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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 2 (2016) pp 1251-1255

Research India Publications.

Experimental Investigation of Tensile Strength Behavior on Friction Welded

Austenitic Stainless Steel Grade 304L Joints

M. Ganesan
Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
PRIST University, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India.

P. Marimuthu
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Syed Ammal Engg. College, Ramanathapuram, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract Introduction
Solid state friction welding technique is the one of the best Normally welded joint provides better mechanical properties
effective and efficient method for joining similar as well as compared with bolted joints. Friction welding process is
dissimilar materials without applications of filler rod. usually called as hot pressure welding technique in which the
Recently austenitic stainless steel grade 304L are used to join formation of welded joints is accomplished in a solid state.
the similar combination in the automobile, electrical, Friction welding is the one of the method of joining the two or
chemical, nuclear, marine industries and defence. The main more metal component parts by applying the relative motion
objective of this experimental investigation is to join the and pressure. The heat required for making the joints is
similar materials of size 12 mm in diameter and to find the generated by rubbing together of mating surfaces under heavy
optimum level of tensile strength. During the friction welding pressure. Friction welding can be used to reduce the cost,
process, heat is generated at the interface of joining the metal increase the output, and improve the performance of the
under plastic deformation by converting the mechanical product. Friction welding technique is normally used in series
energy into thermal energy. The experiments were conducted and volume production for joining components parts of
by the proper selection of friction welding parameters to similar or dissimilar materials. The important input
obtain good mechanical strength using L9 orthogonal array parameters in the friction welding process are specimen size,
recommended by the design of experiments. In this composition and structure of the specimen, heating pressure,
experimental investigation, austenitic stainless steel grade upset pressure, heating time and rotation speed are to be
304L has been welded by using the KUKA continuous drive considered. The purpose of this report is to predict the tensile
friction welding machine with constant rotating speed of strength of the friction welded joint on AISI 304L stainless
1500 rpm in Welding Research Institute of BHEL. Joining of steel. Recently many countries were utilized the friction
Similar material combination plays important role in the welding process, so the researchers were concentrated to
various applications required for finding the mechanical improve the efficiency of the friction welding process.
properties of the welded joint. The optimum welding
parameters of friction welding process are great impact in the Literature Review
manufacturing environment. The basic friction welding Now a days, the objective of the manufacturing industries is to
parameters such as heating pressure, upset pressure and achieve the economical welding condition. The reduction of
heating time were selected and examined at three different experimental time and cost have crucial role for selecting the
kind of levels, to study the correlation between the welding best parameter in economical way. A lot of welding processes
parameters and tensile strength are found in the study. The like arc welding, gas welding, thermit welding and friction
strength of the welded joints was evaluated by using the welding are normally used in the manufacturing industries.
computer controlled universal testing machine. The present Selection of welding method depends on the design, specimen
experimental work is focused on the optimization of friction specifications, welding speed and time, welding cost,
welded process parameter using design of experiments and the applications and joining strength are required. The specimen
most optimum level of friction welding parameter can be used is having circular (or) non circular cross section can be used to
for the further investigation. Results of experimental weld very easily by friction welding process with in the
investigations indicated that upset pressure plays crucial role minimum time. The major important friction welding
in the friction welding process. parameters are heating pressure, upset pressure, heating time,
upset time and spindle speed. Recently, many researchers
Keywords: Friction welding, Austenitic stainless steel grade addressed the friction welding process for identifying the
304L, Welding parameters, Design of Experiment, Tensile parameter influence on different responses with the assistance
strength. of various intelligent techniques. The literature review on the
friction welding process is essential to study the effects of
parameters on the performance measures.

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 2 (2016) pp 1251-1255
Research India Publications.

