Anda di halaman 1dari 5

International Journal of Computation and Applied Sciences IJOCAAS, Volume2, Issue 2, April 2017, ISSN: 2399-4509

Obtaining and analyzing the characteristics curves


of a solar cell
Roshen T. Ahmed
Abstract-The world spend all the capabilities to meet every day They are utilized to decide sun oriented cell
demand of energy and it is very expectable that soon we will effectiveness and fill elements (the proportion of greatest
come up short on any of natural energy source such as petrol, possible energy to the result of the open-circuit voltage and
mineral etc therefore, renewable vitality arrangement has short out current) [28]. Then again, dynamic parameters are
accomplished.
required in outlining circuits containing sun oriented cells
Sun powered energy is a standout amongst the most important
means of renewable energy resource, more energy is produced and exchanging gadgets and in addition giving essential
by knowing the specification of the cell used and this can be indicative instruments [29].
done by getting the IV and PV characteristic curves.
The study of a photovoltaic system requires a precise 1-1. Solar Cell Characteristics:
knowledge of the IV and PV characteristic curves, the learning
of the curves permits IV and PV characteristic curves allow A perfect sun oriented cell, hypothetically can be
knowing the function of the cells used. This research shows the modelled as a current source in parallel with a diode (Fig.
results obtained by using solar module analyzer for different 1), direct current generated varies linearly with solar
power solar cells.
radiation when the solar cell exposed to light [30]. A change
Key words: Photovoltaic cells, PV-IV curves
of the model incorporates the impacts of a series resistor
I. INTRODUCTION which represent internal resistance of the cell [31].
The condition describing the relationship between
voltage (V) and current (I) gave by a module is as per the
The new challenge is began at the end of second half of the following:
20th century for finding renewable energy sources because
of the limitation of the ordinary energy source (oil, gas, coal I I Ph I D
etc) and increasing demand of energy, this why the .. (1)
attention is turning to the renewable energy sources [1-3].
The traditional fossil fuels as coal, oil and natural gas 1.2. Ideal Cell
combustion caused many severe problems as global
warming, Ozone hole, and the acid rains [4-6]. Renewable
energies as the solar, wind, hydraulic, and geothermal
energies are clean, abundant, and green. They are
environment friendly [7-9]. Solar energy as a renewable and
sustainable energy is the most significant alternative for the
fossil fuels [10-12].
Photovoltaics are considered as electricity energy source due
to its dependence on solar energy which is one of the
renewable energy sources [13, 14]. PV modules are
sustainable, clean with long service life and high reliability Fig. 1 Equivalent circuit of a photovoltaic cell
[15]. Photovoltaic cells operate in the external atmosphere
and are subject to the environmental and weather variables The net current of the cell is equivalent to the distinction of
as wind speed, air temperature, solar intensity and air the photocurrent IPh, (the current created by the occurrence
humidity [16-18]. Producers evaluate photovoltaic units light, specifically corresponding to the sun illumination), ID
according to standard test conditions [19]. These conditions (the typical diode current). If each term is replaced by its
define the PV module work at solar radiation intensity of value is obtained:
1000 W/m2, air temperature 25C, and relative humidity of
45% [20-23]. In any case, to do an impressive optical eV IRs
I I Ph I o exp 1
construction, the proper imaging of the photoelectric unit of mKTab
(2)
electrical behaviour (V-I bends) is vital [24, 25]. Where:
The solar cell characteristics were partitioned into two m= Idealized factor.
gatherings, the static parameters and the dynamic K= Boltzmanns constant.
parameters [26]. The static parameters are regularly decided Tab= Absolute temperature of the cell.
from their lit up current-voltage attributes, in view of blaze e= Electronic charge.
lights or conveyed light sources, or open air conditions [27]. V= Cell voltage.
Io= Saturation current, which depend mainly on cell
Roshen Tariq Ahmed is currently assistant lecturer in the Energy
temperature.
and Renewable Energies Technology Centre, University of Technology,
Iraq.E. mail: 11019@uotechnology.edu.iq

