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TABLEOFCONTENT

NO TITLE PAGE
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1. 1.0IntroductiontoSubangParade
1.1Background
1.2StrategicPosition
1.3ValueofSubangParade
1.4FloorPlanofSubangParade
1.5Acknowledgment
1.6Abstract
2. ANALYSETHEEXISTINGBUILDINGSYSTEMS
2.0IntroductiontoHVACsystem
2.1MechanicalVentilationofSubangParade
2.1.1CentralizedSystem
2.1.2CoolingTower
2.1.3AHURoom
2.1.4ChillerRoom
2.1.5Air-ConditioningSystemCycleofSubangParade
2.1.6UnitarySystem-SplitUnit
2.1.7CeilingDiffuser

3. 3.0IntroductiontoVerticalTransportation
3.1ElevatorofSubangParade
3.1.1MotorRoom
3.1.2SafetyFeaturesinElevator

3.2EscalatorofSubangParade
3.2.1SafetyFeaturesinEscalator
3.2.1.1SkirtBrush
3.2.1.2EmergencyStopButton
3.2.1.3HandrailGuardSafetyDevice(HGS)

4. 4.0IntroductiontoFireProtectionSystem
4.1ActiveFireProtectionSystem
4.1.1AlarmandDetectorSystem
4.1.1.1SmokeDetector
4.1.1.2FireAlarmBell
4.1.1.3ManualFireAlarmActivation
4.1.2FireControlRoom
4.1.3FiremanIntercomSystem
4.1.4FiremanSwitch
4.1.5Water-BasedFireProtectionSystems
4.1.5.1FireSprinklerSystem
o 4.1.5.1.1SprinklerHead
o 4.1.5.1.2ButterflyValve

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o4.1.5.1.3FirePumpingSystem
4.1.5.1.3.1PumpRoom
4.1.5.1.3.2JockeyPump
4.1.5.1.3.3DutyPump
4.1.5.1.3.4StandbyPump
4.1.5.1.3.5WaterStorageTank
4.1.5.2HoseReelSystem
o 4.1.5.2.1HoseReelDrum
o 4.1.5.2.2HoseReelPump
4.1.5.3ExternalFireHydrantSystem
4.1.6Non-waterbasedFireProtectionSystems
4.1.6.1FireExtinguisher
4.1.6.2CarbonDioxideSuppressionSystem

4.2PassiveFireProtection
4.2.1FireRatedDoor
4.2.2FireEscapeStaircase
4.2.3SmokeExtractionSystems
4.2.4SmokeCurtain

5. 5.0IntroductiontoElectricalSupplySystem
5.1VacuumCircuitBreaker
5.2Transformer
5.3MainSwitchboards
5.4DistributionBoard
5.5ElectricalBackupSystem
5.5.1Generator

6. IDENTIFYTHEPROBLEMSINTHEEXISTINGBUILDINGSYSTEMS
6.0ProblemsofHVACSystem
6.1ProducesLoudNoises
6.1.1Compressor,CondenserandEvaporator
6.1.2CoolingTower
6.2DirtyorcloggedairDiffusers
6.2.1Linearandsidewallinletdiffusers
6.3ImproperAirBalance
6.4LackofMaintenance
6.4.1Diffusers
6.4.2Compressors,CondenserandEvaporator
7. 7.0ProblemofFireProtection
7.1AgeofFireProtectionSystem
7.2FireAlarmSystem
7.3SprinklerSystem
8. 8.0CompareandContrastwithRecommendationandSolution
8.1HVACSystem
8.1.1ScheduleofMaintenanceforHVACSystem
8.1.2LotsofNoises

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8.1.3CleaningwithChemicalSolution

8.2FireProtectionSystem
8.2.1FireExtinguisher
8.2.2FireAlarmSystem
8.2.3FireSystemTechnology

9. 9.0FinalRecommendationfortheSystem
9.1HVAC
9.1.1IceStorageCoolingSystem

9.2FireProtectionSystem
9.2.1WaterMistSystem
9.2.2IonizationSmokeDetector
9.2.3GasDetector

10. 10.0Appendix
11. 11.0References

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1.0IntroductionofSubangParadeMall

Subang Parade Mall is allocate at Subang Jaya,Selangor,Malaysia , It isabout1169038


Sq.Ft (108607m2)distributedinthreefloors,andcontentsabout200+shopslotsandMBO
cinema.ItisthelongestmallinSouthEastAsiaandownedbytheHektarREITgroup.



1.1Background

Subang Parade was the first regional shopping centre in Selangor and was opened
on 13 August 1988 by the late 8th Sultan of Selangor,Almarhum Sultan Salahuddin
Abdul Aziz Shah. It positioned in the central of Subang Jaya commercial district and
surroundedbyresidentialareawhichmadeitaneighborhood-focusedmall.

1.2StrategicPosition

The mall can be easily accessed from Malaysian Federal Highway, and there are both
KTM and newly completed LRT station (Subang Jaya station) right behind of its which
made it very convenient to access. It is within walking distance from Aeon Big and
Empire Shopping Gallery and only 10 minutes of driving distances from SS15, Taylors
College and Inti College which is why it always has high traffic and population flow
aroundthisarea.

1.3ValueofSubangParade

Subang Parade has its high profile location, which basically serve residents from SS15,
SS18, SS17, SS16 and else. It also within a walking distance from Subang Jaya LRT and
KTM station. So, peopleareprovidedtransportationandconveniencetoreachSubang
Parade that near the LRT & KTM station, which is why it is the most popular resting spot

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forthetrainspassengerstoshopandhavetheirmeals!

1.4FloorplansofSubangParade(abstractedfromSubangParadeCentreDirectory)

1.5Acknowledgment
We would like to express our special thanks to everyone who send us a helping hand
throughout thecompletionofassignmentespeciallytoDr.KamKennJhunforhispatient
guidanceandencouragement.

We would like to thanks Subang Parade Mall to allow us to have a site visit, and they
even send their technician to show us the available services insidebuilding.Withouthis
relentlessly explanation, we will notabletolocatetheservicesandunderstandhowthe
servicessystemfunction.

Last but not least, we would like to extend our gratitude to every each of our group
members for them to participate inthesitevisitandworkinghand-in-handtocomplete
theassignment.

