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4, 2016

Tall Buildings

1)

Post-Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology,

Shibpur, Howrah, India.

2)

Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology,

Shibpur, Howrah, India.

* Corresponding Author. E-Mail: sujit_dalui@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT

The variation in the values of interference factor with change in spacing between the two interfering buildings

and between interfering and principal building has been studied in this paper. Extensive numerical studies

have been carried out with three numerical models (viz. k-, SST and k-) for an isolated building for wind

incidence angle of 0using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package ANSYS CFX. The interference

cases are studied by k- turbulence model only due to restriction of pages. Good agreement is observed

between the results obtained by k-, SST and k- models for the isolated case. Both interfering buildings are

square in plan with a length scale of 1:300. Peculiar pressure distributions on certain faces are observed.

Moreover, drastic change in pressure distribution is observed for the isolated and the interference cases.

Finally, the flow pattern around the model is computed in order to explain the variation in pressure on

different faces.

KEYWORDS: Interference effect, Mean pressure coefficient, Tall building, Wind incidence angle,

Vortex shedding.

high-rise buildings, interference effects among a group

Wind engineering analysis effects of wind on of tall buildings have become an increasingly important

natural and built environments are studied in order to issue. The response of a building to the presence of

determine possible damage, inconvenience or benefits neighbouring buildings is usually considerably

which may result from wind. In the field of structural different from that of an isolated building. The effects

engineering, analysis includes strong wind which may of interference on wind loads and response of buildings

cause discomfort, as well as extreme winds, such as depend largely on their relative location, building

tornadoes, hurricanes or heavy storms, which may geometry, upstream terrain, building orientation,... etc.

cause widespread destruction. Nowadays, due to Due to a large number of variable conditions, wind

shortage of land for construction, there is a tendency is stochastic in nature and its exact action over a

towards vertical construction. So, buildings are made building is difficult to predict. Effects of these

very tall, slender and asymmetrical with special parameters for tall buildings have been investigated by

many researchers in the past. Most of the previous

Received on 18/2/2015. investigations focused mainly on the interference

Accepted for Publication on 7/5/2015.

Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 10, No. 4, 2016

effects between two buildings of square shape. Several a numerical study is conducted to evaluate the pressure

studies on the interference effects with principal coefficients on faces of octagonal buildings for the

building of rectangular shape have been conducted by isolated case as well as for interference cases.

Ruscheweyh (1979), Sykes (1980), Thomos et al.

(1985), Yahyai et al. (1992), Takeuchi and Matsumoto Parametric Study

(1992), Wong et al. (2008) and Kim and Tamura

(2011). However, most wind engineering codes and When two or more structures are situated in close

standards (viz. IS:875 (part 3)-1987, AS/NZS proximity, interference of wind flow occurs and wind

1170.2:2002, ASCE 7-02,... etc.) offer little guidance loads on each building are modified compared with the

to designers for evaluating wind forces for buildings isolated condition. In this study, the principal building

located in close proximity. is a regular sided octagon with a base dimension of 100

Harris (1934) found that torque on the Empire State mm and a height of 500 mm. Two interfering buildings

Building in New York would be doubled, if two of square section, dimensions of 100 mm X 100 mm

building blocks were built across the two streets and a height of 500 mm are situated at upwind from the

adjacent to the building. Kelnhofer (1971), Melbourne principal building. Distance between principal building

and Sharp (1976), Saunders and Melbourne (1979) and and interfering building = D and spacing between the

Ahuja et al. (1991) have measured the effects of an two interfering buildings is denoted as S. For case-I, D

changing the relative height of an upstream building on = 200 mm and for case-II, D = 500 mm. The study is

wind loads on a downstream building. They observed conducted by numerical analysis for a wind incidence

that wind loads on the downstream building were angle of 0.

reduced by increasing the height of the upstream

building due to shielding, but dynamic loads increased. Numerical Study

Sakamoto and Haniu (1988) found that the drag force

on the downstream building reduces to zero when the The numerical study was carried out by the

upstream building was located three times the building Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method and

breadth away. They also found that the mean drag force utilizing the ANSYS CFX software package using k-

could be negative when the spacing was less than this turbulence model. This model uses the gradient

critical distance. Common sense suggests that diffusion hypothesis to relate the Reynolds stresses to

interference effects between two buildings should the mean velocity gradients and the turbulence

decrease by increasing the separation distance, such viscosity. The turbulence viscosity is modelled as the

that beyond a certain spacing buildings will behave as product of a turbulent velocity and a turbulent length

isolated buildings under the action of wind. Taniike scale. k is the turbulence kinetic energy and is defined

