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Industrial Security Management

RA no. 5487 - (as amended by PD no. 11) - Private security agency law.

Private Detective - is any person who for hire or reward or on commission conducts or carries on or
holds himself out as conducting or carrying on a detective agency or detective service.
- any person who is not a member of a regular police agency or armed forces
who does detective work for hire, reward or commission.

PADPAO - Philippine Association of Detective and Protective Agency Operators.

Watchmen/Security Guard - person who offers or renders personal service to watch or secure
either residential or business establishment or both or any building, compound or area for hire or
compensation or as an employee thereof.

Security Agency - any person, association, partnership or corporation who recruits, trains, muster,
furnishes, solicit individuals or business firms, private or government owned or controlled
corporation to engage his services or those of its watchmen.

Who May Organize Security Agency

1. Any Filipino Citizen or a corporation, partnership or association.
2. With a minimum capital required by law.

In case of corporation, association, or partnership - must be 100 % owned and controlled

by Filipino citizen.

No person shall organize or have interest in more than one agency.

Qualification of an Operator or Manager of a Security Agency:

1. At least 25 years of age
2. College graduate and/or commissioned officer in the
inactive service of the AFP
3. Good moral character
4. No previous record of any conviction of any
crime/offense involving moral turpitude
5. Not suffering from any of the following

1. dishonorably discharged or separate from the AFP

2. mentally incompetent

3. addicted to the use of narcotic drugs

4. habitual drunkard

5. An elective or appointive government employees who may be called upon on account of

the function of their respective offices in the implementation and enforcement of the
provision of RA 5487 and person related to such government employees by affinity or
consanguinity in the third civil degree shall not hold any interest, directly or indirectly in any
security guard agency.

Basic Qualification of a security Guard

1. Filipino citizen
2. High school graduate
3. Physically and mentally fit
4. Not less than 21 nor more than 50 years old
5. At least 5'4" in height
6. Not suffering from any disqualification under RA

Veterans shall be given priority in employment as security guard or private detective.

Person convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude shall not be employed as security
guard or private detective.

Private detective, detective agency, security guard, security agency must first obtain license
from the PNP.

Employees employed solely for clerical or manual work need not be licensed.

The license shall be displayed at all times in a conspicuous and suitable place in the agency

The PNP shall exercise general supervision over the operation of all private detective and
security guard agencies.

The City/Municipal Mayors has the power as director of the City/Municipal civil defense to
deputize private detective and security guards to help maintain peace and order or prevent
or arrest law violators in case of emergency or in times of disaster or calamity. They shall
take orders from the Chief of Police for the duration of the fire, inundation, earthquakes,
riots or other emergency.

A security guard or security agency is entitled to possess firearms.

Firearm must not be higher than .45 caliber.

Agency is entitled to possess firearm not exceeding one firearm for every security guard in
its employ.

Security guard is entitled to possess not more than one riot gun or shotgun.

Firearms shall be carried by the security guard only during his tour of duty in proper
uniform within the compound of the establishment except when he escorts big amount of
cash or valuables in or out of said compound.

The Chief PNP shall prescribe the uniform, ornaments, equipment and paraphernalia to be
worn by the security guards.

Uniforms must be different from the PNP/AFP.

Salary of security guard - not lower than the minimum wage prescribe by law.

Limitations and Prohibitions on a Security Agency

1. No agency operating in the City of manila and
suburbs may employ more than 1000 watchmen or
security guards.
2. No agency operating in other cities and first class
municipalities may employ more than 500 watchmen
or security guards.
3. No agency operating in municipalities other than
first class may employ more than 200 watchmen or
security guards.
4. No person, corporation, partnership or association
may organize more than one agency in any one city
or municipality.
5. No agency shall offer, render or accept services to
gambling dens or other illegal enterprises.
6. The extent of the security service being provided
by any security agency shall not go beyond the
whole compound or property of the person or
establishment requesting the security service
except when they escort big amount of cash.

Who can Issue rules and regulations to carry out the purpose of RA 5487? ans. the chief PNP, in
consultation with the Philippines Association of Detective and Protective Agency Operators.