1.6Abstract
Building services system is very important for the daily operation of the building. It help
to create a safety, healthy and comfortable environment. Through the site visit, we
have done our investigation and study on how the HVAC and fire protection system
function in Subang Parade Mall as well as come out with a better preference and
recommendation system for the mall. We also able to understand the functional
principle,detailstructure,equipmentlocationandthemethodofworkingofthesystem



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2.0IntroductionofHVACSystem

HVAC system is oneofthesystemthatweareanalyzingatSubangParade,whichisour


case study building. The definition of HVAC is Heating, Ventilation andAir-Conditioning
system, which is a system that very common in a basic building. The purpose of the
HVAC system is to achieve the thermal comfort indoorandprovideacceptableindoor
air quality. Malaysias climate is considered equatorial and being hot and humid
throughout the whole year so theheatingsystemisnotanecessaryinourcountrysince
ourcountrysclimateisinterspersedwithtropicalrainshower.

Then we will move to the next area, which is ventilation. Ventilation means a
process of replacing air constantly in a space to control the temperature and the
quality of the air. Ventilation system arerequiredforaspacewhichisenclosedandthe
air flow is slow thus the air quality will be slight bad due to the lack of ventilation, and
every of the buildings must at least have ventilation system. Ventilation can be
categorize into natural and mechanical ventilation and the difference between these
two methods of ventilation is natural ventilation doesnt require any force to replace
theairbecausetheairwillreplacebythenaturalfactorssuchas:pressure,temperature
and etc. On the other hand, mechanical ventilation requires outer force such as fan
andair-conditioningsystemtokeeptheairchanginginanenclosedspace.

2.1MechanicalVentilation

Mechanical ventilation is required for a building when the natural forces ofairpressure
or gravity are not strong enough to continuously exchange the air in an enclosed
space by powered fans or other power resources blowers. Mechanical ventilation is
used to maintain the freshness of an enclosedspace,andalsoincludedcontrollingthe
humidity,containmentofbacteria,temperatureandothers.

2.1.1CentralizedSystem

Subang Parade is using centralized system as their air-conditioning system because


Subang Parade is a 3-storey mall that has over 200 stores with a total space of
108607.20 (m2 ), so it needs to generate and provide more chilling air to theusersinthe
mall. Centralized system is not suitable for the building which is existing thus it need to
be considered in the construction planbeforethebuildingstartedtheconstructionjob.
In addition, centralized system needed a plant room where all the large compressors,
evaporators,condensersandthermostaticexpansionvalvelocated.

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Figure2.1.1(a)Illustrationofacentralizedsysteminabuilding.

2.1.2CoolingTower

Subang Parade is using centralized system as their air-conditioning system thus they
need a cooling tower to function thewholecoolingsystem.Thepurposeofthecooling
tower is to reducetheheatofthecirculationwaterinthewholeair-conditioningsystem
by exchanging the heat with air and water and a small amount of water will be
evaporatewhileundergoingtheheatexchangingprocess.

The cooling tower is located at the rooftop ofSubangParadeandtheyhaveatotalof


3unitsofcoolingtowerwhichgenerateforthewholebuildingscentralizedsystem.


Figure2.1.2(a)CoolingtowerlocatedattherooftopofSubangParade.

2.1.3AHURoom

AHU is Air Handling Unit which is a huge air cooling machine which generates and
supplies cooled air to an enclosedspace.SubangParadehasatotalof70unitsofAHU
which is functioning every day and the AHUs require weekly checkup to prevent any
system or components failure. An AHU unit consists of fans, heating or cooling coils,

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air-controlling dampers, filters and silencers (optional). The purpose of AHU is to collect
the air from the outdoor and mix itwiththereturningairoftheenclosedspaceandthe
air that is mixed can beeitherheateduporcooleddown.Afterthemixingprocess,the
suitable temperature air will be discharge into the building space by ducting system
and it will be returning by another ducting system too. The figures below shows the
realistic photo of AHU which using by the Subang Parade. Figure 2.1.3(b) shows the
cooling coil which contained inside the AHU and the handyman open it up for us to
observe the inner structure. The inner structureasweseencontainacoolingcoil,andit
wasfreezingcoldandeventhebreezecanbeseen.


Figure2.1.3(a)AHUunitofSubangParade

The air-conditioning system of Subang Parade has a very special feature of


controlling the airflowoftheductingsystemandsaveupthecostofandcoolingdown
the air supplied to the building. There is a sensor in the free flow return ducting system
and the functionofthesensoristomeasurethetemperatureofthereturningair,andso
if the temperature didnt go too low the sensor will send a signal to the valve and he
valve to cutoffthecoldwatersupplythustheusageofthecoldwaterwillbedecrease
and as a result it can save up a lot of cost because the chiller donthavetogenerate
extracoldwatertosupplythroughtheAHU.

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Subang Parade have plenty of AHU rooms and one of the AHU rooms will be in
charge to supply to multiple specific zone. Most of the AHU rooms are located at the
end of the shop lots or near the staircase, so the handyman can be reaching to the
AHUroomeasily.

2.1.4Chillerroom

In Subang Parade, chiller is required for their air-conditioning system to employ the
vapor pressure cycle to chill water and dismiss the warmth gathered from the return
chilled water to a second water circle by cooling towers. In Subang Parade, there is
two units of chiller systems which one system contain one units of condenser and one
unitofevaporator.

2.1.5Air-conditioningsystemcycleofSubangParade

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We willbeexplainingthecycleofhowSubangParadegeneratetheircoldairby
usingtheirAHUandcoolingtowersbyusingthediagramabove.

First of all, the chiller system is located at ground floor which at the most left of the
whole building. The chiller contain a compressor and an evaporator which will
generate cold water and supply to thewholebuilding.Thecoolwaterwillfirstsupplyto
the pump, and it will be pump up to each AHU units, and the coldwaterpassthrough
the cooling coil of AHU and cold down the air which are going to supply to the
building. After transmit of the temperature between the cold water and warm air, the
temperature of the water will be slightly higher thus it will be pump up to a total of 7
units of cooling tower which located at the rooftop of Subang Parade and the water
will be cold downbythecoolingwater.Afterthat,thechillingwaterwillsupplytochiller
system again and repeat the whole procedure to ensure the building is in a
comfortablethermalenvironment.

2.1.6UnitarySystem-SplitUnit

On the same hand,SubangParadenotonlyusingAHUsystemtogeneratecoldair,but


alsounitarysystemwhichisverycommoninhousingarea.Unitarysystemcontainsaunit
of compressor, evaporator, condenser, expansion valve and cooling fan. Compressor
will be located at the outdoor so the heat which generated while condensing the
refrigerant will be release through the outdoor directly and evaporator will be located
attheindoortodischargethecoolairintoanenclosedspace.

