Anda di halaman 1dari 41

Dr.

Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Electronic Circuits
Chapter 3: FET

Dr. Dung Trinh

1
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Content
MOSFET

Current Voltage Characteristics

MOSFET Circuits at DC

Small Signal Operation and Models

Basic MOSFET Amplifier Configurations

2
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET
MOSFET: Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor.

According to the physics of the device, we can classify transistors into two main classes:

Field Effect Transistors (FET): Conduction is controlled by electric field which is


produced by voltage applied to the control terminals. So, the control draws no current
and FET is a voltage- controlled device.

Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT): Diode-based device which is usually blocked unless
the control terminals are forward- biased. So, the control is a current, and BJT is a
current amplifier by nature.

3
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET
MOSFET is a four-terminal device: gate (G), source (S), drain (D) and body (B).
Two kinds of MOSFETs: n-channel (NMOS) and p-channel (PMOS) devices.
The device structure is basically symmetric in terms of drain and source.
Source and drain terminals are specified by the operation voltage.

4
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET
Gate voltage exceeds a threshold
voltage > : electrons start
to accumulate on the substrate
surface. = . (V)

The positive > is used to


induce the channel and it is called
n-channel enhancement type
MOSFET.
The induced n region forms a channel
for current flow from drain to source.

The field controls the amount of charge in the channel and determines the
channel conductivity.

5
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET Small
Small is applied: free electrons
travel from source to drain through the
induced n-channel.

The resulting current flows from drain


to source (opposite to the direction of
the flow of negative charge).

The resulting current flows from drain


to source (opposite to the direction of
the flow of negative charge).

The channel is controlled by the effective


voltage or overdrive voltage:
=

6
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET Increasing
As is increased, the channel becomes more
tapered and its resistance increases correspondingly.
At the point = , the channel is
pinched off at the drain side.
Triode region: <
Saturation region:

7
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET IV Relationship

Triode region: =

Saturation region: =

Channel resistance: =



Transconductance parameter: = = where:

: oxide capacitance per unit area.

: mobility of electron in the inversion layer.

and : channel width and length.

8
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET Circuit Symbols


n-channel enhancement-mode MOSFET:

p-channel enhancement-mode MOSFET:

9
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

NMOS Current Voltage Characteristics

10
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET - Current Voltage Characteristics

Example 1: Consider an NMOS transistor fabricated in a L = 0.18 process with


L = 0.18 and W = 2. The process technology is specified to have = 8.6
fF/2 , = 450 2 / and = 0.5.
a. Find and that result in the MOSFET operating at the edge of saturation with
= 100.
b. If is kept constant, find that results in = 50.
c. To investigate the use of the MOSFET as a linear amplifier, let it be operating in
saturation with = 0.3. Find the change in resulting from changing from
0.7 by +0.01 and by 0.01.

11
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET Finite Output Resistance


In practice, increasing beyond does
affect the channel somewhat.

This effect can be accounted for in the


expression for by including a factor
+ :

= +

Defining the output resistance as


=
=


=

12
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET Circuits at DC
DC analysis for MOSFET circuits:
Assume the operation mode and solve the dc bias utilizing the corresponding
current equation.
Verify the assumption with terminal voltages (cutoff, triode and saturation).
If the solution is invalid, change the assumption of operation mode and
analyze again.

Example 2: The NMOS transistor in the following


circuit has = 0.7, = 100A/ 2 , = 1
and = 32 . Design the circuit so that the
transistor operates at = 0.4 and = 0.5.

13
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET Circuits at DC
Example 3: The NMOS transistor in the following circuit has = 0.6, =
200A/ 2 , = 0.8 and = 4. Design the circuit so that the transistor
operates at = 80. Find the DC voltage .

Example 4: Design the circuit so that the transistor operates at = 0.1. Let
= 1, = 1mA/ 2. Find the effective resistance between drain and source at
this operating point.

Example 3 Example 4
14
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET Circuits at DC
Example 5: Determine the voltage and the current of all nodes and branches?
= 1, = 1/2.

15
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET Circuits at DC
Example 6: Design the following circuit so that the transistor operates in saturation
with = 0.5 and = 3. Let the enhancement-type PMOS transistor have

= 1 and = 1/ 2. Assume = 0. What is the largest value that
can have while maintaining saturation-region operation?

16
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET Circuits at DC
Example 7: The NMOS and PMOS transistors in the following circuit are matched,

with = = 1/ 2 and = = 1 . Assume = 0 for both

devices, find the drain currents and as well as the voltage for =
0, 2.5 2.5.

