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SOLAR PANEL WITH AUTOMATIC TRANSFER SWITCH

A Project Study Presented to

The Faculty of the Electronics Engineering Department

TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Taguig Campus

In Partial Fulfillment

For the Requirement on the Program

Bachelor of Science in Electronics Engineering

By:

APALE, JAYSON T.

AURINO, FRANCIS JOSEPH M.

LORIAGA, JOHN ERICK F.

MAGANA, MERRY JOY M.

RIVERA, KEVIN S.

_______________________
Date
APPROVAL SHEET

This project study entitled, SOLAR PANEL WITH AUTOMATIC


TRANSFER SWITCH, prepared and submitted by JAYSON T. APALE,
FRANCIS JOSEPH M. AURINO, JOHN ERICK F. LORIAGA, MERRY JOY M.
MAGANA, and KEVIN S. RIVERA in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the Bachelor of Science in Electronics Engineering Program has been examined
and is found to be acceptable in content and form.

ENGR. MARK JOSEPH M. ENOJAS ENGR. MARCELO V. RIVERA


Technical Adviser Subject Adviser

ENGR. JULIUS DELFIN A. SILANG ENGR. RAYMUND M. LOZADA


Member Member

ENGR. RICA JANE Y. KOSCA


Chairperson

Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for


the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Electronics Engineering.

ENGR. PAL MALETER M. DOMINGO


Department Head

____________________
Date
ABSTRACT

Nowadays, people are finding other ways to conserve electricity and/or

creating new sources of energy to replace the main grid power consumption in

the Philippines, wherein the electricity cost is too high for the consumer to pay.

Since solar energy is one of the reliable sources of energy, people still tend to

find ways how to make the most out of it. Aside from that, an Automatic Transfer

Switch (ATS) is an automatic system of switching two independent sources

during emergency situations such as power failures and electrical interruptions.

The researchers come to an idea of combining the two concepts in creating the

project.

The project entitled, Solar Panel with Automatic Transfer Switch, is an

innovative project from the usual ATS. This project has the combined concept of

the solar power and ATS but, instead of using the ATS for emergency situations,

it will be used as a daily system of saving electricity during daytime with the solar

power source and switching its source to MERALCO during nighttime.

Series of testing and evaluation is needed to check its reliability and

functionality. This was done through number of days in each testing procedures

and evaluation with the help of the faculty and staff in the TUP-Taguig Campus

as the respondents. The system is easy to control and manage and it is designed

not only for the use of the Electronics Department but for future use in the

commercial and industrial establishments. There is still a need for further studies

to improve the over-all function of the said system


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to acknowledge the people behind the success of the

project study. First and foremost, to the Almighty God for giving knowledge and

wisdom, courage and strength to move-on despite all the hardships and trials

throughout the whole process of creating the project study. Second, to our

parents, who seek effort, time, and cooperation in helping us in this project

financially, emotionally and physically.

We also acknowledge the concerns of our technical adviser, Engr. Mark

Joseph Enojas who always supported us from the back and gives some advices

in our project study. Also, to Engr. Rica Jane Y. Kosca and her husband, Mr.

Edwin Kosca for introducing this project idea and also for giving us moral support

and guidance in building this project.

We are also thankful for the advices by the panel members to further

improve our project during our project study defense and because of these

advices, the project is now usable to the Electronics Department.


DEDICATION

To all the professors

who helped the proponents especially to:

Engr. Mark Joseph Enojas, Engr. Rica Jane Y. Kosca

and Mr Edwin Kosca

who gave pieces of advice

To the friends, classmates and relatives of the proponents

who give motivational words.

To the families of the proponents

who give intense support and care to their sons and daughters.

And to the Lord who walks with them

through the narrow and uneasy path of success,

Glory to you, Oh Almighty God


.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title .. i.

Approval . ii.

Abstract .. iii.

Acknowledgement iv.

Dedication . v.

Table of Contents vi.

Chapter 1 Problem and its Background

Introduction ...... 1

Background of the Study 2

Statement of the Problem ... 3

Objectives of the Study 4

Significance of the Study . 5

Scope and Delimitation 6

Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies

Related Literature .. 8

Related Studies 18
Conceptual Framework ... 28

Definition of Terms ... 29

Chapter 3 Research Design

Project Conceptualization ...... 32

Project Design and Specifications ....... 39

Project Development 48

Project Testing and Evaluation .. 54

Chapter 4 Presentation, Analysis and Presentation of Data

Technical Design Output . 60

Test Results .. 70

Evaluation .. 83

Cost Reduction . 90

Breakdown of Expenses . 92

Chapter 5 Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

Summary of Findings . 95

Conclusions . 96.

