Anda di halaman 1dari 6

1

Raja Yang Peduli Sejarah dan Leluhur


Mengungkapkan Sejarah Rahasia Yogyakarta dan
Madiun

Siapa yang menebar angin akan menabur topan!

KPAH [Kangjeng Pangeran Ario Adipati] Ronggo Prawirodirjo III, Adipati Maospati
Madiun ke III, dihukum mati sebagai pemberontak melawan penjajahan Belanda
dan dimakamkan di makam pemberontak Banyusumurup Th. 1810, dinyatakan
sebagai pejuang perintis melawan Belanda oleh Sri Sultan HB IX Th. 1957 dan
dimakamkan kembali di Giripurno, makam permaisurinya putri HB II, GBRAy [Gusti
Bendoro Raden Ayu] Madoeretno.

Mata saya terpapar kepada prasasti marmer di pemakaman di Gunung Bancak,


Magetan, 18 kilometer barat daya Maospati. Pemakaman yang sunyi dan
mentrenyuhkan ini adalah tempat istimewa - sebuah kramat Jawa dengan suasana
yang sesuai nama resmi Giripurno - gunung dari akherat. Sungguh teduh dengan
sepasang pohon bunga tanjung (mimusops elengi) yang harum, pohon tersohor dari
Mahabharata dan Ramayana, yang membingkai jalan berombak-ombak menuju ke
cungkup berpilar kokoh bercat putih itu.

A Sense of History Page 1


2

Tapi saya bingung: bagaimana sampai terjadi bahwa jenasah seorang pemberontak
yang dulu dikebumikan di Banyusumurup sebelah tenggara Imogiri, tempat di mana
para durjana dan penghianat raja Mataram dimakamkan, sampai digali dan
disemayam lagi nun jauh di Gunung Bancak di samping pemakaman istri yang
tercinta, Bendoro Gusti Raden Ayu Maduretno? Mengapa begitu pentingnya Bupati
Wedono Madiun yang ke-tiga dan tragis ini yang tewas pada umur tiga puluh satu
tahun satu melawan seratus di Sekaran (Kertosono) di tepi Bengawan Solo pada
17 Desember 1810? Dan siapa diri seorang Sultan ke-9 itu yang mempunyai
persentuhan yang begitu akrab dengan sejarah dan leluhur sehingga peduli
ngumpulk balung pisah? Toh, pada masa sekarang elit politik Indonesia terkenal
cuek perihal sejarah dan pengetahuannya atas riwayat bangsa dangkal: seolah
sejarah bukan lagi urusan zaman Reformasi ini dimana kepentingan pribadi dan
keluarga adalah nomor wahid!

Tetapi, seperti dinyatakan filosof Spanyol, George Santayana (1863-1952), orang


yang tidak bisa belajar dari sejarah akan dikutuk mengulang sejarah itu lagi. Sultan
ke-9 itu betul faham bahwa antara Yogyakarta dan Madiun ada semacam sejarah
rahasia. Dia pasti ingat bahwa saat leluhurnya, Pangeran Mangkubumi, dinobatkan
sebagai sultan pertama Yogyakarta setelah Perdamaian Giyanti (13 Februari 1755),
dia mengakui hutang budi kepada sekutu utama yang mendukungnya selama
Perang Giyanti (1746-55). Salah satu tokoh kunci adalah panglimanya, Kyai
Wirosentiko (sekitar 1717-1784), gagedhug Sokawati, yang diberi gelar Raden
Ronggo Prawirodirjo I dan jabatannya sebagai bupati wedana (bupati kepala daerah
wilayah timur jauh Yogya) di Madiun (menjabat 1760-1784). Seorang keturunan
Sultan Abdul Kahir I dari Bima (bertahkta, 1621-40), Raden Ronggo I itu serba bisa:
selain ahli siasat perang dia juga seorang sastrawan yang pernah menulis sebuah
lakon dalam siklus Damar Wulan - Damar Wulan bgal (1750). Adik perempuannya,
Mas Roro Juwati (pasca-1755, Ratu Ageng), adalah panglima pasukan Srikandi
(prajurit stri) kesultanan dan permaisuri utama Sultan Mangkubumi. Setelah wafat
sang suaminya (24 Maret 1792), Ratu Agenglah yang mengasoh Diponegoro muda
dan mengasah pemimpin Perang Jawa sebagai seorang Islam-Jawa yang saleh di
kediamannya di Tegalrejo di barat laut Yogya (1793-1803).