94
International Journal of Computation and Applied Sciences IJOCAAS, Volume2, Issue 2, April 2017, ISSN: 2399-4509
The typical representation of the output characteristic of a II. EXPERIMENTAL WORK
photovoltaic device is called characteristic curve, and
demonstrates their conduct. The IV curve shows the One can state that, photocurrent relies on upon the
relationship between the current and voltage as per the level irradiation of the place were the test done and at this
of episode radiation and temperature. Additionally the PV moment, for a fixed temperature (in this cases its about 25
curve shows a similar relationship yet for power and C). The higher the light, the more prominent the current is.
voltage. Then again, voltage will keep up practically consistent and it
These curves can be gotten in a few ways. Predominantly, will not shift much. In this research IV curves has been
they can be figured from condition (2) or can be acquired measured, we use two different solar cell sizes one with
tentatively from the photovoltaic cell. 0.023 m2 and the second is 0.43 m2. Figure 3 shows the
The current voltage curve (IV) demonstrates the conceivable block diagram of the system connected.
mixes of sets of current-voltage of the photovoltaic
instrument. Thoughtfully, the curve shows the combination
of current and voltage at which the cell can work, if the
irradiance and cell temperature could be kept steady. The
assessment of the execution of sun-oriented cells and the
outline of photovoltaic frameworks must be founded on the
electrical attributes, that is, in the current-voltage
connections of the cells subjected to different levels of Fig. 3 System connection block diagram
illumination and temperature [32].
Figure 2 show the Characteristic curves of a solar cell, the The following apparatus has been used:
horizontal axis represents the working cell voltage (V) and 1. Solar module analyzer (Prova 200 A) as shown in
the left vertical axis the current (A) while the right vertical figure 4.
axis power (P).
The setting of the solar module analyzer parameters must be
set such as irradiation, solar cell area; scan range start, scan
range end and the mode of the test if it is auto scan or
manual scan after assign the range of the test.

Fig. 2 Characteristic curves of a solar cell

Breaking down the chart, there are a few trademark focuses.


The cell will deliver the most extreme force when the
resistance between the terminals of the yield circuit is
insignificant; this is when there is short out [33]. The
working voltage is zero and this esteem is called "Short Fig. 4 Solar module analyzer (Prova 200 A)
Circuit Current" (ISC). The maximum voltage is reached in
the case that the resistance is infinite and then the current is 2. Different solar cells size and.
zero, the circuit is open, that is, there is "Open Circuit 3. PC for data collection and managing.
Voltage" (VOC) [34]. Another indicate consider is the 4. Solar irradiance meter as shown in figure 5.
greatest of the PV curve, called most power point (MPP),
which corresponds to the point on the IV curve, wherein the
area of the rectangle shaped by the focuses (V,I) is greatest.
This is the area when the module works with greatest
effectiveness and produces the extreme yield control. It is
the purpose of most extreme power (VMPP, IMPP). The
accessible force of a photovoltaic instrument anytime along
the curve is the result of current and voltage by then and its
units in Watt [35].
This work aims to define the PV characteristics for any PV
array using power solar cell. This work is a part of
continuous efforts of the Energy and Renewable Energies
Fig. 5 Solar irradiance meter
Technology Centre, University of Technology, Iraq to
widespread the lecture of renewable energies usage and its
benefits to citizens and society [36-63].
The circuit wiring diagram connected shown in figure 6 (a
and b).
95
International Journal of Computation and Applied Sciences IJOCAAS, Volume2, Issue 2, April 2017, ISSN: 2399-4509

Light Souce
PC

Fig. 8 Result for the Small cell (Second test)

Fig. 6, a circuit wiring diagram


The third test is done for large cell with current range scan
Solar M begin at 0mA and current range scan end at 1 A, and
irradiance is 1000 W/m2 as shown in figure 9.

IV. CONCLUSIONS

There are many components that influence the


execution effectiveness of a solar cell, for example,
reflection misfortunes, the ghastly qualities of the light
source. From the results obtained one can notice the
unsmooth of the curves and that because of the reflection
light in the lab we done the test and for the light we used
cause it focus on some point of the cell so the illumination is
not equal and also for the system error and reading accuracy.

