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WORLDS #1 ACADEMIC OUTLINE

Gramm
English 1 Parts o
f
ar
Speech

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What Is Grammar is a set of rules on how to put words, phrases, and clauses together to express
Grammar? ideas clearly. It describes the various kinds of words and their uses in a sentence.

PARTS OF SPEECH
Words are classified into the following parts of speech: noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, Abbreviations
preposition, conjunction, and interjection. Many words can belong to more than one part of
noun n. preposition prep.
speech, depending on how they are used. For example, the word back can be used as a noun, an
adjective, and a verb. pronoun p. conjunction conj.
adjective adj. interjection interj.
EX: My back is aching! (noun)
verb v. singular sing.
He entered through the back door. (adjective)
Both candidates said they would back the bill. (verb) adverb adv. plural pl.

this is where the new copy goes.


NOUNS
FUNCTION: name people, places, things, or ideas. PLURAL nouns indicate more than one, and Nouns can have different functions in a
TYPES: most form the plural by adding -s. sentence: subject, direct object, indirect
Proper nouns name specific people, places, EX: boy boys object, object of a preposition.
town towns
or things, and always begin with a capital letter.
table tables EX: John is my best friend. (subject)
Common nouns name non-specific people,
Nouns ending in s, sh, ch, or x form the plural I saw that movie. (direct object)
places, or things and are not capitalized unless they
by adding -es. We bought Eva an ice cream.
begin a sentence. (indirect object)
EX: bus buses
bush bushes My friends went to the mall.
EX: Proper nouns Common nouns church churches (object of preposition)
J.R.R. Tolkien author box boxes
Philadelphia city Possessive nouns express ownership
Statue of Liberty monument Most nouns ending in f drop the f and of a noun previously mentioned, known as
add -ves. an antecedent. Most possessive nouns are
ABSTRACT nouns refer to states, concepts, EX: loaf loaves formed by adding s .
wharf wharves
feelings, or qualities, and concrete nouns
EX: That jacket? Its Johns.
refer to tangible things that can be perceived Nouns ending in a consonant + y drop the y (The jacket belongs to John.)
through the senses. and add -ies. Those toys? Theyre the childrens.
EX: baby babies (The toys belong to the children.)
EX: Abstract nouns Concrete nouns sky skies This pen? Its Jamess.
loneliness star (The pen belongs to James.)
Nouns ending in an o preceded by a vowel
equality flag add -s.
joy ice cream Plural nouns that end in s just add an
EX: video videos
apostrophe to become possessive.
beauty song stereo stereos

Nouns ending in an o preceded by a consonant EX: Whose soccer ball? Its the boys.
COUNT nouns, also known as mass nouns, (The soccer ball belongs to the boys.)
add -es.
name things that can be expressed in plural form, Whose books? Theyre the students.
EX: hero heroes
usually with an -s, such as dog/dogs, hat/hats, potato potatoes (The books belong to the students.)
plate/plates, and teacher/teachers. Non-
count nouns refer to things that usually cannot Hyphenated compounds add -s to the Possessive nouns can also be used as
be counted, such as flour, weather, milk, and main word. adjectives and are formed in the same way, by
EX: brother-in-law brothers-in-law adding s or simply an apostrophe, depending
thunder. Non-count nouns are always considered
maid-of-honor maids-of-honor on whether the noun is singular or plural.
singular and take a singular verb.

n. sing. v. sing. Several nouns have irregular plural forms. EX: Its Harrys car.
EX: The lightning lights up the night sky. These can be found in a dictionary. (The car belongs to Harry.)
EX: child children The singers voices are highly trained.
COLLECTIVE nouns refer to groups of people or woman women (The voices belong to the singers.)
things, such as team, audience, class, committee, mouse mice
goose geese Appositives are noun phrases that can
and jury. They are usually singular unless it is
clear that the members within the group are acting come before or after other nouns or pronouns
Some nouns keep their Latin or Greek form to explain or describe them.
as individuals, as indicated in the second example. in the plural. These can also be found in a dictionary.
n. sing. v. sing. EX: nucleus nuclei EX: A miniature black poodle, Tonys dog is
EX: A colony of bees lives in my garden. fungus fungi
very cuddly.
crisis crises
n. pl. v. pl. Margie, my sister, is on the varsity
criterion criteria
The jury disagree on the guilt of the accused. basketball team.

