) Eres Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado!?

Jose: Si. Que usted necesitas?

TK2: Inaaresto ka naman, gamit kapangyarihang ipinagkaloob sa amin


ni Gobernador General Ramon Blanco.

Jose: Sa anong dahilan ako aarestuhin?

TK1: Sumama ka nalang sa amin. Sige, dakpin siya.

Jose: Saan niyo ako dadalhin!?

TK2: Ididitini ka muna naming sa Ceuta. Doon ka mananatili hanggang


makarinig kami ng kautusan mula kay Gobernador General Blanco.

TELON

|Pinabalik si Jose sa Maynila sakay ng isang steamer, Colon.


Punong-punong ng mga sundalo at mga opisyal ang steamer. Ang hulinh
paguwi ni Rizal sa kanyang bayan ay noong 1896. Alam ni Jose na
iyon na ang pinakamalaking pagsubok sa kanya at maaring buhay niya
ang maging kabayaran.

(Ipapakita ang isang paglilitis. Nakaupo si Jose sa katabi ang


kanyang mananaggol Si Luis Taviel de Andrade. Babasahan siya ng
mga ebidensiya laban sa kanya ni Juez Francisco Olive.)

Juez: Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda, ito na ang


huling araw ng iyong paglilitis sa kasong panguupat ng himagsikan
laban sa Espaniya. Babasahin sa iyo, bilang bahagi ng iyong
karapatan, ang mga ebidensiya laban sa iyo. (Papalo)

Tagabasa: 1. Sumulat si Antonio Luna kay Mariano Ponce na


nagpapatunay ng iyong koneksyon sa kampanya para sa reporma sa
Espanya.

2. Sumulat ka sa iyong pamilya na nagsasabing mabuti ang


pagpapatapon dahil hinihikayat nito ang mga tao upang maghimagsik.

3. Sumulat si Marcelo del Pilar kay Deodato Arellano na


nagpapatunay na ay kinalaman ka sa Propaganda sa Espaniya.

4. Sumulat ka ng isang tulang pinamagatang Kundiman na


mapanghikayat ng himagsikan.

5. Sumulat si Carlos Oliver sa hindi matukoy na isang tao na


naglalarawan sa iyo bilang isang taong magpapalaya sa Pilipinas.

6. Isang dokumentong masonika na nagpapatunay sa iyong


mapanghimagsik na serbisiyo.

7. Isang sulat na pinirmahang Dimasalang na nagsasaad na ikaw ay


naghahanda ng isang lugar na maaaring tuluyan ng mga lumalaban sa
Espaniya.

(Papalo nanaman si Juez.)

Tagabas2: Narito ang ilang pang mga ebidensiya laban sa iyo:

1. Sumulat si Dimasalang sa isang di matukoy na organisasyong na


humihingi ng tulong nito para sa paghihimagsik.

2. Isang di kilalang sulat na tumutuligsa sa pagpapatapon sa iyo.

3. Isang sulat ni Ildefonso Laurel sa iyo na nagsasabing ikaw ang


tagapagligtas ng mga Pilipino.

4. Isang sulat ni Ildefonso Laurel sa iyo na nagpapaalam sa iyo ng


mga pinatatapon ng gobyerno.
5. Isang sulat ni Marcelo del Pilar kay Don Juan Tenluz na
nagrerekomenda ng pagpapatayo ng espesiyal na organisasyon.

6. Isang kopya ng talumpati ni Emilio Jacinto kung saad nakasaad,


Mabuhay ang Pilipinas! Mabuhay ang kalayaan! Mabuhay si Doktor
Rizal!

7. Isang kopya ng talumpati ni Jose Turiano Santiago kung saan


nakasaas, Mabuhay si Jose Rizal! Kamatayan sa mga manlulupig!

8. Isang tula ni Laong Laan na pinagamatang Talisay na umaawit ng


paglaban para sa karapatan.

(Papalo nanaman ang Juez.)

Juez: Ngayong narinig na ang lahat ng ebidensiya laban sayo,


bibigyan ng pagkakaton ang iyong mananaggol na iprisenta ang inyong
hulingdepensa. (Papalo.)

Luis: Ako po si Luis Taviel de Andrade, ang mananaggol ng


nasasakdal Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realando.

Sa maraming taon, ang pangalang Rizal ay naging simbolo ng hindi


mabilang na rebelyon. Siya rin ay naging simbolo ng mga karaingan
ng mga tao at ngayon ay nabibinbin siya sa panganib ng kamatayan.
Ano ba ang naging kasalanan niya? Nagsabi ba siya sa harapan ng
madla ng pagkamuhi o paglaban sa Espaniya? Nagsdeklara ba siya sa
madla ng paghihiwalang ng sarili niya sa rehimen ng Espaniya.
Idineklara ba niya, sa harap ng Simbahan at ng Espaniya, na
lumalaban siya sa kapangyarihan ng mga ito? Hindi. Kaya naman
ipinapanalngin ko sa harapan ng kagalang-galang na korteng ito na
bigyan ang ng kapatawaran sa kung ano mang pagkakamaling nagawa
niya.