Sebelum Raden Ronggo I meninggal pada 1784, Sultan Mangkubumi pernah


membuat janji bahwa dia dan pewarisnya tidak akan pernah menyakiti atau
menumpahkan darah keturunan Sang Bupati Wedana Madiun itu, dan jika mereka
sampai melakukan pelanggaran, Sultan senantiasa sudi mengampuni. Tapi hanya
delapan belas tahun sesudah wafat sang raja perintis Yogya itu, anaknya, Sultan ke-
dua, mengingkar janji. Pada 20 November 1810, cucu Raden Ronggo, waktu itu
bergelar Raden Ronggo Prawirodirjo III (menjabat, 1796-1810), memilih
memberontak daripada dibunuh oleh Gubernur-Jenderal yang bengis itu, Marsekal
Herman Willem Daendels (menjabat, 1808-11). Ronggo ke-3 itu mengumumkan
bahwa pemberontakan adalah untuk membersihkan Jawa dari yang ternoda
[Belanda] dan membela hak orang Jawa dan Cina di Jawa Timur, terutama dengan
melindungi hutan jati dari kerebutan pemerintah kolonial.

Hanya seminggu sesudah Ronggo ke-3 memberontak, Sultan ke-2 mengirim sebuah
perintah rahasia kepada komandan pasukan gabungan Yogya-Belanda bahwa

A Sense of History Page 2


3

sekalipun Ronggo ke-3 tertangkap hidup-hidup, ia serta-merta harus dibunuh.


Mengingat janji ayahandanya, Sultan ke-2 tidak mau menanggung malu bila Ronggo
ke-3 dibawa kembali ke Yogya dalam keadaan hidup. Akhirnya, Ronggo dan
deputinya keturunan Bali, Sumonegoro, dibunuh di Sekaran dan jenasahnya dibawah
pulang ke Yogya untuk dipertontonkan sebagai begal biasa dalam keranda terbuka
di Pangurakan utara alun-alun Keraton Yogya. Setelah sehari semalam, jenasahnya
diturunkan untuk dikebumikan di Banyusumurup. Menurut Diponegoro, yang pernah
menyaksikan tindakan keji ini, Sultan ke-2 membuat sebuah dosa besar dan
sesudah Ronggo dibunuh, Yogya seperti hilang pembela [saical Den Ronggo,
nenggih nagri Ngayogya, wus tan ana banthengipun].

Tetapi yang ingkar janji pasti kena imbas. Hanya delapan belas bulan setelah
kejadian yang fatal ini, Sultan ke-2 tertimpang tsunami waktu Keraton Yogya
diserang dan dijarah habis-habis oleh Inggris-Sepoy (20 Juni 1812) dan semua uang
(120 juta dolar Amerika dalam uang sekarang), naskah, gamelan, keris, pusaka dan
barang-barang perhiasan diboyong ke Bengal. Sang raja sendiri juga kena sangsi
dengan diasingkan ke Pulau Pinang (1812-15) dan Ambon (1817-24): walaupun
dikembalikan ke tahta Yogya pada 17 Agustus 1826, sudah menjadi terlalu pikun
untuk memerintah lagi. Siapa yang menebar angin akan menabur topan!

Jadi Sultan ke-9 tidak hanya mengerti sejarah, tetapi juga mampu membaca kisah
leluhur dengan bijaksana dan mengadakan rekonsiliasi melalui usahanya
mengembalikan jenasah Raden Ronggo ke-3 ke Gunung Bancak/Giripurno untuk
disemayamkan lagi dekat istrinya yang tercinta. Dan tidak hanya dengan Madiun tapi
juga dengan trah Diponegoro Sultan ke-9 bertindak bijak dengan membuka pintu
keraton lagi kepada keluarga Sang Pangeran yang sudah lama menjadi G30S dari
Pemerintah Hindia Belanda. Ternyata, pemimpin Perang Jawa itu telah menjadi
menantu almarhum Ronggo-3 setelah menikahi putrinya, Raden Ayu Maduretno
(nama yang sama seperti sang ibunda), pada September 1814, dan juga
mengangkat putranya dari istri selir, Ali Basah Sentot Prawirodirjo (sekitar 1808-
1855), sebagai panglima selama Perang Jawa (1825-1830).

Dalam kisah yang amat tragis ini semacam Romeo dan Juliet atau Hamlet versi
Madiun hanya Sultan ke-9 yang tahu bertindak sakti. Keluhuran budi jelas terlihat.
Jadi timbul pertanyaan: mengapa seorang raja dari generasi perintis begitu peka
kepada sejarah tapi sekarang elit politik begitu buta? Apakah ini faktor pendidikan?
Atau hal lain seperti gagasan dan ruang intelektual kaum pemimpin yang sekarang
menjadi picik pikirannya sebab sarat kepentingan pribadi? Tahta untuk rakyat adalah
pedoman Sultan ke-9 bukan tahta untuk keluarga. Kisah Yogyakarta dan Madiun
menjadi saksi hidup sang raja republikan dan demokratis itu yang selalu membawa
Jasmerah Bung Karno - Jangan sekali-kali meninggalkan sejarah - sebagai
inspirasinya.