Fig. 6b circuit wiring diagram

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Solar module analyser display curves for the results


obtained from the test are shown in figure (7, 8, and 9).
From the curves obtained one can notice that the red curve is
for volt, the green one is for the power while the X axis is
for current. The results show the Vopen, Ishort, Pmax,
Vmaxp, Imaxp and efficiency for the two size solar cells. Fig. 9 Result for the large cell (Third test)
The first test is done for small cell with current range scan
begin at 50 mA and current range scan end at 1 A, and REFERENCES
irradiance is 230 W/m2 as shown in figure 7.
[1] Al-Maamary H M S, Kazem H A, Chaichan M T, "Climate
change: the game changer in the GCC region", Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 76, pp. 555-576, 2017.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.03.048.
[2] Al-Maamary H M S, Kazem H A, Chaichan M T, "Renewable
energy and GCC States energy challenges in the 21st century: A
review", International Journal of Computation and Applied
Sciences IJOCAAS, vol.2, No. 1, pp. 11-18, 2017.
[3] Chaichan M T, Kazem H A, Abid T A, "The environmental impact
of transportation in Baghdad, Iraq", Environment, Development
and Sustainability, 2016. DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9900-x.
[4] Chaichan M T, Kazem H A, "Effect of sand, ash and soil on
photovoltaic performance: An experimental study", International
Journal of Scientific Engineering and Science, vol. 1, No. 2, pp.
27-32, 2017.
[5] Chaichan M T, Abass K I, Jawad R S, Mahdy A M J, "Thermal
Fig. 7 Result for the Small cell (First test) performance enhancement of simple Trombe wall, International
Journal of Computation and Applied Sciences IJOCAAS, vol.2,
No. 1, pp. 33-40, 2017.
[6] Al-Waeli A H, Sopian K, Kazem H A and Chaichan M T,
The second test was done for small cell with current range "Photovoltaic solar thermal (pv/t) collectors past, present and
scan begin at 400 mA and current range scan end at 2 A, and future: a review", International Journal of Applied Engineering
irradiance is 230 W/m2 as Fig. 8 shows. Research, vol. 11, No. 22, pp. 1075-10765, 2016.
[7] A. A. Kazem, M.T. Chaichan & H.A. Kazem, "Effect of dust on
photovoltaic utilization in Iraq: review article," Renewable and