Juez: Gracias, Abogado Luis Taviel de Andrade. Ngayon naman ay


binibigyan ng pagkakataon ang nasasakdal upang magbigay ng panghuli
niyang depensa.

(Tatayo si Jose at magsasalita.)

Jose: Napaitapon ako sa Dapitan at nanatili doon ng apat na taon.


Sa boong pananatili ko ay wala akong ibang iniisip kundi ang
kalagayan ng aking pamilya at ang ikabubuti ng aking bayan.
Pinagbuti ko ang pananatili ko sa Dapitan at sinikap kong maging
produktibo ang pananatili ko doon. Nalaman, sa pamamagitan ng sulat
sa aking ng aking kaibigan si Ferdinand Blumentritt, na kailangan
ng espanya ng isang doktor na tutulong sa Cuba upang gumamot ng mga
biktima ng digmaan. Dalidali akong sumulat sa Gobernador General
para iaabot ang makakayao ngunit ito ang nakuha kong kapalit.

Nakalulungkot isipin na may mga taong sumamantala ng katahimikan ko


sa Dapitan at ginamit ang aking pagkawala para idiin ako. Ngayon ay
nadidiin ako sa loob ng korteng ito dahil sa mga paratang, mga
kasalanang ipinupukol sa akin. Isa lang ang alam kong nagawa kong
kasalanan minahal ko ang sarili kong bayan.

(Papalo uli ang Juez. Magkakagulo at magiingay ang mga tao.)

Juez: Silencio. Babasahin na ang hatol sa nasasakdal.

Ikaw, Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda, ay


napatunayang nagkasala sa harap ng korteng ito dahil sa iyong
panguupat ng himagsikan laban sa Espaniya. Ikaw ay pinapatawan ng
kamatayan. (Papalo ang Juez.)

ARTICLE I OF R.A. 7836


ARTICLE I
TITLE

SECTION 1. Short Title. This Act shall be known as the "Philippine Teachers
Professionalization Act of 1994."

#1 DRILLS FOR GEN. ED.


INCREASE YOUR CHANCE OF PASSING THE LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR
TEACHERS, USING THESE FREE, ONLINE DRILL QUESTIONS WITH
RATIONALIZATIONS.

You don't have to attend any review center anymore. You don't have to pay even a cent.
You don't have to get out of the comfort of your home.

Develop your test-taking skills! Take the LET! Pass the LET!

1. This is considered to be the first manual data processing device developed in


China in the 2th century BCE.

A. Hieroglyphics
B. Papyrus
C. Printing Press
D. Abacus
The answer is letter D - Abacus.

The abacus, also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use centuries
before the adoption of the written modern numeral system and is still widely used by
merchants, traders and clerks in Asia, Africa, and elsewhere.

Note, however, that China is not the only country which developed the Abacus. The list
includes Mesopotamia, Egypt, Persia, Greece and many others. However, what is talked
about here is the 2th century, the time around which China developed their own version of
the Abacus.

Egyptian hieroglyphs or mdww-nr were a formal writing system used by the ancient
Egyptians that combined logographic and alphabetic elements. Egyptians used cursive
hieroglyphs for religious literature on papyrus and wood.

Papyrus, on the other hand, is a thin paper-like material made from the pith of the papyrus
plant, Cyperus papyrus. It is very popular especially in the world of literature because many
ancient texts excavated/found were written in papyri. This includes the New Testament.

Printing Press is a device for evenly printing ink onto a print medium (substrate) such as
paper or cloth. The device applies pressure to a print medium that rests on an inked surface
made of movable type, thereby transferring the ink.

Notice how similar options A, B and C are to one another. All of them relate to writing while
option D talks of counting, mathematics and data processing.

TEST-TAKING SKILL:

[!] Choose the option that is very different from the other three.

2. He is considered to be the Father of Computing because of his contributions to the


basic design of computer.

A. John Napier
B. William Oughtred
C. Blaise Pascal
D. Charles Babbage

Many people mistakenly answer C - Blaise Pascal - when confronted with this question.
However, remember that Blaise Pascal did not contribute to the design of computers; he
contributed basic mathematical computing processes that gave rise to calculators.

Remember: Blaise Pascal = calculator, the syringe and Pascal's Wager (in Christian
philosophy)

So, if option C is not correct, which one is? It's letter D - Charles Babbage. Charles
Babbage originated the concept of programmable computers. Since he was an engineer
and a computer scientist, he devoted most of his life to inventing the first mechanical
computer that eventually led to more complex designs.