The reason of Subang Parade using split unitary system is because centralizedsystemis
a system that requires a lot of energy and power to generate and supply a large
amount of cold air, which is very economical foramallwhichisbigasSubangParade.
But, if some stores still require air-conditioning system to supply after the operationhour
of Subang Parade, it will be an extra expenses for the mall if they have to turn on the
centralized system just for a couple stores and also the cost will be way much higher
because centralized system cant be operate for a specific unit only.Thus,somestores
which require extra cold air supply after or before the operation hour have to install
theirowncompressorandevaporator.

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2.1.7CeilingDiffuser

Diffuser is a device that reduce the velocity andincreasingthestaticpressureof


the air passes through a system. Subang Parade is using linear diffuser as their general
diffuserbecausethistypeofdiffuserwontaffectandinterferewiththeinteriordesignof
the mall and it is also suit for high cold velocity load. On the same hand, the following
diagram is the diffuser which located in the staircase which is different from the usual
diffuser which located in the mall. The diffuser will absorb the warm air and
contaminants in the building and discharge it to the outdoorthroughexhaustfansand
ducting system, however the diffuser inlet will discharge the chilled air into thebuilding
fromthechillerroom.

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3.0IntroductiontoVerticalTransportation

Subang Parade is a 3-storey building thus it requires vertical transportation to


deliver the user to next or higher floor efficiently and effectively. The most common
examples of vertical transportation are escalator and evaluator, which both of them
are operating in Subang Parade. Elevator is a moving platform or small room inashaft
that transport passengers between floors of the building by carrying by motor. On the
same hand, escalator is a moving staircase that driven by a motor by belt which can
convenientlytransportpeoplebetweenfloorsofabuilding.

3.1Elevator

Then we move to the next vertical transportation which is elevator, as known as


lift.Thewholebuildinginbuildof7unitsofliftswhichcanbeseenfromfigure3.0(a)and
one of them is fire lift for the use for firefighterwhileduringafireinthebuilding.Subang
Parade has a total of 3 floors height, so they provide lift services to bring convenience
for the customer thus the satisfaction toward the mall will be increase. The maximum
passengers that can be carry for one ride in the lift cars is 17 people which is around
1200kg and when the limit has been reached the alarm which built in the lift car will
blow off and theliftwontbemovingthenextflooruntiltheweightofthepassengersor
good decreased. The lifts are functioning by a motor which located inthemotorroom
at the highest floor above the lifts and theres always a handyman who provided by
the supplier of the lifts standby at the mall so they can repair the lifts on the spot if
theresanyproblemoccurs.

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3.1.1MotorRoom

The diagrams above show the motor of the elevator and control and power panel
whichlocatedinthemotorroomaboveeachoftheelevator.

In the motor room, there is two unit of motors which is functioning at the moment and
the traction sheave is turning whiletransporttheliftupordown.Onthesamehand,the
motor room is usually locked up at least the mechanic requested to check on the
components or routine checkup. The control panel receive the signal of the from the
user through the car operating panel which located inside the lift and initiate up or
downcommandandwillstartingorstoppingthecar.

Subang Parades elevator consider as a moderate speed elevator as the travelling


speedis0.9m/sec2whichisslightlyslowerthanacommonaccelerationrate.

In the figure 3.1 (c), wecanclearlyseethecounterweightandalsothetravellingcable


whichhelpthelifetotravelsmootherandsafer.

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3.1.2SafetyfeatureinElevator

Theres couple of safety feature built in the elevator to prevent any accidentoccursin
the middle of the transportation of the users. First of all is the elevator sensor which
located in the middle of the landing door. The purpose of the sensor is to prevent any
accident of users being closed by the landing door before fully entering the lift. Nextis
the over speed governor which located near the governor rope. The function of itisto
stop and hold the governor rope with a predetermined force when the lifts speed
exceeded40%oftheratedspeed.

3.2Escalator

Theres a total of 14 units of escalator located in Subang Parade and the type of the
escalator is the common step type escalator which is not wheelchair-friendly for those
disabled users. Every floor at least has two units of two-ways parallel escalator which
located at the both end of the building, which give convenience to the user and
reduce the travel distance to reach the escalator. We were able to analyze the inner
partoftheescalatorwhichisusuallywontbeseenbythenorm.

A common escalator will contain components such assteps,maintruss,drive,handrail,


balustrade, step chains and etc. Every components has to be functioning well to
provide asafetytravelexperiencefortheuserstotransportfromaleveltoanotherlevel
thusSubangParadeputaneyesonthemaintenanceoftheescalatorverycarefully.

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They introduced us about the basic components of the escalator and also the inner
structure of the escalator which he open it up forustoanalyzeit.Wecanseethedrive
clearly after he removed the cover of the escalator and also he introduce how the
escalatorwillstopfunctioningwhiletheresanyobjectstuckinit.

3.2.1SafetyFeaturesofEscalator

3.2.1.1SkirtBrush

The purpose of the skirt brush which located at the both ends of the steps of the
escalator is to remind the users safety by gently guide the user to stay away from the
skirtpanelstopreventaccidentsfromhappening.

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3.2.1.2EmergencyStopButton

Every escalators have to install an emergency stop button to make sure when there is
an accident occurs the escalator can be stop functioning as soon as possible by
anyonewhocanactivatethebuttonsothechanceofgettinginjuredwillbedecrease.

3.2.1.3HandrailGuardSafetyDevice(HGS)

Inlet guard switch is one of the handrail guard safety device which locatedattheend
of the handrail. The inlet guard switch will be activate when any object physically
contact with the inlet, and the guard will immediately stop the drive from moving to
preventanyinjured.

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4.0FireProtectionSystem

Fire protection playasignificantroleinsavingoccupantslife,preventthespreadoffire


breakout in the buildings and loss of properties and financial. There aretwotypeoffire
protectionsystem:

1.Activefireprotectionsystem

2.Passivefireprotectionsystem

4.1Activefireprotectionsystem

Active fire protection system is designed to require some action or motion to work
efficiently in the event of fire. It can be manually or automatically detecting and
suppress the fire. Element of active fire protection system includes fire detection and
alarm system, sprinkler system and breeching inlet, carbon dioxide system, smoke
control system, water tank and pump, standpipe and hose system, and portable fire
extinguisher.

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4.1.1Alarm&detectionsystems
4.1.1.1Smokedetector

Smoke detector is used to detect and sense smoke. The smoke detector used by
Subang Parade is optical smoke detector. Optical smoke detector operates using
ultraviolet light, a light beam collimating system and a lens or a sensor. When smoke
particles enter the optical chamber, andblockthelightbeamwhichcausessomelight
isscatteredanddirectitatthesensor.Thus,thesmokedetectorwillactivatethealarm.

