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The Three Hardware The clients, the network and the server.
Components of a
Client/Server System:

Clients Usually the PCs that are already available on the desktops
throughout a company. (PCs, Macs or workstations of the
system).

Network The cabling, communication lines, network interface cards,


hubs, routers and other components that connect the
clients and the server.
Server Commonly referred to as a Database Server, the server is a
computer that has enough processor speed, internal

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memory (RAM) and disk storage to store the files and


databases of the system and provide services to the
clients of the system.

Enterprise System When a system consists of networks, midrange systems


and mainframe systems, often spread throughout the
country or the world, it is commonly referred to as an
enterprise system.

LAN (Local Area In a simple client/server system, the server is typically a


Network) high-powered PC that communicates with the clients over
a local area network (LAN).

WAN (Wide Area Individual systems and LANs can be connected and share
Network) data over larger private networks, such as a wide area
network (WAN).

DBMS (Database To store and manage the databases of the client/server


Management System) system, each server requires a database management
system (DBMS) like Microsoft SQL Server.

Back-end processing The processing that's done by the DBMS is typically


referred to as back-end processing.

Back end The database server is referred to as the back end.

Application software The application software does the work that the user wants
to do. This type of software can be purchased or
developed.

API Application Programming Interface

Data Access API provides the interface between the application program
and the DBMS. The newest Microsoft API is ADO.NET,
which can communicate directly with SQL Server. Older
APIs required a data access model, such as ADO or DAO,
plus a driver, such as OLE DB or ODBC.

Front-end processing The processing that's done by the client software is


typically referred to as front-end processing, and the
client is typically referred to as the front end.

Front end the client is typically referred to as the front end.

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SQL (Structured Query Structured Queried Language (SQL) is the standard


Language) language for working with a relational database.

The SQL Interface The application software communicates with the DBMS by
sending SQL queries through the data access API. When
the DBMS receives a query, it provides a service like
returning the requested data (the query results) to the
client.

Differences between In a client/server system, the processing done by an


Client/server versus application is typically divided between the client and the
file-handling systems server. In a file-handling system, all the processing is done
on the clients. Although the clients may access data stored
in files on the server, none of the processing is done by
the server. As a result, a file-handling system isn't a
client/server system.

What does a In its simplest form, a client/server system consists of a


client/server system single database server and one or more clients. Many
consist of in its simplest client/server systems today, though, include additional
form? servers.

In a Windows-based For a simple Windows-based system, only the user


system what runs on the interface for an application runs on the client.
client?

In a Windows-based In one or more business components on the application


system, if only the user server.
interface for an
application runs on the
client, where is the rest
of the processing that's
done by the application
stored?

In a Web-based system, a web browser.


what is used to send
requests to a web
application running on
a web server

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somewhere on the
Internet?

True in a web-based system, the web application can use web


services to perform some of its processing.

Relational databases The standard for database applications. The relational


database model was developed in 1970, by Dr. E. F. Codd.
Reduces data redundancy, saves disk storage and more
efficient data retrieval. Can view and manipulate data
intuitively and efficiently.

Tables What does a relational database consist of?

records What can rows also be referred to as?

fields What can columns also be referred to as?

Rows and Columns What do tables consist of?

Table A table is typically modeled after a real-world entity, such


as an invoice or a vendor.

Column Represents some attribute of the entity, such as the


amount of an invoice or a vendor's address.

Row Contains a set of values for a single instance of the entity,


such as one invoice or one vendor.

Cell The intersection of a row and a column is sometimes


called a cell. A cell stores a single value.

Primary Key Most tables have a primary key that uniquely identifies
each row in the table. The primary key is usually a single
column, but it can also consist of two or more columns. If a
primary key uses two or more columns, it's called a
composite primary key.

Composite primary key If a primary key uses two or more columns, it's called a
composite primary key.

Non-primary keys In addition to primary keys, some DBMS let you define one
or more non-primary keys. In SQL Server, these keys are

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called unique keys. Like a primary key, a non-primary key


Indexes A table can
uniquely also beeach
identifies defined
row with
in theone or more indexes. An
table.
index provides an efficient way to access data from a table
based on the values in specific columns. An index is
automatically created for a table's primary and non-
primary keys.

Index What is automatically created for a table's primary and


non-primary keys? (Answer: An Index)

Index What provides an efficient way to access data from a table


based on the values in specific columns? (Answer: An
index)

Key Columns How are the tables in a relational database related to each
other? Through their _______.

One-to-many What is the most common type of relationship between


relationship tables in a database?

Foreign key One or more columns in a table that refer to a primary key
in another table.

One-to-one If a table has a ______-___-_______ relationship with another


relationship table, the data in the two tables could be stored in a single
table.

Many-to-many In contrast to a one-to-one relationship, a _____-____-______ is


relationship usually implemented by using an intermediate table that
has a one-to-many relationship with the two tables in the
many-to-many relationship. Can usually be broken down
into two one-to-many relationships.

The relationships What correspond to the relationships between the entities


between the tables in a they represent? ________
database

Data type What is the most critical property for a column, which
determines the type of information that can be stored in
the column?

Null value represents a value that's unknown, unavailable or not


applicable. (If you don't allow null values, then you must

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provide a value for the column or you can't store the row
in a table.)

Default value can be assigned to each column so that value is assigned


to the column if another value isn't provided.

Identity Column In SQL Server, a numeric column in a table whose value is


generated automatically by the DBMS.

bit A value of 1 or 0 that represents a True or False value.

int, bigint, smallint, Integer values of various sizes.


tinyint

money, smallmoney Monetary values that are accurate to four decimal places.

decimal, numeric Decimal values that are accurate to the least significant
digit. The values can contain an integer portion and a
decimal portion.

float, real Floating-point values that contain an approximation of a


decimal value.

datetime, smalldatetime Dates and times.

char, varchar A string of letters, symbols, and numbers in the ASCII


character set.

nchar, nvarchar A string of letters, symbols, and numbers in the Unicode


character set.

data type determines the type and size of the information that can
be stored in the column.

hierarchical database provides only for one-to-many relationships, called


model parent/child relationships.

network database can accommodate any type of relationship.


model

MySQL is a popular open-source database that runs on all major


operating systems and is commonly used for web
applications.

SQL Server's typical use SQL Server is typically used for small- to medium-sized

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systems that run on one or more Windows servers.

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