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PRONOUNS
FUNCTION: take the place of nouns. Interrogative pronouns are used to Interrogative
TYPES: ask questions. Who acts as the subject of a Pronouns
Personal pronouns refer to specific persons or things. Pronouns often verb and whom as the object of a verb or a
who whom
refer back to their noun antecedent. Therefore, it is important to use them preposition.
correctly so that your meaning is clear. which what
subject
EX: Who is knocking at the door?
EX: When my friends got the news, they called me.
object of prep.
To whom shall I give the flowers?
As each student arrives, she will take a seat.
Relative pronouns introduce subordinate Relative Pronouns
The plural antecedent (friends) in the first clauses that function as adjectives and refer
sentence takes a plural pronoun (they). The Subject Pronouns who that
back to the noun or pronoun that the clause
singular antecedent (student) in the second Singular Plural modifies. Like the interrogative pronoun, the whom which
sentence takes singular pronouns (he/she). The I we relative pronoun who functions as the subject of
personal pronouns in both sentences above are a clause or sentence, and whom functions as the object of a verb
called subject pronouns and function as you you
or preposition.
the subject of the main verb. he/she/it they
subject of subordinate clause
EX: The girl who won the tennis match is my cousin.
Object pronouns are personal pronouns
Object Pronouns used as the object of a verb, preposition, or
object of prep.
These are the people for whom we are fighting.
Singular Plural infinitive phrase, as in the examples below. Note
me us how the object pronouns respectively refer back
Indefinite Indefinite Pronouns
to their antecedent.
you you pronouns refer
all anything everything one
EX: The eagle? Did Meg really see it? to non-specific
him/her/it them
persons or things. another both many several

The children are bored; please give the toys to them. Most are always any each nobody some
singular and take a
anybody everybody none somebody
Do you know Marsha? I was hoping to call her today. singular verb. Some
are always plural and anyone everyone no one someone
Possessive pronouns are used Possessive take a plural verb.
to indicate ownership, as in, Is Pronouns/Adjectives Some can also function as adjectives.
the hat mine or yours? Possessive p. sing.
pronouns can also be used as mine/my ours/our
EX: Does everyone have paper and a pencil?
adjectives that modify nouns or yours/your yours/your p. pl.
noun phrases, as in, The Lord of his, hers, its / his, her, its theirs/their Many have the means to get through difficult times.
the Rings is his favorite movie.
adj. pl.
Possessive pronouns and adjectives can refer back to a noun and must agree All books must be returned to the library by Saturday.
with it in gender and number as in the following examples, respectively.
adj. sing.
Each member of the team will receive a trophy.
EX: The twins decided not to wear theirs today.
RECIPROCAL pronouns indicate a mutual action in which two or
Each student must turn in her report by Monday.
more people participate equally. When two people are involved, use each
other. When more than two people are involved, use one another.
Demonstrative pronouns point to or identify nouns. This and
these refer to things that are nearby or close in time. That and those refer
to things that are farther away or more distant in time. EX: The girls talk to each other every day after school.
Demonstrative pronouns often function as adjectives.
The members of the team gave one another a high-five after
p.
EX: I have many hats, but this is my favorite. winning the game.
Demonstrative
adj. Pronouns/
That hat is exquisite! RECIPROCAL pronouns can also be used as possessive adjectives.
Adjectives
adj.
These books are my all-time favorites. Singular Plural EX: Sue and Mary borrowed each others dresses.
adj. p. this these
That pile of books? Those arent very good The students read one anothers reports.
at all! that those

Reflexive pronouns refer back to


the subject of a sentence or a clause and
are used when the subject and the object of
Reflexive Pronouns Quick J
Tip!
Dont confuse possessive adjectives
with contractions!
a verb or preposition are the same, and to Singular Plural
emphasize the subject, as demonstrated in POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE CONTRACTION
the following sentences, respectively.
myself
yourself
ourselves
yourselves
Quick J to it)
Tip!
its (belonging its (short for it is)
EX: Dottie cut herself on the sharp knife. herself themselves your (belonging to you) youre (short for you are)

They bought bagels for themselves.


himself themselves
Quick J
their (belonging to them)
Tip! theyre (short for they are)
itself themselves whose (belonging to whom) whos (short for who is)
I will do it myself. Quick J
Tip!