Mohammed Asif et al. (2015) developed the three introduction of silver inter layer shows 3.06 % decrease in the
dimensional non-linear finite element model and particle fracture when compared to the normal friction
characterization of friction welding on UNS S31803 duplex welding process. The joint efficiency were analyzed with the
stainless steel joints. The experimental results are validated help of input parameters. Shubhavardhan R.N et al. (2012)
and optimizing the input parameters for the improvement of presented the friction welding set-up and the strength of
design and machine tools. Muralimohan C.H et al. (2014) joining AA6082 aluminum alloy and AISI 304 stainless steel
studied the effect of process parameters for friction welding of are determined and the welding parameters are optimized the
Titanium-stainless Steel Joints with a Nickel Interlayer. The output responses are tensile test, Vickers micro hardness test,
effect of microstructure of the welded joint is investigated by fatigue test, Impact test, and SEM-EDX examination to
optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The conclude the levels that occurred during the friction welding
main factors affecting the friction welding process are process. Deya H C et al. (2009) investigated the effect of
evaluated and it is observed that tensile strength is increased joining titanium to 304L stainless steel by using the friction
with increasing the forging pressure at constant friction time. welding process. The result shows that the failure occurred in
Amit Handa et al. (2014) investigated the effect of axial Ti base metal during tensile testing. Mumin Sahin et al.
pressures on the mechanical properties of friction welded (2009) investigated the effect of mechanical and metallurgical
AISI 304 with AISI 1021 steel joints under the constant speed changes at the interfaces of austenitic stainless steel and
of 1250 rpm. The experimental setup was developed for copper materials welded by friction welding process. The
conducting the friction welded joint to evaluate the output optimal parameters are obtained for the test specimen and the
responses like tensile strength, impact strength and micro- results are examined.
hardness. Deepak Kumar et al. (2014) presented the Based on the literature review, many researchers were used
optimization on mechanical properties of aluminium alloy trial and error based experimental analysis. Recently, lot of
6082 T6 and austenitic stainless steel 304 friction welded research is carried out for reducing the experimental work.
joints using the design of experiments. The effect of friction Few researchers were used design of experiments concept for
welding parameter over the tensile strength was analyzed. developing the experimental plan to reduce the weld time and
Eder Paduan Alves et al (2013) addressed a Thermocouple cost. The Taguchi design of experiment concept is mainly
Data Logger for determining the temperature in the bonding utilized for avoiding the trial and error experimental runs. It
interface of friction welded AA 1050 aluminum and AISI 304 can be concluded that friction welding process is one of the
stainless steel joints. The new region of research is initiated best method for joining the similar and dissimilar materials.
for temperature at the interface of the joint. Avisash s. Pachal An investigation is essential for progress the performance of
et al (2013) investigated the optimization of process the friction welding process on Austenitic stainless steel grade
parameters in friction welding of 6061 aluminum alloy and 304L using Taguchi design of experiments and found that
304 steel by taguchi design of experiments technique to friction welding parameters plays essential features in the
predict the optimum welding condition for maximizing the excellence and efficiency of the welded joint.
tensile strength. L9 orthogonal array is used for this
investigation. Amit Handa et al (2013) initiated an Experimental Work
experimental setup to conduct the friction welding process, The modern manufacturing industries are used the friction
investigated the process parameters and found that axial welding technique for joining similar or dissimilar materials
pressure as a dominating factor for affecting the mechanical with high quality. The experiments were conducted on the
properties of welded joints like tensile strength, impact KUKA continuous drive friction welding machine with
strength and hardness. Gourav Sardana et al (2013) addressed maximum load capacity of 0.3 MN is shown in Figure 1. In
the mechanical behavior of friction welding process of HSS this experimental work, Austenitic stainless steel grade 304L
M33 and SS 316 and reported that the spindle speed of test is used for investigation. The specimen was prepared from the
specimen increases with decreases breaking point load but the raw materials having the dimensions of 12 mm diameter and
breaking point load increases at highest spindle speed. 100 mm length after facing operation conducted on the CNC
Radoslaw Winiczenko et al (2013) examined the fracture turning centre and it is shown in Figure 2. The joining end of
morphology using scanned electron microscopy and phase the test specimen was cleaned with acetone solution to ensure
transformation taking place during the friction welding of the clean surface for better joint efficiency. The chemical
ductile iron with stainless steel and subsequently obtained the composition of the test specimen is presented in Table 1. The
intensity of diffusion process during this welding of bainitic basic constraint to achieve a friction weld is to generate the
ductile iron is larger than ferritic ductile iron. The authors adequate heat quickly to elevate the temperature at the
found that the depth of chromium atoms penetration reached interface very high for forging of the mating surfaces to
50 m. Radoslaw Winiczenko et al. (2012) welded the develop a metallurgical sound joint. The selection of friction
specimen like ductile iron and stainless steel using friction welding parameters is most important for achieving better
welding process. The intensity of diffusion processes during mechanical properties and efficiency of the joint. The
friction welding of bainitic ductile iron is larger than ferritic significant friction welding parameters predicting the welding
ductile iron and Scanning electron microscopy was used for performance characteristics are heating pressure, upset
study of the fracture morphology and phase transformations pressure and heating time can be speckled within the range
pleasing place during friction welding process. Kannan et al available in the machine requirements and manufacturer
(2012) investigated the dissimilar friction welds with and suggestion is shown in Table 2. The experiments were carried
without silver interlayer is experimented and concluded that out by the proper selection of input parameters to achieve