Figure4.1.1.1(a)smokedetector
4.1.1.2FireAlarmBell

Alarm bell uses sound to alert the occupants in aspacewhenthesmokedetectorwas


triggered. Most of the alarm bell will produce minimum sound pressure level of 65dB or
+5dBwhichislastformorethan30seconds.Thealarmmustberesetatthemaincontrol
panel.

Figure4.1.1.2(a)FireAlarmBell

4.1.1.3Manualfirealarmactivation

Manual fire alarm activation is a call point for raising an alarm manually iftheresafire
or emergency conditions exists. When themanualfirealarmactivationisactivated,the
alarm bell will start operating by produce sound for occupants to evacuate. It should
be installed at 1.4m above floor level. Type of manualalarmcallpointsusedinSubang
Paradeisbreakglassfirealarmcallpointandmanualpullstation.

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4.1.2Firecontrolroom

Fire control room is required for all commercial buildings and apartment buildings that
are over 30m in height or total floor area exceeds 9290 spm. It is a room for control
panel to monitor the buildings fire protection systems, fire pump, air-handling systems,
communications and elevator controls. When the alarm or detector is broken or
triggered,theLEDonthemimicpanelwhichindicatethespecificareawillglow.

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4.1.3Firemanintercomsystem

Fireman intercom system provides direct communication between the remote


telephone handset which located in the buildings and the master telephone handset
whichlocatedatthefirecontrolroom.

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4.1.4Firemansswitch

Firemans switch is a specialized switch disconnector which allows firefighterstoquickly


disconnect high voltage electricity in case of fire or to prevent overheatedequipment
from exploding. Firefighters use fireman-hook or axe to switch off the operating handle
on the side of firemans switch. The firemans switch in located in the emergency
staircaseareainSubangParade.

4.1.5Water-basedfireprotectionsystems

4.1.5.1Firesprinklersystem

Sprinkler system is one of the active fire protection system which can automatically
activated during an event of fire. There are fourtypeofsprinklersystemandthesystem
used in Subang Parade is wet pipe system which is the most common system used in
Malaysia.

4.1.5.1.1Sprinklerhead

When the temperature oftheroomincreasesandcausetheglycerine-basedliquidina


temperature-sensitive glass bulb in sprinkler head expanded until break the glass bulb.
The glycerine-based liquid has varied colours which represent different maximum

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temperatures the glass bulbs can withstand.Oncetheglassbulbwasbroke,theflowof
water will flow out towards the deflector and disperses onto the fire. Sprinkler heads
used in Subang Jaya mostly are pendent sprinklers except partial sprinkler heads are
uprightsprinklerheadswhichareusedinstaircase.

4.1.5.1.2ButterflyValve

Butterfly valve is one of component of fire sprinkler valve system. Its an outside
indicating valve used to regulate the flowinthefiresprinklersystem.Butterflyvalvesare
aquarter-turnvalveswhichalsoknownaswafer-typevalves.

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4.1.5.1.3Firepumpingsystem

4.1.5.1.3.1Pumproom

Fire pumps are usually located in pump room which is closetothefiretanks.Thepump


is where duty pump, jockey pump, standby pump and water tank for sprinkler system.
Every building must have a fire pump room. The pumps can be powered by electricity
ordiesel.Ifthereiselectricityfails,eachpumpstillabletofunction

4.1.5.1.3.2Jockeypump

Jockey pump runs on electricity. It must be switched on continuously to maintain the


correct pressure in the distribution systems. When the pressure of the sprinkler pipes
decreases, jockey pump will start working toensurethepressureinthepipesisreached
thestatedpressure.

4.1.5.1.3.3Dutypump

Duty pump is designed to supply pressure of water. Duty pump starts functioningwhen
the pressure drops to 70 psi. It runs with an electrical motor and can be deactivated
fromthecontrolpanelmanually.

1.1.5.1.3.4Standbypump

Standby pump runs on diesel. If the duty pump unable to operate at the pressure of
50psiormalfunction,standbypumpwillstartactivatedautomatically

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4.1.5.1.3.5Waterstoragetank

This water storage tank is not same as other normal water tank.Thewaterstoragetank
made of pressed steel. It is located in the fire pumproomandusedforsprinklersystem,
hose reel system, and wet riser system. The source of water is supplied from SYABAS. A
water level indicator is installed to measure the water level and ensure sufficient water
incaseofanemergency.

4.1.5.2HoseReelSystem

Hose reel system also known as wetrisersystemisoperatinginmanualwayandcanbe


used byoccupantsduringtheearlystagesoffire. Hosereelsystemconsistsofhosereel,
pumps, valves, pipes and hose reel tanks. If the pressure drops and will start activating
thepump.Therearetwotypesofpumpswhicharedutypumpsandstandbypump.

4.1.5.2.1HoseReelDrum

There is a hose reel surrounded and held by the drum. The hose reel is normally 18 to
30m long. The normal pressure of bursting pressure is around 160psiandmaximumcan
upto600psi.

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4.1.5.2.2Hosereelpump

Hose reel systemconsistsofpumpsistoensurethepressureattherequiredpressure.The


hose reel pumps are located in the pump room which isthesamelocationforwetriser
pumps. All pumps can be able to start or stop manually. A small plate of readings on
thepressureswitchesforthepumpstocut-inandcut-out

Cutin(psi) Cutout(psi)

Dutypump 70 90

Standbypump 60 90

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Tableofthereadingonthepressureswitchesforthepumpstocut-inandcut-out

4.1.5.3ExternalFirehydrantsystem

External fire hydrant system consists of a system of pipework connected directly to the
water supply mains and an external connectionpointbywhichfirefighterscantapinto
it and provide water supply during an emergency. The systems consist of hydrant
outlets,hydrantpumps,hydranttanksandpipes.

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4.1.6Non-water-basedfireprotectionsystems

4.1.6.1Fireextinguisher

Fire extinguisher used to put out small fires during emergency situations. Its portable
andminimalingrossweightthatallowtocarryeasilybytheuser.Therearefewdifferent
types of fire extinguishers which can control different type of fire (Class A, B, C, D, and
K). In Subang Parade, most of them are dry powder portable fire extinguishers. Dry
powder fire extinguishers are one of the most common fire extinguishers used in
Malaysia.ItseffectiveonClassA,BandCfires.

4.1.6.2Carbondioxidesuppressionsystem

Carbon dioxide suppression system is used for protecting the electrical equipment
space, an area ofstoragesorspecifichazardsbecauseofwaterbasedsystemsarenot
suggested. It extinguishes fire primarily by lowering the level of oxygen that supports
combustioninaprotectedareawithoutleavingbehindanyresiduesafterdischarge.

