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12 tayangan5 halamanIncluding Voltage Measurements in Branch Current State Estimation for Distribution Systems

Jul 11, 2017

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Including Voltage Measurements in Branch Current State Estimation for Distribution Systems

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12 tayangan

Including Voltage Measurements in Branch Current State Estimation for Distribution Systems

© All Rights Reserved

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Estimation for Distribution Systems

Mesut E. Baran Jaesung Jung Thomas E. McDermott

Dept. of ECE, NC State University EnerNex Corp. Pittsburgh, PA

AbstractThis paper considers the incorporation of voltage In this paper, a branch-current-based three-phase SE (BCSE)

measurements in a branch-current-based state estimation method [4] is considered, as it is computationally more

(BCSE) program. Original BCSE is designed to include only efficient and more insensitive to line parameters than the

power and current measurements. The motivation for enhancing conventional node-voltage-based SE methods. BCSE is very

BCSE is that with the adoption of large scale automated meter efficient in handling line-flow and power-injection

infrastructure (AMI) technologies, voltage measurements will be

available at the distribution level. Hence, including these

measurements for radial networks. In the original algorithm

measurements has the potential to improve the accuracy of the the voltage measurements have not been included as the

state estimation. The paper elaborates the technical approach voltage measurements have not been available [4]. But with

taken to accomplish this task, and the test results for assessment. AMI, voltage measurements will be readily available. In [12],

a method for handling voltage measurements in BCSE is

KeywordsPower System State Estimation, Power Distribution introduced. This method converts the voltage measurements

System. into equivalent measurements. In this paper, we show the

enhancement of the original BCSE to include voltage

I. INTRODUCTION measurements more accurately.

their distribution systems mainly to improve the service

II. BRANCH-CURRENT-BASED STATE ESTIMATION

reliability [1-8]. Recently, there has been additional incentive A. Branch-Current-Based State Estimation (BCSE) Method

to improve monitoring of feeders to improve the efficiency The branch-current-based SE method, like conventional node-

by adopting advanced functions such as voltage control for voltage-based SE methods, is based on the weighted least

demand management. Effective management of distribution square (WLS) approach. Rather than using the node voltages

systems require analysis tools that can estimate the state of as the system state x, the method uses the branch currents as

the system (the operating condition) and predict the response the state, i.e.

of the system to changing load and weather conditions. The

main tool used for system analysis is the power flow analysis. xi = [ I ri , I xi ]

But this tool is not very suitable for real-time monitoring as it where I ri is branch current real part and I xi is branch current

requires accurate load and system data.

imaginary part. Hence, BCSE solves the following WLS

problem to obtain an estimate of the system operating point

To better monitor the system operating conditions for system

defined by the system state x :

management, recently some utilities have started installing

w ( z h ( x))

m

limited SCADA systems at distribution level. Some utilities m i n J ( x) = i i i

2

= [ z h( x )]T W [ z h( x)] (1)

x

started deploying large scale Advanced Metering Infra- i =1

structures (AMI) also. With the availability of real-time where and represent the weight and the

wi hi ( x )

measurements, new methods are proposed for monitoring the

operating point (state) of distribution system. One of the measurements function associated with measurement zi

approaches is power flow based [5-8] and the others [2,3] are respectively. For the solution of this problem the conventional

extensions of the conventional state estimation (SE) method iterative method is adapted by solving following the normal

for three-phase analysis. Although SE is preferred over the equations at each iteration to compute the update

power flow approach, its computational complexity may x k +1 = xk +Vx k

prevent its use in practical applications.

This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under

[G ( x k )]x k = H T ( x k )W [ z h( x k )] (2)

Grant DE-FG02-06ER84647.