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ADJECTIVES
FUNCTION: describe people or things in a Comparative adjectives are used to compare two Irregular Forms
sentence. things. The suffix -er is used to form most comparatives. Base Comparative Superlative
TYPES: When a two-syllable adjective ends in y, -ier is used.
Descriptive adjectives always come good better best
Adjectives with three or more syllables are preceded by the
before the noun or noun phrase they modify word more. bad worse worst
and answer one of these questions: Which little less least
one?, What kind?, How many? EX: The Ohio River is longer than the Mississippi River.
much more most
Susan is happier than Paul.
EX: The black hat is mine. (Which one?) Mark is more intelligent than Tim. far farther/further farthest/furthest
Long-stemmed roses are elegant.
(What kind?) Superlative adjectives are used to compare Some adjectives have irregular
There were 10 candles on the cake. three or more things. The suffix -est is used to form most comparative and superlative forms.
(How many?) superlatives. When a two-syllable adjective ends in y, -iest These need to be memorized.
is used. Adjectives with three or more syllables are preceded
Predicate adjectives follow linking verbs by the word most. Proper adjectives come from
and describe the subject. proper names and are always capitalized.
EX: The Missouri River is the longest river in
EX: Keisha is happy. the United States. EX: French bread
The books seem interesting. Debra is the happiest of all my friends. a Spanish omelet
Marks help has been invaluable. Yuko is the most intelligent student of all. the English countryside

VERBS
FUNCTION: express action or a state of being, and tell something Active VOICE indicates that the subject of the sentence performs the action
about the subject. of the verb. Passive VOICE indicates that the subject receives the verbs
TYPES: action. Passive voice is easily recognized when the preposition by introduces
Main, or FINITE, verbs change to match the form (number and the doer of the action.
person) of the subject or the tense of the verb (present, past, future, EX: Mary wrote the
TENSES TIME EXAMPLE
etc.). There are two types of main verbs: action verbs and book. (active)
linking verbs. The book was Present present action/ He writes every
written by Mary. condition day.
We are happy today.
(passive)
Action verbs express action that the subject carries out.
Past completed action I watched
MOOD indicates the television last night.
EX: Dan drove to his friends house. Common manner in which an action Future future action I will go to the
Linking Verbs or condition is expressed. beach next summer.
The horse jumped over the fence. The indicative mood
be remain PROGRESSIVE
expresses a statement,
Linking verbs express a state of being and feel seem exclamation, or question. Present ongoing action She is eating lunch
connect subjects to predicates, describing or Verbs in the subjunctive progressive right now.
grow smell
renaming the subjects. Linking verbs include the mood express wishes, Past past ongoing action I was studying
look taste
sense verbs (to feel, to look, to taste, to smell). doubts, or statements that progressive interrupted by when you called.
are contrary to fact. Verbs another action
However, the most common linking verb is to be.
in the imperative mood Future future ongoing I will be sitting
EX: Carl and his brother are painters. Auxiliary make a demand or progressive action in the park for the
a request. afternoon.
Verbs
Mercedes seems happy today. indicative PERFECT
be EX: What time is it?
(question) Present action begun in the They have seen
Auxiliary verbs, also known as helping verbs, have perfect past and leading this movie twice.
subjunctive up to and including
accompany main verbs to indicate tense, voice, mood, do I wish you were present
and number. Together, these verbs create verb phrases. here to see the
can Past perfect action begun and Missy had already
In the following sentences, the auxiliary verbs are show. (wish) completed in the left the gym by the
underlined and the main verbs are bold. may
subjunctive
past before another time I arrived.
action occurred
will If he had been in
EX: I will help you wash the car today. charge, that would Future action to be By next week, my
Has Mary called you yet about the report? shall not have happened. perfect completed by or parents will have
before a specific sold their house.
Arthur does want to go to the movies with you. must (contrary to fact) future time
imperative
CHARACTERISTICS: Please pass the PERFECT/PROGRESSIVE
All finite verbs share five main characteristics: NUMBER, PERSON, salt. (request) Present ongoing action I have been
VOICE, MOOD and TENSE. Finite verbs can also be TRANSITIVE perfect begins in the past, cleaning my room
TENSE indicates the time progressive continues in the since Tuesday
or INTRANSITIVE. present, and may and I still havent
of an action or condition. continue into the finished!
The basic verb tenses are future
NUMBER indicates how many things a verb refers to (singularone;
present, past, and future.
pluralmore than one), and PERSON tells who or what does the action Past perfect ongoing past action She had been
progressive completed before shopping for two
(first personincludes the self; second personthe person(s) spoken to; The perfect tenses another action hours by the time
third personthe person(s) or thing(s) spoken about). indicate that an action occurred we met for lunch.
was completed at some Future ongoing action I will have been
EX: I sit in silence listening to the birds. (first person singular) time in the past, or will perfect begins in the past writing my paper
You all have your books, correct? (second person plural) progressive and continues to a for hours when the
be completed at a specific specific future time clock strikes 12!
Josh writes beautifully. (third person singular) time in the future.