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4.2Passivefireprotection

It is a group of systems that compartmentalize a building through the use of


fire-resistance walls,floors,anddoors.It'salsoslowdownthespeedofspreadoffireand
providetimeforthepeopleinthebuildingtoescape.

4.2.1FireRatedDoor

Fire rated door are door that has approved and rated from third-party and able to
withstandfireforaspecificperiod.FirerateddoorinSubangParademadeofwood.

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4.2.2FireEscapeStaircase

Fire escape staircases should be located on every floor and stacked above one
another to form a continuous vertical stairwell in order to provide a direct access to
safe zone. Type of staircases used are half landing staircases and their material of the
staircase is reinforced concrete. Reinforced concrete can resist fire and collapse is
minimize.Thedimensionoftreadsandrisersshouldbeconsistency.

4.2.3SmokeExtractionsystem

Smoke extraction system in fire escape staircase used to increase the visuality of the
user and provide longer period to escape.Smokeexhaustfansareinstalledontheroof
floor in Subang Parade. In an event of fire,smokeexhaustfanswillextractsmokeaway
fromtheservicedplaces.

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4.2.4Smokecurtain

Smoke curtains activate in the event of a fire, providing a means of diverting smoke
awayfromadesiredlocationorprotectinganareafromdirectsmokeinfiltration.

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5.0Electricalsupplysystem

Electrical supply system is the conveyance of electricity from the power station to
customer's premises. In Malaysia,TenagaNationalBerhad(TNB)istheelectricutilitythat
provide electricity to Subang Parade. The continuous flow of electricity without
breakdown is important to commercial building duringworkinghours.Electricityusedin
Subang Parade mostly for air-conditioning system, vertical transportation system, and
otherappliances.

In the process of electric power transmission, voltage has increased to reduce power
loss during transmission and voltage is then decreased for different usage for specific
building. The transmission voltage in Malaysia are 500kV, 275kV, 132kV and distribution
voltages are 33kV, 11kV,whileresidentialbuildingsusageare400/230V.SubangParade
received 11kV from the local substation and using itsowntransformertostepdownthe
voltageto400/230V.

35

36

5.1Vacuumcircuitbreaker

Vacuum circuit breaker is one of the circuit breaker and vacuum is used as the arc
quenching medium. It designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused
byexcesscurrent.Thistechnologysuitableformediumandhighervoltageapplication

5.2Transformer

The transformer is a static machine used to transform electricalenergybetweentwoor


more circuits through electromagnetic induction. Transformer operates on AC supply
only because DC current cant generate and transformed into much higher or lower
voltageseasily.

Subang Parade has its own step-down transformers in the transformer room. It steps
down the voltage from 11kV to 415V and then transferred to main switchboard for
distribution.

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5.3Mainswitchboards

Main switchboards (MSB)isadevicethattransmitselectricityfromoneormoresuppliers


and divide the main current into smaller currents for further distribution control of
current. It controls the electrical supply of the entire building network. The main
switchboardsarelocatedinlowvoltageareainSubangParade

5.4Distributionboard

Its also known as panel distribution panel, electric panel or panel board. Its function is
similarwiththemainswitchboard.Usuallylocatedinasmallspaceoraroom.

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5.5Electricalbackupsystem

5.5.1Generator

Diesel generators are used in Subang Parade. Diesel generators are combination of a
diesel engine and electric generator to generate electrical energy. Generator is
needed as backup system in order to prevent any sort of monetary loss, especially for
commercialbuilding.Theyarelocatedinlowvoltageroom

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6.0ProblemsinHeating,Ventilation,andAir-conditioning(HVAC)

As we all know, Subang Parade is a fairly old building thathasbeenoperatingherefor


almost three decades, twenty-nine years to be exact. From the outside, the shopping
mall still appeared to be a solid building. However, after visiting and investigating the
place, we came across a few detectable and clear problems that should be taken
consideration of in its HVAC system. Namely, issues such as lack of maintenance,
producesloudnoises,dirtyorcloggedairdiffuserandimproperairbalance.

6.1ProducesLoudnoises

When we visited Subang Parade, we found that its HVAC system produces averyloud
noise. For instance, parts of the HVAC system such as the compressor, condenser,
evaporator and cooling tower of the building produces very loud noises. After doing
some research, we found that these odd, loud noises could indicate potential or
existing equipment damage. It may also arise from a broken fan or a piece of loose
ductwork. Being able to distinguish the intensity of noise could be a strong advantage
to predict the imposed damage. Repairing the equipment when the noise is still at its
minimumreducesthepossibilityofsystemfailure.

6.1.1Compressor,CondenserandEvaporator

Most air-conditioning systems undergo refrigeration cycle which revolves around four
distinct components which are compressor, condenser, expansion valve and
evaporator. These components are very important and essential to complete the
processinaHVACsystem.Thoughourobservations,werealisedthattheloudnoisesare
initiated by these components. When the compressorproducesloud,clankingnoises,it
indicates that they might be loose or is caused by broken or out of balance blades.
These blades hit on other components causing damage to the system. This wears out
the whole system and causes bigger issues if not properly maintained. Itisthesamefor
bothcondensersandevaporatorastheyareallconnected.


Figure6.2(a)showscondenser

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6.1.2CoolingTower

A cooling tower is a specialized heat exchanger where air and water contact
with each other in order to reduce the water's temperature. As this occurs, a small
volume of water is evaporated, reducing the temperature of the water being
circulated through the tower. Sources of noise from cooling tower is The loud noise of
the cooling tower is caused by water splashing continuously from induced draft
counterflow.Thesolutionscouldbehavingtwospeedmotorsorvariablespeeddrives.

6.2Dirtyorcloggedairdiffuser

Subang Parade utilizes large amount of diffusers in order to create high rate of air
flowing and supply sufficient cooling air to the people. A diffuser normally has profiled
bladestodirecttheairatanangleasitentersandleavestheunitintothespace.When
air is pushed out of these diffusers, it creates turbulence, which picks up and deposits
dust particles onto the ceilingaswellasontoitsownmetalsurface.Theswirlingairpicks
up dust particles already in the room and projects them into the ceiling and diffuser.
The force of impact allows the particles to stick or embed on the surface. After a long
period of time, the openingofthediffuserstartstoaccumulatetinydustparticleswhich
mayaffecttheairflowrate.

6.2.1Linearandsidewallinletdiffusers

When we visited Subang Parade Mall, we found that there is fine, black dust found on
or around the metal blades on anHVACdiffuser.Thesedustparticlesblocksthewayof
the air from entering and escaping to the diffusers. Dirty and worn diffusers can force
the air conditioning unit to work harder, which increases energy costs andreducesthe
life of the system. Other than that, dirty diffusers may create poor indoor air quality as
thedustparticlesmaypollutethesurroundingairandirritateourbreathingsystem.