96
International Journal of Computation and Applied Sciences IJOCAAS, Volume2, Issue 2, April 2017, ISSN: 2399-4509
Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 37, September, pp. 734-749, [26] H. A. Kazem and M. T. Chaichan, Effect of humidity on
2014. photovoltaic performance based on experimental study,
[8] M.T. Chaichan, K.I. Abaas, "Performance amelioration of a International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 10,
trombe wall by using phase change material (PCM)," International No. 5, pp. 3979-3982, 2015.
Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and [27] M. T. Chaichan, "Enhancing productivity of concentrating solar
Technology, vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 1-6, 2015. distillating system accompanied with PCM at hot climate",
[9] A. A. Al-Waeely, S.D. Salman, W.K. Abdol-Reza, M.T. Chaichan, Wulevina, vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 1-18, 2016.
H.A. Kazem and H.S.S. Al-Jibori, "Evaluation of the spatial [28] M. T. Chaichan, H. A. Kazem, "Energy conservation and
distribution of shared electrical generators and their environmental management for houses and building in Oman-case study", Saudi
effects at Al-Sader City-Baghdad-Iraq", International Journal of Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 69-76,
Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS, vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 16-23, 2016.
2014. [29] A. S. Golder, "Photovoltaic generator modeling for large scale
[10] M.T. Chaichan, B.A. Mohammed and H.A. Kazem, "Effect of distribution system studies', Master Thesis, Drexel University,
pollution and cleaning on photovoltaic performance based on 2006.
experimental study," International Journal of Scientific and [30] M. T. Chaichan M T, S. H. Kamel, A. N.M. Al-Ajeely, "Thermal
Engineering Research, vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 594-601, 2015. conductivity enhancement by using nano-material in phase change
[11] H.A. Kazem, A. H. A. Al-Waeli, A. S. A. Al-Mamari, A. H. K. Al- material for latent heat thermal energy storage Systems,"
Kabi, M. T. Chaichan, "A photovoltaic application in car parking SAUSSUREA, vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 48-55, 2015.
lights with recycled batteries: a techno-economic study," [31] A. Rostami, K. Abbasian, N. Gorji, Efficiency optimization in a
Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, vol. 9, No. 36, rainbow quantum dot Solar cell, International Journal on
pp. 43-49, 2015. Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE), Issue 7,
[12] H. A. Kazem, A. H. A. Al-Waeli, M. T. Chaichan, A. S. Al- vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 106-109, June 2011.
Mamari, A. H. Al-Kabi, "Design, measurement and evaluation of [32] A. Luque, S. Hegedus, Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and
photovoltaic pumping system for rural areas in Oman," Environ Engineering, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2003.
Dev Sustain, 2016. DOI 10.1007/s10668-016-9773-z. [33] Kazem H A, Chaichan M T, Al-Shezawi I M, Al-Saidi H S, Al-
[13] M. T. Chaichan, H. A. Kazem, "Experimental analysis of solar Rubkhi H S, Al-Sinani J K and Al-Waeli A H A, "Effect of
intensity on photovoltaic in hot and humid weather conditions," humidity on the PV performance in Oman", Asian Transactions on
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, vol. 7, Engineering , vol.2, Issue 4, pp. 29-32, 2012.
No. 3, pp. 91-96, 2016. [34] H. A. Kazem and M. T. Chaichan, "Effect of humidity on
[14] H. M. S. Al-Maamary, H. A. Kazem, M. T. Chaichan, "Changing photovoltaic performance based on experimental study",
the energy profile of the GCC States: A Review," International International Journal of Applied Engineering Research (IJAER),
Journal of Applied Engineering Research (IJAER), vol. 11, No. 3, vol. 10, No. 23, pp. 43572-43577, 2015.
pp. 1980-1988, 2016. [35] H. A. Kazem, M. T. Chaichan, "Experimental analysis of the
[15] H. A. Kazem and M. T. Chaichan, "The Impact of using Solar performance characteristics of PEM fuel cells", International
Colored Filters to Cover the PV Panel on its Outcomes," Bulletin Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, vol. 7, No. 2, pp.
Journal, vol. 2, No. 7, pp. 464-469, 2016. DOI: 49-56, 2016.
10.21276/sb.2016.2.7.5. [36] M. T. Chaichan, A. H. Al-Hamdani, A. M. Kasem, "Enhancing a
[16] H. A. Kazem, M. T. Chaichan, S. A. Saif, A. A. Dawood, S. A. Trombe wall charging and discharging processes by adding nano-