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 2 (2016) pp 1251-1255
Research India Publications.

better tensile strength using L9 orthogonal array recommended Table 3: L9 Orthogonal Array
by the Taguchi Design of Experiment concept is presented in
Table 3. Input Parameters
Experimental Run HP UP HT
Bar Bar Sec
1. 10 16 3
2. 10 20 5
3. 10 24 7
4. 14 16 5
5. 14 20 7
6. 14 24 3
7. 18 16 7
8. 18 20 3
9. 18 24 5

Results and Discussion

The modern manufacturing industries are used the continuous
Figure 1: Friction Welding Machine
drive friction welding machine for joining the similar or
dissimilar materials. The experimental work determined the
influence of heating pressure, upset pressure and heating time
on tensile strength in the friction welding process. Based on
the Taguchi design, 9 experiments were conducted on the
Austenitic stainless steel grade 304L with KUKA continuous
drive friction welding machine. The Minitab software version
16 is used to investigate the experimental results as per the
recommendation of the Taguchi design of experiment is
presented in Table 4.

Table 4: Experimental Results

Bar Bar Sec N/mm2
Figure 2: Friction welded test specimen 1. 10 16 3 786 57.9085
2. 10 20 5 777 57.8084
Table 1: Chemical composition of Austenitic Stainless Steel 3. 10 24 7 841 58.4959
Grade 304L 4. 14 16 5 724 57.1948
5. 14 20 7 780 57.8419
Elements Carbon Nickel Chromium Manganese Silicon
6. 14 24 3 772 57.7523
0.02 9 18.5 1.5 0.6 7. 18 16 7 741 57.3964
8. 18 20 3 792 57.9745
Table 2: Friction Welding Process Parameters 9. 18 24 5 773 57.7636

Process Level of Factors i. Response Table for S/N Ratio

S. No. Units Symbol
Parameters Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 The important objective of this experimental investigation is
1. Heating Pressure Bar H P 10 14 18
to investigate the effect of friction welding parameters on the
2. Upset Pressure Bar U P 16 20 24
3. Heating Time Sec H T 3 5 7 tensile strength and hence Larger is Better condition is
selected. The response table for the signal to noise ratio for
this investigation is presented in Table 5.

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 2 (2016) pp 1251-1255
Research India Publications.

Table 5: Response Table for S/N Ratio

Heating Upset Heating

Pressure Pressure Time
1 58.07 57.50 57.88
2 57.60 57.88 57.59
3 57.72 58.01 57.91
Delta 0.47 0.51 0.32
Rank 2 1 3