(1992) found that the shielding effect could be as the variance of fluctuations in velocity, while is

noticeable when the upstream building was located at a the turbulence eddy dissipation. The continuity

distance of 16 times the building breadth from the equation for variables k and is:

downstream building. 0. (1)

Hui et al. (2013) reported that the largest minimum

peak pressure on a building under interference effects The momentum equation is:

by a same height building can be 50% larger than that

on an isolated building. As there is no information

regarding the pressure coefficient of octagonal ; (2)

buildings for the isolated case in IS:875 (part 3)-1987, where:

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Numerical Investigation Sourav Hajra and Sujit Kumar Dalui

eff = effective viscosity accounting for turbulence; p + k . (3)

p` = modified pressure defined by:

Figure (1): Plan view of octagonal principal building and square interfering buildings

(dimensions are in mm)

The term in the last equation ) involves

the divergence of velocity. It is neglected in ANSYS

CFX. Therefore, this assumption is strictly correct only ; (7)

for incompressible fluids. The k- model is based on

the eddy viscosity concept, so that: where,

Pk the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to

=

= + t; (4) mean velocity gradients;

Pb = the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to

where t is the turbulence viscosity. buoyancy;

The k- model assumes that the turbulence YM = the contribution of the fluctuating dilatation in

viscosity is linked to the turbulence kinetic energy and compressible turbulence to the overall dissipation

dissipation via the relation: rate.

t = C . (5)

have constant values of 0.09, 1.44, 1.92, 1.0 and 1.2,

respectively. is the density of air in ANSYS CFX

The values of k and come directly from the taken as 1.224 kg/m3. Turbulence intensity was

differential transport equations for the turbulence considered 1%.

kinetic energy and turbulence dissipation rate:

Interference Factor (IF)

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Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 10, No. 4, 2016

interference effects in terms of interference factor (IF), Details of Model, Domain and Meshing

which was initially introduced by Saunders and

Melbourne (1979). For peak responses (i.e., bending A domain having 5H upwind fetch, 15H downwind

moment and acceleration) in along wind direction, IF fetch, 5H top clearance and 5H side clearance, where H

can be defined as follows: is the height of the model, is considered as shown in

IF = Peak response of a building with an interfering Fig. 2. Such a large size provides enough space for

building present/Peak response of the building without generation of vortex on the leeward side and avoids

an interfering building present. backflow of wind.

6H

5H 15H

5H 5H

Figure (2): Computational domain of the isolated building model used for CFD simulation

Spacing between interfering building and principal dimension B = 100 mm and L = 120 mm. Height of

building is D and spacing between the two interfering the model is H = 500 mm. The length scale using for

buildings is taken as S. For a particular D, S is varying this validation is 1:300.

to find out the optimum distance. The horizontal and Upwind fetch, downwind fetch, side clearance and

vertical clearances of the model from the boundary are top clearance are taken as stated in the previous

shown in Fig.3. Tetrahedron meshing is used for this section. Tetrahedral meshing is done for the domain as

experiment. Meshing formation for isolated building, well as for the surface of the rectangular building

interfering building and principal building are shown in model. Inflation is given on the building surfaces, in

Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. The walls of the boundary along the order to accurately resolve the high gradient regions of

wind direction and the top of the boundary are wind flow. No slip wall is considered for the four

considered as free slip walls and all walls of the sides of the building and free slip wall is considered

model are considered as no slip walls. for top surface and two sidewalls of the domain.