M. Baran is with Department of ECE, NC State University, Raleigh, NC where

USA (e-mail: baran@eos.ncsu.edu). G ( x) = H T ( x)WH ( x)

J. Jung is a graduate student in the Dept. of ECE at NC State University in

Raleigh, NC (jsjung@ncsu.edu)

is the gain matrix and H is the Jacobian of the measurement

T. E. McDermott is with EnerNex Corp. Pittsburgh, PA, 15236 (email: function h( x) .

tom@enernex.com)

Hence the only difference between the node voltage based

2

SE and BCSE is the measurement functions associated with measurement introduces coupling terms between the phases

the type of measurements to be processed. of branch currents and the real and imaginary parts of branch

Note that we need a three phase model for representing un- currents. Hence, this voltage measurement Vk contributes the

balanced distribution feeders [2], as both the feeder circuit

following terms to the measurement Jacobian matrix H :

can have single phase laterals and also the loads are

unbalanced. The main model for a feeder branch (line section) hvk

= X i sin k Ri cos k

shown in Fig. 1 is : I ri

Vr ,1 VS ,1 z11 z12 z13 I l ,1 hvk

V

= V

l z 21 z22 z 23 I l ,2 ( 3) = Ri sin k X i cos k (9)

r ,2 S ,2 I xi

Vr ,3

VS ,3 z31 z32 z33 I l ,3

where Z i = Ri + jX i is the line impedance of branch i and

Or in compact form:

the k is expressed as :

Vr = VS Z l I l (4) k k

where Z l is the branch impedance matrix and l is the line k = tan (V0 r real ( Zi Ii )) /(V0 x imag ( Zi Ii ))

1

i =1 i =1

(10)

length.

where substation voltage is V0 = V0 r + jV0 x . Hence, both the

Jacobian matrix H and the gain matrix G need to be revised to

include voltage measurements in BCSE.

The Jacobian matrix H will have the following structure:

H sr H sx

H = H cr H cx (11)

H vr H vr

Fig. 1.A three-phase feeder line model. Where H sr , H cr , H vr corresponds to elements for the power,

current, and voltage measurements, respectively. The Gain

matrix G can be constructed as follows:

The main advantage of the BCSE is that the measurement

functions are simplified for power and current measurements

m

taken from an unbalanced radial distribution feeder. For G = wi H i

T

[ Hi ] (12)

example, power flow measurements on the feeder can be i =1

converted to equivalent complex current measurement by

using the current estimate of the node voltage: where H i indicates the row of H.

Pi Vri + Qi Vxi Pi Vxi Qi Vri

I ri = 2 2

I xi = 2 2 ( 5) Note that, since H is now coupled, the real and imaginary

Vri + Vxi Vri + Vxi

parts have to be solved together in (1). Also, a good estimate

where I i = I ri + jI xi at branch i . Hence, the resulting functions of initial angle is needed for both voltage and current

of power measurement are linear as the state variables are the measurements in the construction of gain matrix. So, voltage

complex branch currents, and current measurements are excluded in the first iteration

hIri ( I r ) + jhIxi ( I x ) = I ri + jI xi (6) for the good estimate of initial angle.

Thus, the Jacobian matrix elements are :

III. TEST RESULT

hIri hIxi

I ri

=1

I xi

=1 (7) For testing the revised BCSE with voltage measurements, a

test feeder is used. The test feeder is an IEEE 34 node radial

B. Including Voltage Measurements in BCSE test feeder with 23 kV three-phase primary [13]. A reduced

version of this test feeder is used to facilitate debugging and

A voltage at the node of a radial feeder Vk is the voltage at

assessment. A one-line diagram of the reduced feeder is given

the substation minus the voltage drop on the line sections in Fig. 2. For test purposes, distributed line section loads are

between the substation and this node, and hence, the lumped equally at terminal nodes of the line sections. The

measurement function for the voltage measurement Vk can be nominal load data is used as actual load which is determined

written in terms of the branch currents as : by power flow results as the correct measurements. The

feeder is modeled to have a heavy loading condition on feeder

(8 )

k

Vk = V0 Zi Ii and the line data is used given in [14]. The total load is

i =1

Sload , a = 490 + j 315 kVA

where V0 is voltage at the substation. This voltage magnitude

3

Small number of iteration indicates fast convergence of the

BCSE method. Figure 3 shows the rate of convergence, i.e.,

k

the reduction in maximum b after each iteration, for four

cases in logarithmic scale. These results indicate that the

convergence is almost quadratic, and is not sensitive to the

type of measurement. Hence, the voltage measurements do

not degrade the performance of the BCSE method.