Recommendations .. 96.

Bibiliography
Appendices

Appendix A: Project and Testing Pictures

Appendix B: User Manual and Specifications

Appendix C: Certifications and Communication Letter

Appendix D: Survey Form

Appendix E: Program Codes

Appendix F: Curriculum Vitae


APPENDIX A
(Project and Testing Pictures)
APPENDIX B
(User Manual and Specifications)
APPENDIX D
(Survey Form)
APPENDIX E
(Program Codes)
Program Codes used:

int relay = 7;

#define LDR A2

#include <LiquidCrystal.h>

LiquidCrystal lcd(12, 11, 5, 4, 3, 2);

float lightLevel = 0.0;

float threshold = 661.0;

void setup() {

Serial.begin (9600);

pinMode (relay, OUTPUT);

lcd.begin (16, 2);

void loop() {
// reads the sunlight intensity

int x = 1;

float light = 0.0;

while ( x <= 10 )

light += analogRead (LDR);

x++;

delay (500);

lightLevel = light / 10.0 ;

if (lightLevel > threshold)

lcd.setCursor (0, 0);


lcd.print (" Light Intensity ");

lcd.setCursor (0, 1);

lcd.print (" ");

lcd.print (lightLevel);

delay (10);

digitalWrite (relay , HIGH); // relay is deactivated SOLAR

delay (10);

if (lightLevel < threshold)

lcd.setCursor (0, 0);

lcd.print (" Light Intensity ");

lcd.setCursor (0, 1);

lcd.print (" ");

lcd.print (lightLevel);

delay (10);
digitalWrite (relay , LOW); //MERALCO

delay (10);

}
APPENDIX F
(Curriculum Vitae)
Bibliography:

Household Energy Consumption Survey (HECS) -- https://psa.gov.ph/hecs

How much lighting is good lighting for a room? --

https://www.bijlibachao.com/lights/how-much-lighting-is-good-lighting-for-a-

room.html

How to calculate Return on Customer Investment --

https://www.genroe.com/blog/how-to-calculate-return-on-customer-investment

http://www.reuk.co.uk/wordpress/electric-circuit/simple-low-voltage-disconnect-

with-ne555/

http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-use-a-photoresistor-or-photocell-Arduino-

Tu/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transfer_switch

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_energy

http://www.philippinesplus.com/2016/04/09/philippines-5th-highest-cost-

electricity-world/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interlocking

http://www.e-gizmo.com/KIT/relay%20card.html

http://fireflyelectric.com/product/ecolum-led-tube-box-type-set/

https://www.accuweather.com/en/ph/taguig/759349/april-weather/759349

http://forum.arduino.cc/index.php?topic=111104.0
https://www.kitronik.co.uk/blog/how-an-ldr-light-dependent-resistor-works/
APPENDIX C
(Certification and Communication
Letter)
Solar Panel Specification

Maximum Power 100 W


Maximum Power Voltage 17.8 V
Maximum Power Current 5.62 A

Open circuit Voltage 22 V

Short Circuit Current 1.08 A


LED Fluorescent Lamp Specification

Input Wattage 18 W (max)

Input Voltage 85V - 265V~

Input Current 81mA (at 220V)


Inverter Specification

SPECIFICATIONS OF THE INVERTER

Output Power 500 W

Waveform Modified Sine Wave

Input Voltage 10-15V

Greatest Effect > 90%

No load consumption 12V input

No - load current < 0.3A

Frequency 50 2HZ
Solar Charge Controller Specification

Solar Controller 20A

DC12V/ DC24V Auto-Switching


Smart CPU Design
Photo Sensor
With Timer
Over charging Sensor
Low Battery Sensor
Arduino Uno Specification

Features of the Arduino UNO:

Microcontroller: ATmega328
Operating Voltage: 5V
Input Voltage (recommended): 7-12V
Input Voltage (limits): 6-20V
Digital I/O Pins: 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
Analog Input Pins: 6
DC Current per I/O Pin: 40 mA
DC Current for 3.3V Pin: 50 mA
Flash Memory: 32 KB of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader
SRAM: 2 KB (ATmega328)
EEPROM: 1 KB (ATmega328)
Clock Speed: 16 MHz
Battery Specification