The boundary layer wind profile is governed by the At 0 wind incidence angle, wind strikes right angle

following equation of power law: to face A and hence the entire face experiences positive

U(z) = U( . pressure with face average value of Cp (mean) of 0.85

which is quite similar to the values suggested by wind

Validation of Numerical Study loading codes of AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 (Table 1). Face

B experiences negative pressure at this wind incidence

To assure the validity of ANSYS CFX, the program angle. Face B is the leeward face with respect to this

is validated by a rectangular building model, with wind incidence angle. The face average Cp (mean) is -

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Numerical Investigation Sourav Hajra and Sujit Kumar Dalui

0.46 which is also similar to the value suggested by in the above mentioned standard. However, some

wind loading codes of AS/NZS 1170.2:2002. Face C discrepancy is observed when compared with IS: 875

and face D are parallel faces with respect to the 0 (part 3)-1987. This is probably due to the fact that

wind incidence angle. The face average Cp (mean) is - the code is very old with respect to the current

0.6. It is again found almost similar to the value stated research.

the model)

Figure (4): Mesh pattern around the isolated building (a) plan view, (b) isometric view

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Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 10, No. 4, 2016

Figure (5): Mesh pattern around the interfering and principal buildings (a) plan view, (b) isometric view

Table 1. Validation of face average Cp (mean) values at 0 wind incidence angle

Face A Face B Face C Face D

Numerical Study 0.85 -0.46 -0.6 -0.6

AS/NZS

0.8 -0.5 -0.65 -0.65

1170.2:2002

ASCE 7-02 0.8 -0.5 -0.7 -0.7

IS: 875 (part 3) 1987 0.8 -0.25 -0.8 -0.8

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION formation of vortices and thus the symmetrical faces

will have identical pressure distribution. The wind

0 Wind Incidence Angle on Isolated Building sharply moves away from the edges of windward side

Numerically Predicted Wind Flow and reverts back after that. So, the windward face

The results obtained for 0 wind incidence angle on experiences a positive pressure with slight negativity

octagonal isolated building are studied by numerical observed towards roof. Two identical vortices are

simulation. The flow pattern is symmetrical till the formed in the wake region (Fig. 7).

C

B D

0

0

A E

H F

G

Figure (6): Isolated octagonal plan shaped building - 0 wind incidence angle

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Numerical Investigation Sourav Hajra and Sujit Kumar Dalui

Due to symmetry in wind flow, symmetrical faces pressure as face C is the side face with respect to 0

will have similar pressure distribution. Thus, studying wind incidence angle (Fig. 8c). A high negative

pressure distribution on faces A, B, C, D and E is pressure is observed near the top portion of the junction

sufficient for having an idea about the model under of face B and face C. Face E is the leeward face, thus

wind action. the full face experiences negative pressure (Fig 8e). A

Face A has experienced positive pressure with the very low negative pressure is observed in the lower

maximum value around the upper middle portion (Fig. corner portion of face E. Similarly, a higher magnitude

8a). The pressure near the side edges and bottom edges of negative pressure is observed near the upper portion

is low due to separation of flow near the corners. For of face E. Variation of pressure coefficients along the

face B, a high positive pressure is observed near the vertical centerline of the five faces for the three

junction of face A and face B (Fig. 8b). This positive different turbulence models is shown in Fig. 9 and that

pressure is gradually decreasing from the side edge along the perimeter for the three different heights from

(junction of face A and face B) to the middle portion. base and for the three different turbulence models is

For face C, the whole face experiences negative shown in Fig. 10.

Figure (7): Wind flow pattern for the isolated building at 0 wind incidence angle (a) plan view, (b) isometric view

The mean pressure coefficient (Cp) and its nature on for 0 wind incidence angle are shown in Table 2.

the eight faces as obtained from the numerical analysis

Table 2. Comparison of mean Cp on the different faces of isolated octagonal building for 0 wind incidence angle

Mean Surface Pressure Coefficient (Cp)

Location Remarks

k- SST k-

Face A 0.68 0.7 0.7 Agreement between the results

is quite good with some

Face B -0.3 -0.3 -0.31

discrepancies in face C, face D

Face C -0.93 -0.96 -1.01 and face G.

Face D -0.37 -0.37 -0.405 SST method yields higher

pressure coefficient as

Face E -0.4 -0.4 -0.4 compared to k- method.

Face F -0.35 -0.36 -0.4 +ve sign = pressure towards

Face G -0.91 -0.94 -0.995 the surface.

-ve sign = pressure away from

Face H -0.28 -0.288 -0.303 the surface; i.e., suction.