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6.3Improperairbalance

The cool air that comes out the vent travels through a series of ducts beforeitreaches
each room.Dampershelpcontrolthisbyreducingairflowinonelineandallowingmore
conditioned air to flow to other areas.However,wefoundthatcertainareasinSubang
Parade Mall are cooler, while some other areas are warmer. This may cause sick
building syndrome symptoms when there are inadequate ventilation. People will feel
sickanduncomfortablewhenthetemperaturesofdifferentareasareinconsistent.

The factor that causes this problem is the failure of the dampers toregulatetheflowof
air in the ducting system. When the dampers fail to perform, the distribution of cooled
air will be inconsistent and tend to create improper air balance in different areas or
rooms.

6.4Lackofmaintenance

Like many other mechanical objects and systems, HVAC systems require regular
maintenance in orderforitssystemtofunctioneffectivelyandefficiently.Duringourvisit
to Subang Parade, we were able to examine its HVAC system from a close distance.
Wewereawarethatthesystemlackmaintenance.

6.4.1diffusers

Subang Parade uses linear diffusers consisting of the combination of both supply and
return diffusers.Wenoticedthatthereturndiffusersareverydirty.Plentyofdustparticles
can be spotted on its surface. It is clear that the dust has been deposited and
accumulated for quite some time already and no maintenance effort or cleaning has
been made. This creates a large impact on its airflow capacities and causes
Air-handling Unit (AHU) to work twice as hard to attract and supply air through the

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diffuser.

6.4.2Compressors,Condenserandevaporators

The compressors, condensers andevaporatorsinthebuildingproduceveryloudnoises.


In the compressor room, we could barely hear anything other than the loudbuzzingof
the compressors. This made it difficult for us to speak or listen to each other and have
the possibility of equipment damage. They also ignite and operate slower than normal
HVAC system. It will be more costly when minor problems turn into major issues like
system failure. Therefore, to avoid situations like this from happening, routine
maintenanceandinspectioncanbemade.

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7.0ProblemsinFireProtectionSystem

7.1AgeofFireProtectionSystem

The basic principle of fire alarm system are that it warns occupants and plant
operations of abnormal condition, alerts the appropriate first responders and initiates
fire protection systems and facility operations to enhance the protection of people,
plant and production. However, fire protection system of Subang Parade is over 30
years, thefunctionalityofanagedfirealarmordetectionsystemcanbecompromised,
from environmental factors to problems dating back to initial installation or imperfect
designpractices.

A deficientinspection,testingandmaintenanceprogramwilltakeitstollonequipment,
accelerating its deterioration. Factors such as high temperatures, corrosive elements,
vibration and dusty atmospheres can all be detrimental to effectiveness of an alarm
and detection system that is not properly maintained. Even in applications where
systems are not regularly exposed to harsh conditions, the typical life span of control
equipment and smoke detectors is only approximately ten years, due to natural
deterioration. The longer the aging systems are in service, the more problematic they
generally become. If a facility opts to try to extend the lifespan of their system, one of
the most primary issues they will face is correctly identifying the existing problems that
may not be overtly evident. However,oncesystemissuesareidentified,itcanbeeven
more challenging to find resources for replacement parts and system manuals. The
process of locating antiquated parts for deficient systems, or finding supplementary
parts that will mesh with old systems to bring them up to standard, can be extremely
timeconsumingandcandistractplantstafffromtheirprincipalduties.

Managing old fire alarm systems isasubstantialundertakingthatrequirescareful


planninganddeliberation.Asafacilitycomestoacrossroadaboutwhethertorepairor
update aging systems or replace them, a number of factors must be taken into
consideration. Consideration of the time, effort and cost of locating and procuring
parts and reference materials for an old system should be evaluated before investing
additional funds and time in a system that is nearing or has surpassed its expected life
cycle. Creating anaccurateanalysisandprojectingcostscanbeadifficultexercisefor
someone who does not haveagreatdealofexperiencewithantiquatedreplacement
parts and may require the assistance of someone working with such systems on a
regular basis who has access to parts lists and estimating methods. To managetheold
systems, it needs to tap into resources that have the knowledge and experience to
inspect and test the systems, can conduct a comprehensive analysis about the
condition of the systemandcanprovidealloftherelevantdetailsinasuccinctmanner
sothatplantstaffcanmakeinformeddecisionsaboutthefutureoftheirsystems.

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7.2FireAlarmSystem

Although the fire alarm system can be seenalloverthebuilding,butmostofthe


fire alarm bellinSubangParadeseemtobeoldandwornoutwhichputmanyindoubt
whether it can work or not, but we found that the repairment is not carry out. In this
situation, operation of fire alarm may occur in an abnormal condition. It will be the
problem in providing warning of the outbreak of fire such as insufficient delivering high
sound pressureoutputforfiresignallingneeds.Smokedetectorshavealifespanwhichis
aroundtenyears.Itneedstoreplacetopreventtheinsufficientoperation.

7.3SprinklerSystem

The sprinkler system of Subang Parade is poorly maintained. Some sprinklers are
covered by a layer of dust. This might result in a fake alarm to occur or disturb the
operationwithinthebuilding.

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Therearealsosomesprinklersarecorroded.Thecorrosionoffiresystempipemay
causeasprinklersystemtofailandalsoresultinleakage.

7.4Expiryoffireextinguisher

Some of the fire extinguishers have been expired by still havent replaced by
management. A fire extinguisher is able tolast10to12yearsandoverthetime,gaswill
leakout.Onceithasbeenexpired,itwontshowexpectedperformance.

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8.0Compare&Contrastwithrecommendationandsolution

8.1HVACSystem

8.1.1ScheduleofMaintenancesforHVACSystem

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is a technology to provide ventilation


and indoor air quality for the building to satisfy and achieve thermal comfort. To
maintain proper functioning of the HVAC system. Regular maintenance is required by
scheduling maintenanceannually. Byhavingmaintenancewillensuresufficientairflow
from the system and prevent dust particles from blocking the air flow.Thiswillalsosave
energyusagebyreducingenergyconsumptiontosupplyairflowthroughthesystem.

Arrange a proper schedule suitable for the maintenance of the HVAC system. The
schedule should not be placed during the working hours period where activities are
progressing such as painting, renovations and etc. Besides, maintaining HVAC system
will increase the life expectancy of HVAC equipment and improve indoor airqualityof
the building. Regular check-ups and service can prevent most of HVAC performance
problems because service technicians could identify and correct issues that prevent
HVACequipmentfromperformingasdesigned.