What are the penal provisions for violation of RA5487 or its implementing rules? ans.
1. Suspension, fine or cancellation of license to
operate with the forfeiture of bond filed with the
Chief PNP.
2. Imprisonment ranging from 1 to 4 years and fine, in
the discretion of the courts.

Physical security - describes the measures that are designed to deny access to unauthorized
personnel from physically accessing a building, facility, stored information and guidance on how to
design structures to resist potentially hostile acts.
- a system of barriers placed between a potential intruder and the material or
installation to be protected.

Security - the predictable state or condition which is free from harm, injury, destruction,
intimidation or fear. Freedom from fear or danger or defense against crime.
Physical Security System - a barrier or system of barriers placed between the potential intruder and
the matter to be protected. Protective device against hazards, threats, vulnerability and risks.

Purpose/Goals of Physical security

1. deter potential intruders - ex. warning signs, perimeter markings

2. distinguish authorized from unauthorized people - ex. using pass card

3. delay or prevent intrusion attempt - ex. wall, door lock, safe

4. detect intrusion and monitor/record intruders - e. CCTV, intrusion alarm

5. trigger appropriate incident responses - ex. security guards

How to deter potential intruders

1. install warning signs -

2. build fences

3. put vehicle barriers

4. install vehicle height restriction

5. implement restricted access point

6. install sight lighting and trenches

How to distinguish authorized from unauthorized people - access control at the

1. gates

2. doors

3. locks

How to detect intrusion

1. install alarms

2. install intrusion detection monitor

3. install video monitoring system - ex. cctv

Vigiles (in Rome) - origin of the watchmen although their principal duty was as a fire brigade.

Notable security guards:

1. Frank Wills - detected the Watergate burglars ultimately leading to the resignation of US
President Richard Nixon.

Target hardening - the reduction in criminal opportunity, generally through the use of physical
barriers, architectural design and enhanced security measures of a particular location.

Defensible Space - the range of mechanisms that combine to bring an environment under the
control of its residents.

Demography - the study of the characteristics of population groups.

Principles of Physical Security

1. An intruder must be able to acquire access to the
property in order to benefit.
2. The type of access necessary will depend upon a
number of variable factors and therefore may be
achieved in a number of ways.
3. There is no impenetrable barrier.
4. Security is built upon a system of defense in depth
resulting to accumulated delay time which may lead
to the apprehension of the intruder.
5. Each installation is different from the others.

2 Kinds of Barriers
1. Natural
2. Artificial

5 Types of Barriers
1. Human
2. Animal
3. Natural
4. Energy/Electrical/Electronic
5. Structural

3 Line of Defense
1. Perimeter Barrier - 1st line of defense.
2. Building Exterior - 2nd line of defense.
3. Interior Controls - 3rd line of defense.

Perimeter Barrier - main purpose is to deny or impede access or exit of unauthorized persons.
Other Purposes
1. It defines the boundary of the property to be
2. It creates a physical and psychological deterrent
to unauthorized entry.
3. It delays intrusion, thus facilitating apprehension
of intruders.
4. It assists in a more efficient and economical
employment of guards.
5. It facilitates and improves the control of pedestrian
and vehicular traffic.
1. Types of Fencing (solid/full view)
2. The top guard
3. Types of Protective Alarms Systems
4. Types of Protective and Emergency Lighting's
5. CCTV Cameras and other Electronic Security
Systems/Energy Barriers

Building Exterior - Components:

1. walls
2. Doors
3. Windows
4. Roof Openings
5. Fire Escapes
6. Protective Alarm Systems
7. Protective and Emergency lightings
8. CCTV Cameras and other Electronic Security
Systems/Energy Barriers

Interior Controls - Components:

1. ID Systems
2. Protective Alarm Systems
3. Protective Emergency Lightings
4. Communication Systems
5. CCTV Cameras and other Electronic Security
Systems/Energy Barriers
6. Restricted Areas (storage areas/utilities)
7. Access Control
8. Key Control
9. Emergency Plans

Natural barriers or features - such as cliffs,ravines,and rivers which delay or make more difficult to
entry of intruders.