17
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET in Amplifier Design



=

+
| = +

Input voltage increase drain


current increase output voltage =

decrease.
18
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET in Amplifier Design


DC operating point

The signal to be amplified, (), a function of time t, is superimposed on the bias


voltage. Thus the total instantaneous value of becomes:

= + ()

19
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET in Amplifier Design

The signal to be amplified, (), a


function of time t, is superimposed
on the bias voltage. Thus the total
instantaneous value of becomes:

= + ()
| =
=

20
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET in Amplifier Design


Example 8: The transistor is specified to have = 0.4 , = 0.4/ 2 ,
/ = 10, = 1.8, = 17.5, = 0.6.
a. For = 0, find , , and .
b. What is the maximum symmetrical signal swing allowed at the drain? Hence find
the maximum allowable amplitude of a sinusoidal .

21
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

MOSFET in Amplifier Design


=
=
Transistor as a switch
22
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Small Signal Operation and Models


The DC bias point:
1 1
= 2 = 2
2 2

When the input signal applied


2
1
= +
2
1 1
= 2 + + 2
2 2
1 2
In order to reduce the non-linear distortion:
2
2
23
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Small Signal Operation and Models


If the small signal condition is satisfied:
1 2
= + = +
2

The MOSFET transconductance :

Voltage gain:

= = +

=
=

24
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Small Signal Operation and Models

25
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Small Signal Model


=

~ 10 100

The current is the value of the dc drain current:


1 1
= = 2
2
2 2

The trans-conductance :
2
= = =

26
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Small Signal Model T model

27
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Small Signal Model


Example 9: A discrete common-source MOSFET amplifier utilizing a drain-to-gate
resistance for biasing purposes. The transistor has = 1.5 , / =
0.25/ 2 and = 50. Determine its small-signal voltage gain and its input
resistance.

28
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Summary

29
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

The Three Basic Configurations

30
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Common Source Amplifier


The common source is the most widely used.

The bulk of the voltage gain is obtained by using one or more


Common Source stages in the cascade.
Characteristic Parameters of the CS Amplifier:
Open circuit voltage gain:
=

Overall voltage gain:


=
Input resistance:
=
Output resistance:
=
31
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Common Source Amplifier


The common source is the most widely used.

The bulk of the voltage gain is obtained by using one or more


Common Source stages in the cascade.
Characteristic Parameters of the CS Amplifier:
Open circuit voltage gain:
=

Overall voltage gain:


=
Input resistance:
=
Output resistance:
=
32
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Common Source Amplifier


Characteristic Parameters of the CS Amplifier
(with source resistance):

= =
1 1 +
+

=
CS amplifier with source resistance
Open circuit voltage gain:

= =
1 +

Input resistance:
=

Output resistance:
=
33
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Common Gate Amplifier


Common Gate amplifier is used to obtain wide bandwidth.

Characteristic Parameters of the CS Amplifier:


Open circuit voltage gain:
=

Overall voltage gain:



=
+ 1
Input resistance:
1
= Disadvantage!!!

Output resistance:
=
34
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Common Drain Amplifier (Source


Follower)
The need for voltage buffers: the amplifier has
High input resistance.
Low output resistance.

35
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Common Drain Amplifier (Source


Follower)
Common Drain amplifier is usually used as a voltage buffer.

Characteristic Parameters of the CS Amplifier:


Open circuit voltage gain:

= 1
+ 1
Overall voltage gain:

= 1
+ 1
Input resistance:

=
Output resistance:
= 1
36
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Discrete Circuit MOS Amplifiers

Example 9: Given = =
10 , = 1/ 2 , = 0.5 ,
= 15 , = 4.7
= 1.5.
Calculate input, output resistance
and overall voltage gain. =
100, = 15.

37
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Discrete Circuit MOS Amplifiers

Example 10: Given = =


10 , = 1/ 2 , = 0.5 ,
= 15 , = 4.7
= 1.5, = 1/.
Calculate input, output resistance
and overall voltage gain. =
50, = 15.

38
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Discrete Circuit MOS Amplifiers

Example 11: Given = =


10 , = 1/ 2 , = 0.5 ,
= 15 , = 4.7
= 1.5, = 1/.
Calculate input, output resistance
and overall voltage gain. =
1, = 15.

39
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Summary

40
Dr. Dung Trinh HCMUT / 2015

Q&A

41