The response table specifies the rank based on the delta values
which compare the relative magnitude of the each effect. The
delta value is designed from the highest average minus lowest
average of each factor. Based on the response table
demonstrated that upset pressure plays crucial role on the
tensile strength, heating pressure is the next peak value Figure 4: Interaction Plot for Tensile Strength
followed by heating time. The tensile strength of the friction
welded specimen is improved when the heating pressure is 10 iv. ANOVA
bar, upset pressure is 24 bar and heating time is 7 sec with The friction welding parameter investigation on Austenitic
constant spindle rotation of 1500 rpm. stainless steel grade 304L is most important for predicting the
welding performance characteristics. ANOVA is the statistical
ii. Main Effect Plot method used to calculate the size of the difference between
The main effect of input parameters on the tensile strength of data set. The influences of welding parameters on input
friction welded Austenitic stainless steel grade 304L is shown variables are identified with the support of analysis of
in Figure 3. The optimal level of input parameters for this variance table in Table 6. ANOVA is an application of
experimental investigation is represented as the highest value Taguchi design of experiment for selecting the best predicted
of each level in the main effect plot. From Figure 3, it is value of friction welding parameters affecting the tensile
distinguished that the effect of input parameters increases with strength for this experimental investigation. This analysis was
increase in the level. The optimal level of friction welding carried out for a confidence level of 95%. It is observed that
parameters for this experimental work is 10 bar of heating upset pressure plays crucial role for affecting the tensile
pressure, 24 bar of upset pressure and 7 sec of heating time strength with p-value of 0.197.
with constant speed of 1500 rpm.
Table 6: Analysis of Variance for Tensile Strength

Adj Adj F- P-
Source DF
SS MS Value Value
2 2948.5 1474.2 3.68 0.214
Pressure (Bar)
2 3270.5 1635.3 4.08 0.197
Pressure (Bar)
Heating Time
2 1515.3 757.6 1.89 0.346
Error 2 801.8 400.9
Total 8 8536.1

The experiments were conducted on Austenitic stainless steel
grade 304L using the KUKA continuous drive friction
Figure 3: Main Effect Plot for S/N ratio welding machine. The experiments were accomplished for
various combinations of heating pressure, upset pressure and
iii. Interaction Plot heating time. Taguchi design of experiments was
The tensile strength for each experimental run is investigated implemented to predict the better tensile strength for the
by using the interaction plot is shown in Figure 4. The specimen. The tensile strength of the friction welded joint was
interaction plot illustrates an interaction between all the levels analyzed by computer based tensile testing machine. The
and parameters for effective optimization. From Figure 4, authors studied the following important conclusions from this
shows that the lines are not parallel to each other for all level experimental investigation.
of factors. It is concluded that maximum tensile strength for Friction welded Austenitic stainless steel grade 304L
the friction welded AISI 304L stainless steel joints are heating joint has good mechanical properties.
pressure is 10 bar, upset pressure is 24 bar and heating time is The experimental data has been used to determine
7 sec. the tensile strength under various combinations of

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 2 (2016) pp 1251-1255
Research India Publications.

input parameters within the range of experimental Volume 3, Issue 4, pp. 131-134.
values. [9] Radoslaw Winiczenko amd Mieczyslaw
Upset pressure has greater influence on tensile Kaczorowski (2013), Friction welding of ductile
strength compared with other input parameters. iron with stainless steel, Journal of Materials
Use of high upset pressure is recommended to obtain Processing Technology, pp. 453-462.
the better tensile strength. [10] Radoslaw Winiczenko and Mieczyslaw Kaczorowski
The optimal friction welding parameters are heating (2012), Friction welding of ductile iron with
pressure 10 bar, upset pressure 24 bar and heating stainless steel, Journal of Materials Processing
time 7 sec with constant spindle rotation of 1500 Technology, pp. 453-462.
rpm. [11] Kannan P, Balamurugan K and Thirunavukkarasu K
(2012), Experimental investigation on the influence
Based on the experimental investigation, it is found that of silver interlayer in particle fracture of dissimilar
joining strength on the Maximum is Better condition in friction welds, International Journal of Mechanical
tensile strength of the friction welded joint. This experimental Engineering and Technology, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp.
report is valuable for the researchers to enhance the 32-37.
competence of the friction welded joint for Austenitic [12] Shubhavardhan R.N and Surendran S (2012),
stainless steel grade 304L. Friction welding to join stainless steel and
aluminum materials, International Journal of
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