HVACMaintenancePreventiveScheduledMaintenance

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8.1.2ALotofNoise

HVAC system have become more technologically advancedthusourdemandtoward


HVAC system also will increase. Although the efficiency of air conditioning system isstill
the main concern but the level of noise emitted by air conditioning is also increasingly
important. An efficient air conditioning system will produce noise level of around 55
decibels.

In the HVAC industry, sound is not generated without some form of vibration from
components. Furthermore, they need to figure out the factors that may cause noise in
HVAC system so that they can come out with a solution.Thereareafewsolutionssuch
as replacement job which required to replace someoftheworn-outcomponentinthe
system or replace the whole system. However, there are some preventive that can be
takentoavoidsuchproblemwhichistohaveaperiodicallycheck-up,makeupdateas
requiredandhavingaregularmaintenanceschedule.


SplittersinductsfornoisecontrolAcousticrectangularandcylinderducts

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8.1.3CleaningwithChemicalSolution

Diffusers are room air outlets, diffuser are very common in HVAC system. Diffuser are
used on both all air and air water HVAC system, as a part of room air distribution
subsystem. It serves several purposes such as to deliver both conditioning and
ventilating air, distributing the flow of air in desired directions. Diffuser should not place
near to dampers, extractors and other flow control devices even not in use or placed
farupstream.

Dirty diffuser is not good for health asitmayindicateairqualityissueinthebuilding.Dirt


particles can be composed of both natural and man-made materials such as dust,
smoke, greasy fumes, lint and pollen. Areas with heavy foot traffic will stir up those fine
particles and dusty or polluted area are contributing to the dirt that accumulated on
the diffuser. The way to prevent diffuser dirty is getting employees to have regular
cleaning by using chemical substance once a week and findoutthelevelofpollution.
Ifthespaceispolluted,regularcleaningonthegoodsiteminthespacearerequired.

ChemicalsolutionforcondensercoilCleaningthecondenserofHVAC

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8.2FireProtectionSystem

8.2.1Fireextinguisher

A fire extinguisher is an activefireprotectiondevicewithminimalgrossthatcancarried


by a person, it often used for initial outbreak of fire. Thus, it should not use forlargefire,
the main purpose is to prevent escalation into full scale of fire. Whenfirebreakout,we
should select the fire extinguisher according to the type of fire anticipated. Fire
extinguishershouldbelocatedneartothefirehazardarea.

The way to improve thefireextinguisheristhatitshouldbeservicedandinspectedbya


fire protection company at least annually to ensurethefireextinguisherisfunctionable
at emergency time.Furthermore,alltheemployeesshouldhavepropertrainingonhow
to use the fire extinguisher correctly in case of emergency to prevent spread of fire,so
that they can tackle the fire without delay of time and the employees must know the
exact location of each of the fire extinguisher. All of the fire extinguisher in the market
have their own expiry dates, so thattheyhavetotakeattentionabouttheexpirydates
to update the fire extinguisher regularly. It is recommended to have regular check to
ensure that there is no leakage caused by breakage or rusting.Lastly,themodeloffire
extinguisher should be keep updated time to time in order to have a maximum
functionality. Fire can be control at the initial stage if the fire extinguisher is well
maintainedandusecorrectly.


MaintenancerecordforfireextinguisherTraininguseoffireextinguisher

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8.2.2ManualCallPoint

Manual alarm callpointsaredesignedtomanuallyraisinganalarmonceverificationof


a fire or emergency condition exists. They are usually connectedtoacentralfirealarm
panel which in turn connected to an alarm system in the building,andoftentoalocal
fire brigade dispatcher as well. They are designed for the purpose of raising an alarm
manually once verification of a fire or emergency condition exists, by operating the
pushbuttonorbreakglassthealarmsignalcanberaised.

In order to provide easy access, the call points to be mounted on the wall should be
positioned at the height of between 1.2m to 1.6m high from the floor and it should be
clearly easier to locate. The maximum distance that an occupant should have to
travel in order to activate a manual call point is 45 metres, unless the building is
occupied by people with limited access and movement, which in case the maximum
travel distance should be reduced to 20 metres. Manual call point requires regular
maintenance by testing once a week by the user. Test a manual call point during
working hours to ensure that the control panel and alarm sounders operate smoothly.
As for each week, test a different manual call point at different location to ensure it
workeffectively.

ResettingcallpointDistanceandlocationofcallpoints

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8.2.2FireAlarmSystem

Fire alarm system are alinkofequipmentthatareworkingtogethertodetectandwarn


occupantsinthebuildingbymeansofvisualandaudioapplianceswhensmoke,fire,or
other emergencies occurs. These alarms may be activated automatically from smoke
detectors, and heat detectors or may also be activated from manual fire alarm
activation devices such as manual call points or pull stations. A fire alarm system is
designed to detect a fire at early stage tosecureapersonatriskbyescapingfromthe
fire. Maintenance of fire alarm system is compulsory to ensure the fire alarm system
operate effectively at all times. Regulartestingandinspectionisrequiredtoensurethat
thefirealarmworkswell.

-Daily Checks -Checks to ensure system is operating normally. -Rectify and record any
faultsfound

-Weekly Tests -Checks to ensure that the signal of monitoring station are functioning,
batteryandvoltageconditions,rectifyandrecordanyfaults

-Monthly Tests -Restore all the zones fault conditions, check and ensure that power
supply, indicator, and alarm outputs are regulating correctly, rectify and record any
indicationoffault.

-Yearly Tests -All monthly tests, test 20 percent of all detectors over as many zones as
possible such that all detectors will be check over a 5-year period, examine the
interlocking circuits to ancillary device, observe and clean dirty detectors, rectify and
recordanyindicationoffault.

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9.0FinalRecommendfortheSystem

9.1HVAC

9.1.1Icestoragecoolingsystem

Ice storage cooling system is using a medium which is ice to cool down the air by
thermal energy storage.Itcouldbeintegratedwithchilledwatercoolingsystemsothat
allows the chiller to operate at times other than when cooling in theroomsisneeds.To
store energy at the temperature of ice requires refrigeration equipment that provides
charging fluids at temperature below the normal operation range of conventional air
conditioning equipment. The systems differ in how the coldfromtheiceisdistributedto
thebuilding.