[1012 kata]

Peter Carey adalah Emeritus Fellow dari Trinity College, Oxford, dan YAD Adjunct
(Visiting) Profesor di FIB-UI (Fakultas Ilmu Pengetahuan Budaya, Universitas
Indonesia).

A Sense of History Page 3


4

A Sense of History Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX and


the Tragedy of Raden Ronggo III of Maospati-Madiun
He who sows the wind will reap the whirlwind.

KPAH [Kangjeng Pangeran Ario Adipati] Ronggo Prawirodirjo III, Adipati Maospati
Madiun ke III, dihukum mati sebagai pemberontak melawan penjajahan Belanda
dan dimakamkan di makam pemberontak Banyusumurup Th. 1810, dinyatakan
sebagai pejuang perintis melawan Belanda oleh Sri Sultan HB IX Th. 1957 dan
dimakamkan kembali di Giripurno, makam permaisurinya putri HB II, GBRAy [Gusti
Bendoro Raden Ayu] Madoeretno.

[His Lordship Prince Ario Adipati Ronggo Prawirodirjo III, third senior administrator of
Maospati-Madiun, who was sentenced death as a rebel against the Dutch colonisers and
buried in the traitors graveyard in Banyusumurup in 1810, was proclaimed a pioneer
freedom fighter against the Dutch by Sultan HB IX in 1957 and reinterred at Giripurno, the
gravesite of his official wife, Her Royal Highness Raden Ayu Madoeretno.]

My eye was drawn to the marble plaque on the wall of the Ronggo family graveyard
at Gunung Bancak, Magetan, eighteen kilometres due southwest of Maospati, seat of
the former Senior Administrator (Bupati Wedana) of Madiun, Ronggo Prawirodirjo III
(c.1779-1810; in office, 1796-1810). This isolated and intensely moving graveyard is
one of the secret places of Java a holy site which reflects its official name -
Giripurno hill of eternity. A place of deep peace with a pair of fragrant Tanjung
(mimusops elengi) trees, celebrated in the ancient tales of the Mahabharata and
Ramayana, which frame the root-entwined pathway leading to the early nineteenth
century white-painted grave-house with its sturdy doric pillars.

But I was confused: how come that the corpse of a rebel who had earlier been laid
to rest at Banyusumurup to the southeast of Imogiri, the graveyard where the bad-
hats and traitors to the Mataram dynasty were buried, should be disinterred and
reburied at far-distant Gunung Bancak besides the grave of his beloved wife,
Bendoro Gusti Raden Ayu Maduretno? What was so important about this third and
most tragic of the senior administrators (bupati wedana) of Madiun who was killed in
battle aged just thirty-one at the hamlet of Sekaran (the place of the flowers) by the
banks of the Solo River on Monday, 17 December 1810? And who was this ninth
Sultan who had such a developed sense of history and reverence for his ancestors
that he was prepared to gather up the mortal remains of this long-dead Madiun
bupati and oversee his re-interment? Who in the present age, amongst the current
Indonesian political elite, has such a sense of history? Indeed, who cares about the
ancestors in our age of instant leaders when private ambitions rule supreme?

As the Spanish-born philosopher, George Santayana, has pointed out those that do
not know their history are condemned to relive it! In this context, the ninth sultan

A Sense of History Page 4


5

seems to have understood the inwardness of the history of Yogyakarta and Madiun,
recalling that after his ancestor, Sultan Mangkubumi, had been recognized as the
first sultan of Yogyakarta following the Treaty of Giyanti on 13 February 1755, he
had acknowledged debts of honour to his closest allies. One of these was his army
commander, Kyai Wirosentiko (c.1717-1784), who was given the name of Raden
Ronggo Prawirodirjo I and elevated as the first Yogya Senior Administrator (Bupati
Wedana) of Madiun. A direct descendant of Sultan Abdul Kahir I (r. 1621-40) of
Bima (Sumbawa), Ronggo I was a polymath: not only was he a gifted military
strategist but he was also a writer and seems to have composed one of the tales of
the Damar Wulan cycle beloved of East Javanese audiences Damar Wulan goes
thieving (Damar Wulan bgal) (1750). His younger sister, Mas Roro Juwati post-
1755 Ratu Ageng had become the commander of the sultans personal female
bodyguard or Pasukan Srikandi, and the consort of the first sultan. After her
husbands death in March 1792, it was she who looked after the young Diponegoro
at her Tegalrejo estate to the northwest of Yogyakarta (1793-1803) and brought him
up to become a gifted leader steeped in Javanese-Islamic lore.