Fig. 2.One-line diagram of reduced test feeder.

which indicates a heavy loading condition on the feeder.

bk/b0

on Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003. To assess the impact

of voltage measurements on the state estimation, four cases

have been considered:

Case 1: forecasted load data.

Case 2: The same measurements as in Case 1 plus three

voltage measurements m2-m4 from the feeder nodes.

Case 3: Power measurement at the substation (both real and

reactive), indicated as mo in Fig. 2, plus a current Fig.3. Convergence characteristics of BCSE

measurement on the feeder, m1, and forecasted load data.

Case 4: The same measurements as in Case 3 plus three Figures 4-5 compares the estimated branch currents for the

voltage measurements m2-m4 from the feeder nodes. four cases considered. The figures show the error in the

estimated state ( x = [ I r , I x ] ) of branch currents (phase a

To generate measurement data for testing purpose, first the

actual measurements have been obtained by running a power only) of the feeder. Fig. 4 compares the results for Case 1 and

flow for the given load. Then measurement error was added to Case 2. These results indicate that adding voltage

the actual measurements. measurements decrease the error in branch current estimates.

Note that the improvement in the estimation is more on the

Z = Z eZ

a

(19) real part of the current than the imaginary part. Since, in this

a

where Z is actual data and eZ is the measurement error. The case the currents have small imaginary components, the

overall reduction of the error in the current magnitude is

forecasted load data is created by perturbing the actual load

considerable especially towards the substation end of the

data by adding error of 30%. The power and current

feeder. Hence, these results indicate that having voltage

magnitude measurement errors are selected from Normal

measurements helps improve the estimation over the

distribution with a standard deviation of 0.0233 (accuracy is

conventional one that is based on the forecasted load only

7% of their measured values). The voltage measurements data

(case 1).

are generated by adding measurement error with a standard

deviation of 0.0067 ( 2% measurement error). Figure 5 compares the results for Case 3 and Case 4. Note

that these two cases illustrate the effect of adding voltage

The enhanced BCSE has run for these four cases. The measurements to a system which has some limited power and

convergence criteria used is the standard one, i.e., current measurement from the feeder (Case 3). The results

b

= H T W ( z h ( x ))

< 103 ( 20) indicate that in this case adding voltage measurements does

not improve the estimation as much as it did in the previous

Table I shows the performance of the method under the four

case. The differences between the two cases are not

test cases.

statistically significant.

TABLE I: CONVERGENCE PERFORMANCE OF BCSE UNDER FOUR CASES

Test itr

(sec) rp(kw) Rq(kVar) J(x)

Case 1 6 0.0179 8.35E-07 1.09E-06 1.64E-09

Case 2 7 0.0201 0.02767 0.05044 14.63

Case 3 6 0.0201 0.1876 0.04298 6.092

Case 4 6 0.0223 0.1856 0.04595 10.82

4

Error (p.u.)

Error (p.u.)

node node

(a) error in branch current real part, Ir in p.u. (a) error in branch current real part, Ir in p.u.

Error (p.u.)

Error (p.u.)

node node

(b) error in branch current imaginary part, Ix in p.u. (b) error in branch current imaginary part, Ix in p.u.

Error (p.u.)

Error (p.u.)

node node

(c) error in branch current magnitude in p.u. (c) error in branch current magnitude in p.u.

Fig. 4. Estimated Branch Currents for Case1 and Case 2 Fig.5. Estimated Branch Currents for Case3 and Case 4

This paper shows that the basic BCSE can be extended to [1] Mesut E. Baran, "Challenges in State Estimation on Distribution

include voltage measurements in the estimation. The initial Systems," in Proc. 2001 IEEE PES Summer Meeting., vol. 1, pp.

