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Manipulated Gamma

Spectroscopy:
Methodologies and
Applications
Saed Dababneh
•Al-Balqa Applied University, JORDAN.
• Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, GERMANY.
• University of Notre Dame, USA.
• Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, USA.
• CERN.

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Why … ?
• Efficiency For What…?
• Signal-to-Background Ratio • Nuclear Structure
• Correction Factors • Environmental
• Interference • Material
• Nuclear Astrophysics
• True Coincidence (Summing)
• Medical
• Random Coincidences • Industrial
•… •…

• Composite detectors
• Online vs. offline histogramming
• Coincidence/anticoincidence
•…

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
“Classical” Compton Suppression

• Online signal processing and hardware gating.


• Anticoincidences. Kill good events !!!

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Detector Spheres
• Cost
• Room
• Availability
• Passive Shielding

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Detector Spheres

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
“Chronic” Corrections

• Geometry (Extended Source)


Last Year !! • Self Absorption
• True Coincidence Summing
• Random Coincidences
Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in
Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Stellar Evolution (Overview)

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Thermonuclear Resonant Reactions
Resonance Strength
ωγ
Low energy ?
Barrier penetration
Γα << Γγ
ωγ ≈ ω Γα
Yield ≈ λ2 ωγ / ε
Projectile ≈ λ2 ω Γα / ε
Background ??
Target
Q
Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in Environmental
Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Compound Nucleus
Cross section

ωγ ∝ Γα EC ωγ ∝ Γγ
Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in Energy
Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Specific Problem
Neutron sources for the s-process
12C(p, γ)13N(β+)13C(α,n)

14N(α, γ)18F(β+)18O(α, γ)22Ne(α,n)


At temperatures of interest:
• Reaction rate is dominated by
2 resonances; 470 & 566 keV.
• Never observed directly ! 770
• Estimated resonance strengths. 750
• Now: Improved detection sensitivity. 660
• Measured resonance strengths. 566
470
18O +α
Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in 22Ne
Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
How … ?
• Close Geometry
• Granularity (if available)
• Offline Analysis
• Timing
• Cosmic Suppression
• Random Coincidences
• Cascade Coincidences
• Measured Corrections
• Simulated Corrections
• Avoid Calculations based on assumptions
•…
Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in
Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Experimental Setup for Accelerators

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in
Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Multiplicities

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Cosmic Suppression

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Random Coincidences

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Addback vs. Direct Mode

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Addback vs. Direct Mode

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Summing-in and -out

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Doppler Correction

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Various Modes of Operation
Ignore scintillation X No suppression.
Anticoincidences
Use Pl. Scintillator X Cosmic suppression.
Use BGO X Compton suppression.
Coincidences (w/o cosmic suppression)
Window on Clover + BGO X Q-value gating.
BGO window X Cascade coincidences. WWW
Clover addback window X Summing-in.
Clover crystal window X Summing-out.

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Ultimate Data Reduction
• Cosmic suppression.
• Cascade coincidences. Offline
• Random coincidences.
• Signal-to-background ratio…!!!

1.27
0

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Detection Sensitivity

• Low-energy ultra-weak resonance.


• 10 days beam on target.
Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in
Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Detection Sensitivity

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Detection Sensitivity

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Detailed Coincidences
• Modes 1 & 2 are
1 2 3 4
R accounted for.
X Partial strength.
• Bypasses over
first excited state?
1.27

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
3-D Spectra

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
So what ?

• Improved detection sensitivity.


• Bypass verification.
• Weakest resonances detected.
• Target stability.
• Quantified reaction rate.
Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in
Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Setup for Small Samples
Sample measured with 2 Clover detectors in close
geometry.
• Each Clover consists of 4 HPGe crystals.
• Nearly 4π geometry X High efficiency.

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Singles vs. Coincidences

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Monte Carlo (Remember 2006…!!)
• Close geometry X summing.
• Classical correction needs TOTAL efficiency
• MC X total efficiency
• If MC why not MC X Summing correction

Validate MC
Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in
Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Correction Factor using Experimental Data

16 % in Direct
Mode
Confirmed by
MC

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research


A 517 (2004) 230-239
Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in
Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Finally …
Get spirit of ideas
and
apply to your setup

Invest in yourself

www.dababneh.com/yarmouk07

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Many Thanks
www.dababneh.com/yarmouk07

Acknowledgement

Franz Käppeler, Michael Heil, Rene Reifarth, Ralf Plag, Iris Dillmann,
Michael Wiescher, Joachim Görres, Nikolas Patronis, Shawn O’Brien.

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in
Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in
Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.
Again: Addback vs. Direct

Saed Dababneh. Seventh Symposium on Use of Nuclear Techniques in


Environmental Studies. Yarmouk University, JORDAN. 3-5 Sept. 2007.