Barriers - any line of boundary and separation,natural or artificial,places,or serving as limitation or

obstruction.Anything that bars,keep out,obstruct progress,or prevents encroachment or intrusion.
Structural barriers - features constructed by man regardless of their original intent that tends to
delay the intruder.ex.walls,ceilings,locks,safe,windows.

Human barriers - guards,charges of quarters,office personnel,shop workers etc. who stand between
the intruder and the matter to be protected.

Animal barriers - usually guard dog.ex. trained German shepherds used as guards,goose,and
turkeys can also be included.

Energy barriers - usually electrical or electronics devices used to provide assistance to guard
personnel.ex. protective lightnings,anti intrusion devices.

Full view fence - it is designed primarily to prevent physical access between two areas.Constructed
in such a way that visual access is permitted through the fence.

Physical Security Features:

1.Natural barriers - natural terrains features must be
considered from the stand point of their values to
intruder as cover and concealment. Normally the
first type considered very often we have to accept
and work around them.
a. solid fence - one is constructed in such a way that
visual access through the fenced structure is
b. full view fence - constructed in such a way that
visual access is permitted through the fence.

Advantages of a full view fence

1. removing patrols and stationary guards are able to
keep area surrounding of the installation under
2. it does not create shadows which would provide
cover and concealment for the intruder.

Disadvantages of a full view fence

1. It allows visual access to the installation,its
personnel,its guard and its activities.
2. It allows the intruders to become familiar with the
movements and the time schedule of the guard
patrols thereafter allowing him to pick the time for
attempting penetration which would most
advantageous to the intruder.
Advantages of solid fence
1. Denies visual access of the installation of the
2. Denies the opportunity for the intruder to become
familiar with the personnel,activities and the time
schedule of the movements of guards in the

Disadvantages of solid fence

1. It prevents the guards from observing the area
around the installation.
2. It creates shadows which may be used by the
intruder for cover and concealment.

Minimum acceptable requirements for fence used security barriers

1. Height - 8 feet at a minimum.
2. Slack at the bottom - not to exceed 2 inches.If the
fences are not tight then it should extend even
closer to the ground.
3. Wooden fence post - minimum horizontal dimension
of 4X4 inches.
4.Steel fence post - the round type should at least be
2 inches at the smallest diameter.
5. Fence post - should be set in concrete or in firm
soil using commercial drive anchors to a depth of 3
feet and the maximum distance post is 10 feet.
6. Fence top (Top Guard) - there should be something
on the top of the fence to deter persons attempting
to go over fence.ex.use of barb wire overhang.The
arms holding the barbwire should be extended at 45
degree angle in the direction of the expected

7. Fence area - it should be declared trees and

vegetation and debris of other materials which
would offer concealment of the intruder or would
aid him in scaling the fence.
8. Fence Gates - gates should be limited to the no.
necessary for efficient and sage operation of the
9. Fence Opening - all opening in the fence in excess
of 96 inches must be locked barbed or screen in
such a way that they may be interlocked and
opened from the inside and only by selected
10.Multiple fence - is used should at least be 10 feet
apart and the overhang on the top of the inner
fence should point inward.

4 Basic functions that must be accomplished by the guard system

1. Detect intruders
2. Sound alarms
3. Apprehend unauthorized personnel
4. Identify authorized personnel

Personnel Control Identification

2 Types of identification
1. Personal Recognition - is the most effective
2. Artificial Identification - badges,passes etc.

System of Employment of Personnel Control Identification

1. Pass system - a method used by security to screen
visitors or person admitted into building premises.
2. Single pass or Badge system - the least expensive
and the least secure.
3. Group pass and Badge system - one ID for one
4. Multiple pass system - separate pass is required for
access to various areas in need ex.color coding
5. Spot magnetized identification passes - a code may
be placed in the device and when passes through a
machine,the code on the device is read,if it contains
wrong code or no code at all,it will alarm.
6. Access list - it contains the names of authorized
persons or personnel and is checked against
identification cards such as drivers licenses,draft
registration etc.