Salim, A. A. Rashid, A. A. Alwaeli, "Experimental investigation Al2O3 to phase change materials", International Journal of
of dust type effect on photovoltaic systems in north region, Scientific & Engineering Research, vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 736-741,
Oman," International Journal of Scientific & Engineering 2016.
Research, vol. 6, No. 7, pp. 293-298, 2015. [37] M. T. Chaichan, H. A. Kazem, K. I. Abaas, A. A. Al- Waeli,
[17] Z. A. Darwish, H. A. Kazem, K. Sopian, M. A. Alghoul and M. T. "Homemade solar desalination system for omani families",
Chaichan, "Impact of some environmental variables with dust on International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, vol. 7,
solar photovoltaic (pv) performance: review and research status," No. 5, pp:1499-1504, 2016.
International J of Energy and Environment, vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 152- [38] Chaichan M T, Abaas K I, Al-Zubidi D S M, "A study of a hybrid
159, 2013. solar heat storage wall (Trombe wall) utilizing paraffin wax and
[18] A. H. Al-Waeli, H. A. Kazem, M. T. Chaichan, "review and design water", Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering, vol. 2, No.
of a standalone pv system performance," International Journal of 11, pp. 1-7, 2016.
Computation and Applied Sciences, vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 1-6, 2016. [39] M. T. Chaichan, K. I. Abass, D. S. M. Al-Zubidi, H. A. Kazem,
[19] H.A. Kazem, M.T. Chaichan, "Design and analysis of standalone "Practical investigation of effectiveness of direct solar-powered air
solar cells in the desert of Oman," Journal of Scientific and heater", International Journal of Advanced Engineering,
Engineering Research, vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 62-72, 2016. Management and Science (IJAEMS), vol. 2, No. 7, pp:1047-1053,
[20] M.T. Chaichan, H. A. Kazem, A. M. J. Mahdy & A. A. Al- 2016.
Waeely, "Optimization of hybrid solar PV/diesel system for [40] H. A. Kazem, M. T. Chaichan, "Experimental effect of dust
powering telecommunication tower," IJESET, vol. 8, No. 6, pp. 1- physical properties on photovoltaic module in northern Oman",
10, 2016. Solar Energy, 139, pp. 6880, 2016.
[21] H.A. Kazem, H.A.S. Al-Badi, A.S. Al Busaidi & M.T. Chaichan [41] M. T. Chaichan, "Spark ignition engine performance fueled with
M T, "Optimum design and evaluation of hybrid solar/wind/diesel hydrogen enriched liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)", Scholars
power system for Masirah island," Environment, Development and Bulletin Journal, vol. 2, No. 9, pp. 537-546, 2016.
Sustainability, 2016. DOI: 10.1007/s10668-016-9828-1 [42] Ali H. Al-Hamdani, Majed Hassan, Roshen T. Ahmed," Optimal
[22] H.A. Kazem, A. H. A. Al-Waeli, M. T. Chaichan, A. S. Al- Sizing of Photovoltaic Irrigation Water Pumping System in
Mamari, A. H. Al-Kabi, "Design, measurement and evaluation of Samara",Engineering and Technology Journal Vol 31,
photovoltaic pumping system for rural areas in Oman Issu(16),pages 3067-3077,university of technology,Iraq, 2013.
environment," Development and Sustainability, DOI: [43] R. S. Jawad, M. T. Chaichan, J. A. Kadhum, "Nanoparticles (NPs)
10.1007/s10668-016-9773-z, 2016. leverage in lithium-ion batteries performance", International
[23] H. A. Kazem, M. T. Chaichan, "Effect of environmental variables Journal of Pharmacy & Technology, vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 18995-
on photovoltaic performance-based on experimental studies," 19004, 2016.
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science [44] M. T. Chaichan, K. I. Abaas & H. A. Kazem, "The effect of
(IJCMES), vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 1-8, 2016. variable designs of the central receiver to improve the solar tower
[24] H. A. Kazem, F. Hasson and M. T. Chaichan, "Design and analysis efficiency", International J of Engineering and Science, vol. 1, No.
of stand-alone solar photovoltaic for desert in Oman," The 3rd 7, pp. 56-61, 2012.
Scientific International Conference, Technical College, Najaf, [45] M. T. Chaichan & K. I. Abaas, "Productivity amelioration of solar
Iraq, 2013. water distillator linked with salt gradient pond", Tikrit Journal of
[25] Chaichan M T, Kazem H A, Mahdy A M J & Al-Waeely A A, Engineering Sciences, vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 24-34, 2012.
"Optimal sizing of a hybrid system of renewable energy for [46] M. T. Chaichan, K. I. Abaas, H. A. Kazem, H. S. Al Jibori & U.