John Napier is more known for his contributions to logarithm and decimal notation. He also
conceptualized the Napier's Bones or Napier's Rods used in the teaching of Mathematics
and Languages today.

William Oughtred or Rev. William Oughtred (5 March 1574 30 June 1660) was an English
mathematician and Anglican minister. After John Napier invented logarithms, and Edmund
Gunter created the logarithmic scales (lines, or rules) upon which slide rules are based, it
was Oughtred who first used two such scales sliding by one another to perform direct
multiplication and division; and he is credited as the inventor of the slide rule in 1622.
Oughtred also introduced the "" symbol for multiplication as well as the abbreviations "sin"
and "cos" for the sine and cosine functions

3. A computer system is actually made up of actual machines known as _.

A. Monitor
B. Hardware
C. Printer
D. Software

The answer for this item is option B - hardware.

Notice that both option A - monitor - and option C - printer - are under the umbrella term
"hardware." Answering either A or C will overlook the fact that the questions seeks a
general term used to refer to "actual machines" that compose "a computer system."

Varieties of software, on the other hand, are not actual machines but are programmed
applications and systems used for people to interact with the computer system and get
something done.

TEST-TAKING SKILLS:

[!] The correct answer is usually between two directly opposite options.
[!] Eliminate options that are under another umbrella term.
4. Which of the following is the best question form for the statement,"The kidnappers
wanted to surrender."

A. The kidnappers wanted to surrender, didn't they?


B. The kidnappers wanted to surrender, don't they?
C. The kidnappers surrender, did they?
D. What did the kidnappers surrender?

5. The government should work for a total ban ___ of marijuana in our town.

A. On the use of
B. By the use of
C. On using
D. With the use
6. Which of the following words is pronounced with ?

A. Throw
B. Than
C. Wrath
D. Nothing

7. The following are minimal pairs. Which does not belong?

A. Give - thieve
B. Tore - Thor
C. Seethe - sheathe
D. Bear - cheer

8. What is the tense of the following sentence: Surprisingly, Betty has written
a beautiful poem.

A. Simple Past
B. Simple Present
C. Perfect Past
D. Perfect Present

9. Which word in the following passage does NOT need a change in pitch to show
confidence?

I am the master of my fate; I am the captain of my soul!

A. Am
B. Captain
C. Master
D. Fate
10. We need to herald a major economic and social changes brought about by
technology. The word "herald" means __.

A. End
B. Proclaim
C. Respond to
D. Encourage

11. There was a HIATUS of two years before I went back to college. What does the
word in all caps mean?
A. Length
B. Lapse
C. Continuation
D. Uninterruption

12. Mr. Sabado will retire soon. He ___ for a long time.

A. Has been working


B. Has been being working
C. Had been working
D. Have been working

13. Never GLOAT about anything. What does the emphasized word mean?

A. Scoff
B. Deride
C. Brag
D. Belittle

14. That is your assignment. In the preceding sentence, which word has to get more
emphasis to underline ownership?

A. That
B. Your
C. Is
D. Assignment

15. What a strange story! What is the pitch that the word "strange" should receive?

A. 3
B. 2
C. 4
D. 1
16. Which of the following is NOT voiced?

A. /f/
B. /b/
C. /v/
D. /d/

17. Which of the following does not belong?

A. Mean
B. Sheet
C. Cheap
D. Ship

18. What kind of day is it? It is a cold day! What word should receive the most
emphasis to answer the question?

A. Is
B. Cold
C. Day
D. This
19. Which ends with /d/?

A. Joked
B. Walked
C. Laughed
D. Played

20. Which words ends with /z/?

A. Maps
B. Jokes
C. Laughs
D. Buys

21. How long ___ Japanese?

A. Are you learning


B. Have you been learning
C. Do you learn
D. Have you learned
22. Is your office always busy? No. Rarely _____ so busy.

A. This place being


B. Is this place
C. This place is
D. Does this place

23. Where's your mom? She's in the backyard, ___ the dogs.

A. Shampooing
B. To shampooing
C. To shampoo
D. For shampooing

24. Did you paint your car by yourself? No, I _____ professionally.

A. Have done it
B. Had done it
C. Had it done
D. Had gone

#9 DRILLS FOR GEN. ED.


INCREASE YOUR CHANCE OF PASSING THE LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR
TEACHERS, USING THESE FREE, ONLINE DRILL QUESTIONS WITH
RATIONALIZATIONS.

You don't have to attend any review center anymore. You don't have to pay even a cent.
You don't have to get out of the comfort of your home.

Develop your test-taking skills! Take the LET! Pass the LET!

25. The teacher as well as her students ___ to attend the seminar on drug abuse.

A. Need
B. Needs
C. Have
D. Are

Remember the simple rule that the agreement between a subject and a verb is not affected
by intervening words. A prepositional phrase was used as intervening words in this item.