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Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 10, No. 4, 2016

contour on face A contour on face B contour on face C

contour on face D contour on face E

Figure (8): Variation of wind pressure on different surfaces of the isolated building for 0 wind incidence angle

- 469 -

Numerical Investigation Sourav Hajra and Sujit Kumar Dalui

coefficients along vertical centerline

for different faces of the octagonal

building at 0 wind incidence angle

- 470 -

Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 10, No. 4, 2016

B C

D

A E

G

H F

D

A E

G

H F

B C

D

A E

G

H F

Figure (10): Comparison of pressure coefficients along the perimeter for 0 wind incidence angle

- 471 -

Numerical Investigation Sourav Hajra and Sujit Kumar Dalui

Interference Cases interfering building; i.e., D = 200 mm, and the spacing

between the two interfering buildings; i.e., S is varying

CASE-I; D = 200 mm Numerical Results from 200 mm up to the optimum spacing of 10000 mm.

In this section, the effect of two interfering square The pressure variation along the vertical centerline and

buildings of dimensions 100 mm X 100 mm on a single along the perimeter is shown in Fig. 12 and Fig. 13,

regular sided octagon, which is the principal building, respectively.

is studied. The pressure variation along the eight faces, For different spacing values S, there is no

the interference factor and the flow pattern are significant variation of pressure on face A, because for

analyzed using ANSYS CFX (R 14.5). A comparison 0 wind incidence angle wind strikes directly to face A.

is also made with an isolated building in order to So, the pressure variation on face A for different

elaborate the interference effects. For this case, the spacing values between two interfering buildings has

spacing between the principal building and the not occurred.

Figure (11): Flow pattern around the buildings for a typical case (D = 200mm and S = 500mm)

Spacing between initial and optimum condition isolated building case.

During the study, to reach optimum spacing It is also observed in this study that the variation of

between interfering building and principal building, a Cp along the perimeter is not so much influenced by

number of CFD simulations is done at different spacing various spacings at a height of 270 mm from the base

values S starting from 200 mm. From 200 mm to 800 and 470 mm from the base. It is mainly influenced at a

mm, the spacing interval is 300 mm. Then, S = 1500 height of 30 mm from base. This is due to the reason

mm. Then, up to 3500 mm, the spacing interval is 1000 that high turbulence occurs near the ground. Contour of

mm, then S = 5000 mm, 7000 mm and 10000 mm. interference factor (IF) on some typical faces for

10000 mm is such a distance, where the interfering typical value of S is shown in Fig. 14

building does not affect the principal building. Thus, Values of interference factor of different faces for

optimum spacing is 10000 mm for 0 wind incidence different values of S and D = 200 mm are shown in

angle. Variation of Cp along the vertical centerline at Table 3.

this spacing is observed to coincide with that of the

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Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 10, No. 4, 2016

Fig.12 (c) Face C

Figure (12): Variation of pressure coefficients along vertical centerline for different values of S

- 473 -

Numerical Investigation Sourav Hajra and Sujit Kumar Dalui

Figure (13): Comparison of pressure coefficients along perimeter for D =200mm and S=200mm,

3500mm and 10000mm

Figure (14): Contours of interference factors on three typical faces for D=200mm and S=800mm

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Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 10, No. 4, 2016

Table 3. Values of interference factors on different faces for different values of S and D = 200 mm

D S

(mm) (mm)

A B C D E F G H

200 2500 1.006 0.969 0.984 0.986 1.047 1.054 1.017 1.059

CASE-II; D = 500 mm Numerical Results building, comparison has been made with an isolated

In this case, the effect of two interfering square building. For this case, the spacing between the

buildings of the same dimension as in the previous case principal building and the interfering building; i.e., D =

on the principal octagonal building is analyzed. The 500 mm and S varies from 500 mm up to the optimum

pressure variation along the eight faces of the principal spacing of 5000 mm. The pressure variations along the

building, the interference factor and the flow pattern vertical centerline and along the perimeter are shown in

will be analyzed in this case. Fig. 15 and Fig. 16, respectively.