lighting street in Salalah-Oman using Homer software", Abdul-Hussain, "Novel design of solar receiver in concentrated
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied power system", International J. of Multidispl. Research & Advcs.
Science (IJSEAS), vol.2, No. 5, pp: 157-164, 2016. in Eng. (IJMRAE), vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 211-226, 2013.
97
International Journal of Computation and Applied Sciences IJOCAAS, Volume2, Issue 2, April 2017, ISSN: 2399-4509
[47] M. T. Chaichan, K. I. Abaas & H. M. Salih, "Practical
investigation for water solar thermal storage system enhancement
using sensible and latent heats in Baghdad-Iraq weathers", Journal
of Al-Rafidain University Collage for Science, Issue 33, pp. 158-
182, 2014.
[48] S. S. Faris, M. T. Chaichan, M. F. Sachit and J. M. Jaleel,
"Simulation and numerical investigation of effect air gap thickness
on Trombe wall system", International Journal of Application or
Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM), vol. 3, No.
11, pp. 159-168, 2014.
[49] M. T. Chaichan & H. A. Kazem, "Water solar distiller productivity
enhancement using concentrating solar water heater and phase
change material (PCM)", Case Studies in Thermal Engineering,
Elsevier, vol. 5, pp. 151-159, 2015.
[50] M. T. Chaichan & H. A. Kazem, "Using aluminum powder with
PCM (paraffin wax) to enhance single slope solar water distillator
productivity in Baghdad-Iraq winter weathers", International
Journal of Renewable Energy Research, vol. 1, No. 5, pp. 151-159,
2015.
[51] M. T. Chaichan, K. I. Abaas, H. A. Kazem, "Design and
assessment of solar concentrator distillating system using phase
change materials (PCM) suitable for desertec weathers",
Desalination and water treatment, vol. 57, No. 32, pp. 14897-
14907, 2016. DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2015.1069221
[52] M. T. Chaichan, "Study of NOx and CO emissions for SIE fueled
with Supplementary hydrogen to LPG", Association of Arab
Universities Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 16, No.2, pp. 32-
47, 2009.
[53] Abaas K I & Chaichan M T, "Experimental study of using solar
energy storage wall for heating Iraqi houses purposes", Wassit
Journal for Science & Medicine, vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 212-221, 2009.
[54] Chaichan, M. T., "Study of NOx and CO emissions for SIE fueled
with Supplementary hydrogen to gasoline", Baghdad Engineering
Collage Journal, vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 4606-4617, 2010.
[55] M. T. Chaichan and Q. A. Abaas Q A, "Study of NOx emissions of
SI engine fueled with different kinds of hydrocarbon fuels and
hydrogen", Al Khwarizmi Eng. Journal, vol. 6, No. 2, pp: 11-20,
2010.
[56] M. T. Chaichan, "Practical measurements of laminar burning
velocities for hydrogen-air mixtures using thermocouples",
Association of Arab Universities Journal of Engineering Science,
vol. 17, No. 2, 2010.
[57] M. T. Chaichan and K. I. Abaas, "Experimental comparison of CO
emissions emitted from single cylinder SI engine fueled with
different kinds of hydrocarbon fuels and hydrogen", Iraqi Journal
for Mechanical and Material Eng., vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 397-405,
2010.
[58] M. T. Chaichan & H. A. Kazem, "Thermal storage comparison for
variable basement kinds of a solar chimney prototype in Baghdad -
Iraq weathers", International journal of Applied Science (IJAS),
vol.2, No. 2, pp. 12-20, 2011.
[59] M. T. Chaichan, "Practical study of basement kind effect on solar
chimney air temperature in Baghdad-Iraq weather". Al Khwarizmi
Eng. Journal, vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 30-38, 2011.
[60] S. T. Ahmed & M. T. Chaichan, "A study of free convection in a
solar chimney sample", Engineering and Technology J, vol. 29,
No. 14, pp. 2986-2997, 2011.
[61] M. T. Chaichan & K. I. Abaas, "Practical investigation for
improving concentrating solar power stations efficiency in Iraqi
weathers", Anbar J for Engineering Science, vol.5, No. 1, pp: 76-
87, 2012.
[62] M. T. Chaichan & H. A. Kazem, "Status and future prospects of
renewable energy in Iraq", Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Reviews, vol. 16, No. 1, pp: 60076012, 2012.
[63] H. A. Kazem, T Khatib, K. Sopian and W. Elmenreich,
Performance and feasibility assessment of a 1.4kW roof top grid-
connected photovoltaic power system under desertic weather
conditions, Energy and Building, Netherlands, vol. 82, pp. 123-
129, 2014.

98