There are several technology fordischargingandchargingforicestorageunitswhichis


ice harvesting systems, external melt ice on coil,internalicemeltoncoil,encapsulated
ice system and ice slurry system. Ice harvesting system feature an evaporator surface
on which ice is formed and periodically released into a storage tank that is partially
filled with water. External melt ice on coil systemusesubmergedpipesthroughwhicha
refrigerant is circulated. Internal melt ice oncoilsystemalsosubmergedpipesonwhich
ice is formed. Encapsulated ice systems use water inside submerged plastic containers
that freezes and melt as cold or warm coolant is circulated through the storage tank
holding containers. Last is ice slurry system which water in a slurry state is pumped
directly to the load or to a heat exchanger cooling a secondary fluid that circulates
through the chilled system. Most common type for commercial usedisinternalmeltice
oncoil.

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Processoficestoragecoolingsystemworks

During night time, off-peak hours, water thatcontains25%ethyleneorpropyleneglycol


is cooled by a chiller. That solution circulates inside the heat exchanger within the ice
bank tank, freezing 95% ofthewaterthatsurroundstheheatexchangerinsidethetank.
Thewatersurroundingtheheatexchangerneverleavesthetank.

Ice is created uniformly inside the ice bank tank via counter-flow-heat exchanger
tubes. As ice forms, water still movesfreely,whichpreventsdamagetothetank.Tofully
chargeanicebanktanktakesfromsixto12hours.

During the daytimeonpeakhours,theglycolsolutioncirculatesthroughtheicestorage


tanks to deliver the stored energy to the building to augment or offset electric chiller
cooling. The coldglycolisdeliveredatthepropertemperaturetothecoolingcoilinan
airhandler.

A fan blows air over the coils to deliver cooling to the occupant spaces. People feel
cool and comfortable and never know ice storage is being used to save money on
coolingcosts.

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Benefitsoficestoragesystem

There are several benefits for this type of coolingsystem.Oneoftheadvantagesofthis


system is the compact size which amounts to 10% to 20 % of comparable chilled tank
and to 30% to 50% of a comparable tank using an eutectic salt or water as storage
medium. With cold air production, the distribution system can be down sized. Other
major benefits are when using cold air or rooftop distribution system, it provide
additional dehumidification effects and fan energy saving. The system also could
reducethechilledwaterflowrequirementbyhalf.

In addition, it also reduced electrical distribution which is due to smaller chillers, heat
rejection equipment, and pumps require less horsepower than a traditional system,
which results in smaller transformers, switchgear,wiresizes,andstarterpanels.Reducing
energy consumption and using electricity at night helps reduce global warming.
Electricity generated at night generally has a lower heat rate, and therefore lower
carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas emissions resulting inlessglobalwarming.Withthis
iscanbeclassifiedasanenvironmentalfriendlytechnology.

Furthermore, the ice thermal storage coils have no moving parts so very little
maintenance is required. This is because the chillers, pumps, and heat rejection
equipment are smaller, ice storage systems will have less maintenance than a
traditional system. The ice thermal storage system also allows a chiller to undergo
routine maintenance during thedaywhentheicestoragecanhandlethesystemload.

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9.2FireProtectionSystem

9.2.1Watermistsystem

Traditional sprinkler system discharges an enormous amount of water in the form of


large droplets, this will often cause water damage to personal belongings that is not
waterproof. By replacing the traditional sprinkler system with water mist system, the
amount of water used will be significantly less, which results in far less water damage.
Water mist is a fire protection system that uses ultra-fine water droplets generated at
high pressure through the special nozzles, which absorb and expel harmful products of
combustion and cools the surrounding air. By using water mist system, life cycle costs
can be reduced due to its unique and intelligent design, which incorporates
carefully-selected and durable materials. Besides, it has a low operatingcostandeasy
maintenance. It has afaststartupsystemtoprovideimmediatefunctions.Italsohasno
toxicproblemssoitwillnotcauseanyhealthhazardtothepeople.

9.2.2Ionizationsmokedetector

Optical smoke detector should be replaced by ionization smoke detector. Ionization


smokedetectorusesanionizationchamberandasourceofionizingradiationtodetect
smoke. The small amount of radioactive element inside the detector is named as
americium-241. When smoke enters the chamber, the flow ofionswillbedisruptedand
thus reduce the flow of current and activate the alarm. Compared to optical smoke
detector, it is more responsive and effective to detect flaming fireswhichistypically30
to 60 seconds. It is also twice as cheap to manufacture which could save a lot of cost
asthemallhastoinstallalotofsmokedetectors.

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9.2.3Gasdetector

Instead of just installing smoke detector, a gas detector should be used to detect
flammable gases earlier because prevention is better than cure. A gas detector is a
device that detects the presence of gases in an area, oftenaspartofasafetysystem.
It isusedtodetectagasleakorotheremissionsandcaninterfacewithacontrolsystem
so a process can be automatically shut down. There are2mainformfactorswhichare
the portable devices and fixed gas detectors. Fixed gas detector is installed with the
aim of providing continuous, area and personnel protection. Portable detector is used
to monitor the atmosphere around personnel and are either hand-held or worn on
clothing. A gas hazard can be found in three forms which are oxygen depletion,
toxicity, and explosive gases. The benefit of using fixed gas detector is protection. A
fixed gas detection system protects you and your assets, poisoning and fire. Besides, it
provides continuous monitoring. It operates 24 hour and thus it will reduce safety risks
onsite creating a safer environment, often satisfying insurance policy criteria. The
benefit of using portable gas detector is easy to maintain. Itslowsensordrift,extended
battery life and long life sensors enable low maintenance. It is also compact and
lightweightmonitorsforclip-onorbeltwithaudible,visualandvibratingalarms.

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10.0Appendix

No Task Group members

1 Purpose of the building Teoh Zi Wei, Yeoh Sin Yuen

2 Analyse the existing building system Tham Kai Loon, Goh Jia Jun

3 Identify the problems


A) 1st System HVAC System Tey Cheng Fern, Lee Xin Ying
B) 2nd System Fire Protection Tan Vin Nie, Vivian Tay Huey
Shuen

4 Compare and contrast with recommendation and Tan Jit Kim, Loh Wen Jun
solution

5 Recommend the best system for the building Ng Chuan Kai, Ng Sheng Zhe

58

11.0References

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_detector)

(http://www.a1-cbiss.com/understanding-the-benefits-of-fixed-gas-detection)

(http://euro-gasman.com/index.php/portable-benefits/)

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smoke_detector)

(http://home.howstuffworks.com/home-improvement/household-safety/fire/smoke2.ht
m)

(http://www.traser.eu/water_mist/)

(http://www.marioff.com/water-mist/sprinkler-vs-hi-fogr)

(https://www.thesafetycentre.co.uk/blog/manual_call_points_on_fire_alarm_systems.p
hp)

(http://www.integra-systems.co.uk/File/FIRE_ALARM_MAINTENANCE.pdf)

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