To study the interference effects on the principal

- 475 -

Numerical Investigation Sourav Hajra and Sujit Kumar Dalui

Fig. 15 (b) Face B

Figure (15): Variation of pressure coefficients along vertical centerline for D=500mm and 0 wind

incidence angle

- 476 -

Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 10, No. 4, 2016

Figure (16): Variation of pressure coefficients along perimeter for three different heights from base and

0 wind incidence angle

- 477 -

Numerical Investigation Sourav Hajra and Sujit Kumar Dalui

Spacing between initial and optimum condition The variation of pressure coefficient along the vertical

During the study, to reach the optimum spacing centerline of the eight faces of the octagonal building

between interfering building and principal building, a and along the perimeter at S = 5000 exactly coincides

number of CFD simulations are done at different with that of the isolated case.

values of S in this case. The initial value of S is taken Values of interference factor of different faces for

as 500 mm. At S = 5000 mm, the interfering building different values of S and D = 500 mm are shown in

does not affect the principal building and the principal Table 4.

octagonal building behaves like an isolated building.

Table 4. Values of interference factors on different faces for different values of S and D = 500 mm

D S

(mm) (mm)

A B C D E F G H

500

2500 0.9905 0.984 0.995 0.997 1.059 1.0807 1.0272 1.0855

isolated building is analyzed with three different

The major findings of the present study are numerical models (viz. k-, SST and k-). Results

summarized in this section. Studies carried out till now obtained by these three numerical models have shown

have shown that regular plan shape buildings are good agreement between each other. The results

subjected to symmetrical pressure distribution for 0 obtained from this interference study will be helpful to

wind incidence angle. The interference effect on the structural engineer to evaluate wind load in

different faces is also to be kept in mind while practical cases.

calculating wind load on buildings or any other

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Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 10, No. 4, 2016

upwind buildings on the response of tall buildings.

Agarwal, N., Mittal, A.K., and Gupta, V.K. (2012). Along Proc. of Regional Conference on Tall Buildings, Hong

wind interference effects on tall buildings. 6th National Kong, 174-191.

Conference on Wind Engineering, December 14-15. Ruscheweyh, H. (1979). Dynamic response of high-rise

Ahuja, A.K., Pathak, S.K., and Mir, S.A. (1991). buildings under wind action with interference effects

Interference effect of wind loads on tall buildings. from surrounding buildings of similar size.

Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Concrete Structures Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Wind

and Innovations in Design-Proc. of ACI Int. Conf., Engineering, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, 725-734.

Hongkong, SP-128, 2, 973-986. Sakamoto, H., and Haniu, H. (1988). Aerodynamic forces

Amin, J.A., and Ahuja, A.K. (2012). Wind-induced mean acting on two square prisms placed vertically in a

interference effects between two closely spaced turbulent boundary layer. Journal of Wind

buildings. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 16 (1), Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 31, 41-66.

119-131. Saunders, J.W., and Melbourne, W.H. (1979). Buffeting

ANSYS 14.5, ANSYS, Inc., www.ansys.com effects of upwind buildings. Proc. of 5th International

ASCE 7-02. (2002). Minimum design loads for buildings Conference on Wind Engineering, Fort Collins, 593-

and other structures. American Society of Civil 605.

Engineering, ASCE Standard, Second Edition, Reston, Sykes, D. M. (1980).Interference effects on the response

Virginia. of a tall building model. Journal of Wind Engineering

AS/NZS 1170.2: 2002. (2002). Structural design action, and Industrial Aerodynamics, 11, 365-380.

part 2: wind actions. Australian/New-Zealand Takeuchi, T., and Matsumoto, M. (1992).Aerodynamic

Standards, Sydney, Wellington. response characteristics of rectangular cylinders in

Davenport, A.G. (1993). The response of slender tandem arrangement. Journal of Wind Engineering

structures to wind. Wind Climate in Cities (Cermak et and Industrial Aerodynamics, 41-44, 565-575.

al., Eds.), Germany, 209-239. Taniike, Yoshihito. (1992). Interference mechanism for

Harris, C.L. (1934). Influence of neighbouring structures enhanced wind forces on neighbouring tall buildings.

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for design wind load on buildings and structures. Aerodynamic interference effects on local surface

Second Revision, New Delhi, India. pressures. Proceedings of 5th US National Conference

Kelnhofer, W.J. (1971). Influence of neighbouring on Wind Engineering, TTU, USA, 3A/53-60.

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and Structures, Tokyo Japan, 221-230. building model. BBAA 6th International Colloquium

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