Visitor control - the measures used would depend on the sensibility of the installation but could
include the following:
1. Escort - expensive but most secure
2. Time traveled - if there is a long delay or time lapse
between the departure and arrival,the visitor may
be required to show cause for the delay.
3. Visitors logs - should contain identifying data,
reasons of visit,time in and hour etc.
4. Visitors entrances - separate access for visitors and
separate for employees .

Utility and maintenance personnel - escort system could be used. If these people visit the
installations on a regular basis some of the systems previously could be used.

Package control - there should be provisions made to check packages being taken in and taken out.

Photography - extreme caution must be exercised in areas where classified information is displayed
to preclude unauthorized taking of pictures of the installation.

Vehicular control and identification

* Most common identification is for registering at the headquarters or gates and putting of sticker
on the windows of the vehicles.
* For visitors,the following systems are used:
1. Escort
2. Driver pool - the most secure but the most
expensive.In this system,car is driven by qualified
driver employed by the installation from the
entrance to its destination and after the
conclusion of the business of the is
driven back to the installations entrance.
3. Time travel - used in less sensitive installations
4. Grid system - a very complicated system.The
installation is divided into grid ad squares like a
map.Each square is given a no. or letter
designation.The visitor is then given a map and
shown the route to take to his destination and
should not deviate from the prescribed route,
otherwise he could be stopped and questioned
by the guards.
5. Search of vehicles - sign should be put at the
entrance to the installation that any vehicle
entering is subject to search anytime.

Types of Protective Alarm Systems

1. Central station system - the control station is
located outside the installations.When the alarm is
sounded by a subscriber, the central station
notifies the police or protection agency.
2. Property system - the control system is located
inside the installations with its own firefighter,law
enforcer,ambulance,or bomb disposal unit.
3. Local alarm - the signalling is near the alarm itself.
When the intruder enters the installation,the alarm
goes off scaring the intruder.Purpose is just to
scare not to apprehend intruder.
4. Auxiliary alarm - the installation owned the
protective alarm with a unit in the nearest police
station so that in case of need,direct call is possible.

Kinds of Alarms
1. Intrusion alarm - any detecting devices using
electric and their combinations to signal an alarm
when actuated.
2. Laser beam alarm - a laser emitter floods the wall or
fence with a beam so that when this beam is
disturbed by a physical object,an alarm is activated
3. Photocell alarm - an invisible or visible beam is
emitted and when disturbed,it activates an alarm
or mechanical device that opens a door or lift
movable barriers,activated by light.

Basic component of an alarm system

1. Annunciation - the heart of the system of the
detecting device and is the component that
activates the triggering unit.
2. Transmission - it transmit what is detected.
3. Triggering device - the one which emits those aural
or visual signals or both.

Security Survey - The detailed check and audit of what an installation or plant does not have in
relation to its protection from hazards.

Security Inspection - a process where physical

examination is conducted to determine compliance with established security policies and
procedures as a result of security survey.

Purpose of security survey

1. To determine existing state or condition of security
2. To locate weaknesses and possible defense
3. To determine degree of protection required

Security hazards - an act or condition which result in a situation conductive to a breach of the
protection system and the subsequent loss or compromise of defense,information,company
secrets,or damage to property,personnel,or facilities.

Hazards - exposure to loss or injury.

Two General Categories of Security Hazards
1. Human hazard - caused by human
2. Natural Hazard - caused by natural phenomena.

Types of Human Hazards

1. Human carelessness
2. Accident
3. Disaffection
4. Disloyalty
5. Subversion
6. Sabotage
7. Espionage
8. Pilferage
9. Theft

Protective Security - measures taken by an installation or unit to protect against sabotage,

espionage or subversion and at the same time provide freedom of action in order to provide the
installation or unit with the necessary flexibility to accomplish its mission.

3 Aspects of Security
1. Physical Security - measures taken to prevent
physical access or entry to an installation.
2. Personnel Security - measures taken to insure
that only authorized personnel have access to
classified documents or information.
3. Document and Information Security

Types of Security
1. Physical Security - the broadest.
2. Industrial Security - security of business
installations and industrial plants.
3. VIP Security - protection of high level officers and
important personnel.
4. Bank Security - security of money and assets
stored or in transit.
5. Hotel Security - security for hotel guest and their
personal belongings and property as well as
properties of the hotel.
6. Document security - protection of vital records
from loss or unauthorized access.
7. Communication Security - measures to prevent or
delay the unauthorized person in gaining
information through communication.