Before Raden Ronggo I died in 1784, Sultan Mangkubumi made him a promise that
both he and his successors as Yogya rulers would never harm or shed the blood of
the Bupati Wedanas family, and if they ever made a mistake they would always be
forgiven. But only eighteen years after the death of the Yogya founder, his son, the
second sultan, broke his fathers promise. On 20 November 1810, Raden Ronggo Is
grandson, Ronggo Prawirodirjo III (in office, 1796-1810), decided to go into
rebellion rather than die at the bloody hands of the Dutch Governor-General,
Marshal Herman Willem Daendels (in office, 1808-11). Proclaiming that his rebellion
was to clean Java of filth [the Dutch], he vowed to protect the Javanese and
Chinese in East Java, and above all to prevent the teak forests of East Java from
being destroyed by the depredations of the colonial government.

Yet only a week after Ronggo IIIs rebellion, the second sultan sent a secret
instruction to the commander of the joint Javanese-Dutch force sent to hunt Ronggo
III down that even if he was taken alive he should immediately be put to death.
Mindful of the promise of his father, Sultan Mangkubumi, the second sultan did not
want the embarrassment of Ronggo III being brought back to Yogya alive. In the
end Ronggo and his part Balinese deputy, Sumonegoro, were killed at Sekaran and
their bodies brought back to be shown like common criminals in open coffins at the
Pangurakan crossroads to the north of the alun-alun (open square in front of the
court). After a day of this display they were cut down and taken to Banyusumurup
for burial. According to Diponegoro, who may have witnessed this gruesome sight,
the second Sultan committed a great sin and after the disappearance of Ronggo
III it was as though Yogya had lost its last champion [saical Den Ronggo,
nenggih nagri Ngayogya, wus tan ana banthengipun].

But retribution is swift for those who break their promises, especially solemn and
binding ones. Only eighteen months after these fatal events in late 1810, the second
Sultan and his court were overwhelmed by the tsunami of the British-Indian invasion
(20 June 1812). This stripped the court of its treasure (USD 120 million in current
money), all its manuscripts (500+), its orchestras (gamelan), heirlooms, stabbing

A Sense of History Page 5


6

daggers (kris) and jewelry, all of which were taken as war booty by the British to
Bengal. The Yogya ruler was also punished: he was sent first into exile in Pulau
Pinang (1812-1815) by the British and then to Ambon (1817-1824) by the returned
Dutch administration. Although later reinstalled as sultan on 17 August 1826, he was
too feeble and advanced in years ever to govern effectively again. Those who sow
the wind will reap the whirlwind.

So the ninth sultan not only understood his kingdoms history, but was also able to
read the story of his ancestors with the insight and imagination necessary to effect a
lasting reconciliation: his return of the mortal remains Ronggo III to Gunung Bancak
(Giripurno) to be laid to rest besides the body of his beloved wife was a stroke of
genius. And it was not only Madiun which was the beneficiary from his sense of
history: the descendants of Diponegoro also benefitted when the ninth sultan
opened the doors of the keraton to them for the first time since they had been
branded as the colonial equivalent of G30S following the end of the Java War. In
fact, the Java War leader and the Ronggo family were deeply implicated: Diponegoro
married Ronggo IIIs orphaned daughter, Raden Ayu Maduretno (the same name as
her mother), and elevated Ronggo IIIs son by a secondary wife, Ali Basah Sentot
Prawirodirjo (c. 1808-1855), as his principal army commander during the Java War.

In this tragic tale a Madiun version of Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet all rolled
into one only the ninth sultan behaved with dignity. His greatness of heart is clear.
But why would a ruler of the era of the Indonesian National Revolution act thus?
Why did he evince such historical sensitivity when current Indonesian leaders seem
so blind to their countrys history? Is this an issue of education and mental culture?
Or one related to vision and ideas, the present generation being blinkered by their
personal and family ambitions? Ruling for the people was the ninth sultans motto,
not ruling for his family. This story of Yogyakarta and Madiun is living proof of the
wisdom of that democratic and republican sultan who always had the Jasmerah
[Never not even once turn your back on your history!] speech of President
Soekarno (17 August 1966) in his heart.

[1,400 words]

A Sense of History Page 6