What is the subject here? The teacher. What is the number of the subject? Singular.
Therefore, the verb must also be singular.

The only singular verb among the options is B - Needs.

26. Scientists ___ evolution as a change within a period of time.

A. Defines
B. Define
C. Has defined
D. Is defining

If a statement is made to denote a factuality, it must be in the simple present tense. The
answer for this item is B - Define.

Although A - Defines - is also in the simple present tense, it cannot be the answer since it is
a singular verb. The subject is a plural noun; therefore, the verb must also be in the plural
form.

Option C - Has defined - is in the perfect present tense, which denotes completion and
perfection. Option D - Is defining - is in the progressive present tense, which denotes an
action taking place with continuity or at the present time.

27. A number of heinous crimes ___ recorded by the police since the start of this
year.

A. Have already been


B. Are already being
C. Has already been
D. Have already being

The expression "a number" does not affect the number of the subject, thus, having no effect
on the agreement between the subject and the verb. So, when we say "A number of guests
have arrived," we say so with grammatical accuracy.

On the other hand, when we say "The number of enrollees have increased," we are
committing a grave structural flaw since the expression "the number" affects the agreement
between the subject and the verb.

The answer is C - Has already been.

Option D - Have already being - is in itself structurally inconsistent. Why, because a


progressive verb to exist in any verb phrase, there must be a be-verb helping it. The proper
phrasing should have been "Has been being."

RA 7722
AN ACT CREATING THE COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION, APPROPRIATING
FUNDS THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.

RA 7784
AN ACT TO STRENGTHEN TEACHER EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES BY
ESTABLISHING CENTERS OF EXCELLENCE, CREATING A TEACHER EDUCATION
COUNCIL FOR THE PURPOSE, APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR, AND FOR
OTHER PURPOSES.

RA 8545
AN ACT AMENDING REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6728, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS "AN ACT
PROVIDING GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE TO STUDENTS AND TEACHERS IN
PRIVATE EDUCATION AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR," ESTABLISHING A
FUND FOR THE PURPOSE OF SUBSIDIZING SALARIES OF PRIVATE SCHOOL
TEACHERS, AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR

RA 6728
AN ACT PROVIDING GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE TO STUDENTS AND TEACHERS IN
PRIVATE EDUCATION, AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR

RA 7796
AN ACT CREATING THE TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
AUTHORITY, PROVIDING FOR ITS POWERS, STRUCTURE AND FOR OTHER
PURPOSES

RA 9155
AN ACT INSTITUTING A FRAME WORK OF GOVERNANCE FOR BASIC EDUCATION,
ESTABLISHING AUTHORITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY, RENAMING THE DEPARTMENT
OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS AS THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION,
AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

RA 8980
AN ACT PROMULGATING A COMPREHENSIVE POLICY AND A NATIONAL SYSTEM
FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT (ECCD), PROVIDING FUNDS
THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

PD 1006
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1006 PROVIDING FOR THE PROFESSIONALIZATION
OF TEACHERS, REGULATING THEIR PRACTICE IN THE PHILIPPINES AND FOR
OTHER PURPOSES

RA 4670
THE MAGNA CARTA FOR PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS

RA 9293
AN ACT AMENDING CERTAIN SECTIONS OF REPUBLIC ACT NUMBERED SEVENTY-
EIGHT HUNDRED AND THIRTY-SIX (R.A. NO. 7836), OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE
"PHILIPPINE TEACHERS PROFESSIONALIZATION ACT OF 1994"

RA 6713
AN ACT ESTABLISHING A CODE OF CONDUCT AND ETHICAL STANDARDS FOR
PUBLIC OFFICIALS AND EMPLOYEES, TO UPHOLD THE TIME-HONORED PRINCIPLE
OF PUBLIC OFFICE BEING A PUBLIC TRUST, GRANTING INCENTIVES AND
REWARDS FOR EXEMPLARY SERVICE, ENUMERATING PROHIBITED ACTS AND
TRANSACTIONS AND PROVIDING PENALTIES FOR VIOLATIONS THEREOF AND
FOR OTHER PURPOSES

RA 5447
AN ACT CREATING A SPECIAL EDUCATION FUND TO BE CONSTITUTED FROM THE
PROCEEDS OF AN ADDITIONAL REAL PROPERTY TAX AND A CERTAIN PORTION
OF THE TAXES ON VIRGINIA-TYPE CIGARETTES AND DUTIES ON IMPORTED LEAF
TOBACCO, DEFINING THE ACTIVITIES TO BE FINANCED, CREATING SCHOOL
BOARDS FOR THE PURPOSE, AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFROM

RA 6655
AN ACT ESTABLISHING AND PROVIDING FOR A FREE PUBLIC SECONDARY
EDUCATION AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

RA 7687
AN ACT INSTITUTING A SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM
AND OTHER PURPOSES