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VERBS (continued) ADVERBS
The progressive tenses indicate ongoing action Intransitive verbs FUNCTION: modify verbs, EX: The baby cried quite
in the present, past, or future. have no direct object. The adjectives, or other adverbs. loudly because she was
verb may express action, TYPES: hungry.
Transitive verbs take a direct object. but the action is not done to When adverbs modify verbs, We stared rather
Asking whom or what after a verb will let you anyone or anything. they answer questions such as intently at the painting.
know whether or not a verb is transitive. How?, When?, Where?, or
EX: We slept late on How often?. Many adverbs are CONJUNCTIVE adverbs
EX: She made a cake. (made what? a cake) Saturday. (slept whom easily recognized because they are used to join two clauses
or what?) end with the suffix ly. together. A conjunctive adverb is
Anna saw them last week at the movies. They stood in line
often preceded by a semicolon
(saw whom? them) for an hour. (stood
EX: Jane spoke softly. (how) and followed by a comma.
whom or what?)
Li went to the library
yesterday. (when) EX: I should have gone to
Verb Forms (Verbals): EX: The singing canary flew out the
Paula left her bookbag bed; instead, I watched a
Infinitives (base word + window. (present)
to) can be used as a noun or an here. (where) movie.
Exhausted, she went to bed to take a
adjective. nap. (past) It rains frequently in the It is raining; otherwise,
The frozen man sat by the fire to country. (how often) I would have gone to the
EX: To love is important. (noun, warm up. (past) beach.
subject of the verb is) When adverbs modify
Jen wants to sing. (noun, Gerunds are present participles adjectives, they always come Conjunctive Adverbs
object of the verb wants) that are used in sentences as nouns before the adjectives they modify.
also meanwhile
Lori has stories to tell. and can be used in any way that a noun
(adjective, modifies stories) canas a subject, object, or object of a EX: That statement is entirely consequently nevertheless
preposition. true. finally next
Participles (base verb + suffix) It was a wonderfully
can be used as adjectives to modify EX: Driving without a seatbelt can be furthermore otherwise
quiet afternoon.
nouns or pronouns. Like infinitives dangerous. (subject) however still
and gerunds, participles are based on I always like reading a good book Adverbs that modify other indeed then
verbs and express action or a state of at the beach. (object)
adverbs are also known as
being. Present participles end in -ing. Max wrote an essay about the instead therefore
Past participles end in -ed, -en, -d, intensifiers and always come
benefits of eating well.
-t, or -n. (object of preposition) before the adverb they modify. likewise thus

PREPOSITIONS CONJUNCTIONS
FUNCTION: combine Common FUNCTION: join words or groups of EX: After Ted ran the marathon, he
nouns or pronouns to Prepositions words in a sentence. collapsed in exhaustion.
create phrases that modify TYPES: Linda didnt want to go to the mall
verbs, nouns, pronouns, or about from Coordinating conjunctions because she didnt have any money.
adjectives. above in/inside/into connect words and clauses of equal status.
Correlative conjunctions must join
across like
Prepositions EX: We bought apples and bananas. elements that are alike.
and objects make up after near We saw many clouds, yet it didnt
prepositional phrases against of
rain. EX: I had to either study for the test or
that give details on time, risk failing it.
space, and direction to along off Subordinating conjunctions join Not only did she forget to bring the
help us better understand among on/onto clauses of unequal status. In other words, cake, but she also
a sentence. Prepositional one clause is dependent on the other. forgot to bake it! Correlative
phrases can function as a around out/outside
Conjunctions
noun, an adjective, or an at over
adverb. Coordinating Common Subordinating both...and
before past
Conjunctions Conjunctions either...or
EX: She rummaged behind since
through the attic of her and or after before than when neither...nor
below through
house looking for old but so although how that where not only...but also
treasures. beneath throughout
for yet as if though whether so...as
beside to
[NOTE: The first prepositional nor because since until while whether...or
phrase functions as an between toward
adverb because it modifies beyond under
the verb by describing where
she rummaged. The second
by underneath INTERJECTIONS
phrase modifies the noun down until
attic, which is the object of FUNCTION: convey emotion in a sentence. EX: Well, she said shed be
during up/upon
the first prepositional phrase, Interjections often start a sentence but are here at 8 oclock.
and describes which attic she except with/within not part of a sentences actual grammar. Interjections Wow! That was some ride.
rummaged through.] for without often end with an exclamation point.

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