429-433.

test results indicate that the voltage measurements on the [2] Mesut E. Baran and Arthur W. Kelley, "State Estimation for

estimated values are helpful in improving the accuracy of Real-Time Monitoring of Distribution Systems," IEEE Trans.

BCSE results. The impact of voltage measurements on the Power Systems., vol. 9, pp. 1601-1609, Aug. 1994.

estimation depends on the existence of the other [3] C.N. Lu, J.H. Teng, and W-H.E. Liu, "Distribution system state

measurements on the feeder. These results are based on the estimation," IEEE Trans. Power Systems., vol. 10, pp. 229-240,

simulated measurements with assumed accuracy especially on Feb. 1995.

[4] Mesut E. Baran and Arthur W. Kelley, "A branch-current-based

the forecasted load values. state estimation method for distribution systems," IEEE Trans.

Power Systems., vol. 10, pp. 483-491, Feb. 1995.

[5] Royetelman I. and S.M. Shahidehpour, "State estimation for

electric power distribution systems in quasi real-time conditions,"

in Proc. 1993 IEEE PES Winter Meeting., vol. 8, pp. 2009-

2015.

5

Distribution Networks," in Proc. 2006 IEEE PSCE Power Syst.

Conf. and Expo., pp. 510-517.

[7] Celik M.K. and W-H.E. Liu, "A practical distribution state

calculation algorithm," in Proc.1999 IEEE PES Winter Meeting.,

vol. 1, pp. 442-447.

[8] Lubkeman, D.L., Jianzhoung Zhang, Ghosh, A.K. and Jones,

R.H., "Field results for distribution circuit state estimator

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406, Jan. 2000.

[9] Youman Deng, Ying He and Boming Zhang, "A branch-

estimation-based state estimation method for radial distribution

systems," IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 17, pp. 1057-1062,

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[10] Haibin Wang and Schulz, N.N., "A revised branch current-based

distribution system state estimation algorithm and meter

placement impact," IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 19, pp.

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[11] Whei-Min Lin, Jen-Hao Teng and Shi-Jaw Chen, "A highly

efficient algorithm in treating current measurements for the

branch-current-based distribution state estimation," IEEE Trans.

Power Delivery, vol. 16, pp. 433-439, Jul. 2001.

[12] J.H. Teng, "Using voltage measurements to improve the results

of branch-current-based state estimators for distribution

systems," IEE Proc. Gener., Transm. and Distrib., vol. 149, pp.

667-672, Nov. 2002.

[13] Kersting, W.H., "Radial distribution test feeders," in Proc. 2001

IEEE PES Winter Meeting., vol. 2, pp. 908-912.

[14] Goswami, S.K. and Basu, S.K., "Direct solution of distribution

systems," IEE Proc. Gener., Transm. and Distrib., vol. 138, pp.

78-88, Jan. 1991.

VI. BIOGRAPHIES

Carolina State University in Raleigh, NC. He received

his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley

in 1988. His research interests include distribution and

transmission system analysis and control.

masters in Electrical Engineering at North Carolina

State University in Raleigh, NC. He received his B.S.

in Electrical and Computer Engineering form

ChungNam National University, South Korea in 2006.

His research interests are in the area of power system

dynamics and computer simulations in power systems

and power system wide area monitoring and control.

currently working in wind generation, distribution systems, lightning protection,

custom software development, and electromagnetic transient studies. He is

currently Vice Chairman of the Distribution System Analysis Subcommittee, a

U.S. delegate to IEC TC 57 Working Group 14, and has previously chaired the

Pittsburgh Section IEEE and the Working Group on Estimating Lightning

Performance of Transmission Lines. Tom is a registered professional engineer in

Pennsylvania. He has a B. S. and M. Eng. in Electric Power from Rensselaer,

and a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Virginia Tech.

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