Physical Security
* Protective barrier - is the physical type of security.
* Barrier - any structure or physical device capable
of restricting,deterring,delaying illegal access into
* Perimeter barrier - a medium or structures which
define the physical limits of an installation or area
to restrict or impede access thereto. Any physical
barrier used to supplement the protection of the
inside perimeter.
* Inside Perimeter - a line of protection adjacent to
the protected area and passing through points of
possible entry into the area.ex. doors and windows
* Outside perimeter - a line of protection but somewhat
removed from the protected area.ex.fence

Types of Perimeter Barrier Opening

1. Gates and Doors
2. Elevators
3. Air intakes,Exhaust tunnels
4. Clear Zone
5. Top Guard
6. Guard Control Stations
7. Tower
8. Barrier maintenance
9. Sign and Notices

Protective Alarms - supplemental physical barriers in a form of sound that cause alarm installed
indoors or outdoors in an installation.

Types of Alarm Systems

1. Metallic foil wire
2. Ultrasonic Detection Device
3. Vibration Detection Device
4. Microwave Motion Detection Device
5. Audio Detection Device
6. Photo Electric or Electric Eye

Kinds of Alarms
1. Bill Traps
2. Foot Rail Activator
3. Knee or thigh button
4. Foot button
5. Double squeeze button

Protective Lighting - provide illumination on areas to be secured that adds psychological


Types of protective Lighting

1. Stationary luminary - consist of series of fixed
luminaries to flood given area continuously
Example: glare protection type
2. Standby Lighting - provides continuous lighting
through manual operations.
3. Movable Lighting - stationary or portable manually
operated search lights.
4. Emergency Lighting - duplication of existing
lighting system that is utilized in the event of
electric failure.

Types of Lighting Equipment

1. Street lights - used in parking areas
2. Search Lights - highly focused incandescent lamps
used to pinpoint potential trouble spot.
3. Flood Lights - project light in a concentrated beam
used in boundaries and fences.
4. Fresnel Lights - wide beam units primarily used to
extend illumination in long horizontal strips to
protect approaches to perimeter barrier.

Protective Locks and Keys

1. Lock - a mechanical,hydraulic,electrical or
electronic device designed to prevent entry into a
building,room,container or hiding place and to
prevent the removal of items without the consent
of the owner.
2. Padlock - portable and detachable lock having or
sliding hasp that passes through a staple ring.
3. Peterman - A term used in England for lock picker,
safe cracker and penetrators of restricted areas
or rooms.
Types of Locks
1. Lever locks - used in cabinets,drawers,safe
deposit box.
2. Disc-Tumble Locks - used in car doors.
3. Warded Locks - offer little security,used only to
provide privacy.
4. Combination Locks
5. Card Operated Locks
6. Electromagnetic Locks
7. Code operated Locks

Types of Keys
1. Master Key - a special key of opening a series
2. Grand Master Key - a key that will open
everything in a system involving two or more
master key groups.
3. Change Key - a key to a single lock within a master
keyed system.
4. Sub Master Key - a key will open all lock with a
particular area or grouping in a given facility.

Types of Security Cabinets

1. Safe
2. vault
3. File Room

Protective Cabinets - considered as the third line of defense against unauthorized persons.

Key Control - a system of controlling keys devised and regulated for disposal,storage and

Close-in Security Formations

1. One Man Security - 360 degrees coverage.
2. Two Man Security - Each guard has 180 degrees
3. Three Man Security - has equal areas of coverage
4. Four Man Security
5. Five Man Security - modified diamond.
6. Six Man Security - (defensive circle) too much
crowd requires arm lock formation.
Note: Six Man Security is the most effective.

Defensive In Depth Barriers

1. Outer Ring - securing sidewalks,in front of
quarters or offices,covering all entrances,front,
center,side and rear.
2. Middle Ring - security covering inside quarters,
office,residence,all stairways and elevators.
3. Inner Ring - immediately outside the high risk
personnel door or the one closest to the VIP.