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HSC Chemistry Topic 1

PRODUCTION of MATERIALS
What is this topic about?
To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of:
1. POLYMERS FROM PETROCHEMICALS & BIOMASS
2. ALTERNATIVE FUELS - ETHANOL & THE ALKANOLS
3. REDOX CHEMISTRY & BATTERIES
4. RADIOACTIVITY & ITS USES
...all in the context of societys use of energy and materials

but first, an introduction...


In the previous topic in the Preliminary Course, you learnt Then you will learn more carbon chemistry when you study

alcohols
about the
carbon chemistry
and the importance of petroleum as a fuel source.
and the most important member
This topic begins by taking this idea further. Petroleum not of this group
only provides fuels, but is a source of chemicals for making
plastics. ETHANOL C2H5OH
a possible candidate for
replacing petrol as a fuel.

plastics Then onto REDOX Chemistry,


and its
involvement
in electric

Cells
&
Photo by
Batteries
Marcel Hol

Finally, we go into the atomic nucleus to study the

Radioactivity
phenomenon of

To understand this, you need to learn about a vital chemical


Ethylene, and the important industrial process of
+ n
n+
Polymerization.
You will learn about natural polymers, too. All living things
are built from polymers, and as the Petrochemicals run
out, we need to look to living things to provide our raw
materials in the future.

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CONCEPT DIAGRAM (Mind Map) OF TOPIC
Some students find that memorizing the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and remember the concepts and
important facts. As you proceed through the topic, come back to this page regularly to see how each bit fits the
whole. At the end of the notes you will find a blank version of this Mind Map to practise on.

Addition Polymers Conversion of


Condensation The Alkanols. Ethylene to/from Ethanol
Polyethylene
Polymers Structure
PVC
Polystyrene &
Properties Ethanol
from
The Potential of Fermentation
Ethylene; Cellulose
Chemistry
& Combustion
Sources of Alkanols
Biopolymers

Heat of
Combustion
Polymers Alternative Fuels.
from Petrochemicals Ethanol &
& the Alcohols Assessment of
Biomass Ethanol
as an
Alternative Fuel

PRODUCTION Displacement Reactions


of &
MATERIALS Activity Series of the Metals

REDOX
Chemistry Oxidation
& &
Radioactivity Batteries Reduction
&
its Uses Galvanic
Cells.
Structure
Isotopes
&
Chemistry

Radioactivity Standard Electrode


Alpha Potentials & Cell
Beta EMF
Production & Uses of Gamma
Commercial
Radioisotopes Oxidation States
Oxidation Number
Transuranic
Elements
Commercial
Cells &
Batteries

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1. POLYMERS FROM PETROCHEMICALS & BIOMASS

Petrochemicals Addition Reactions of Ethylene


When petroleum is refined, the major products are the These are not required learning, but study each diagram to
fuels such as petrol and diesel. However, its not all about make sure you understand the concept of an Addition
fuels. Our chemical industry depends on a whole range of Reaction across the double bond
other compounds extracted from petroleum, which are
collectively called Petrochemicals. Reaction with Hydrogen
H H H
Petrochemicals are vital raw materials for the manufacture of H
plastics and synthetic fibres C C + H2 H C C H
pigments for inks, dyes and paints H H
H H
detergents & adhesives
cosmetics & pharmaceuticals Ethylene + Hydrogen Ethane
explosives
... and much more. Reaction with Bromine
H H Br Br
One of the most important petrochemicals is + Br2
C C H C C H
Ethene (Ethylene) C2H4 H H H H
H H
Ethene is also known by its C C
common name, Ethylene. Ethylene + Bromine 1,2-dibromoethane
This is the name favoured in H H
the syllabus, so it will be used from here on.
Reaction with HCl
H Cl
Ethylene is the simplest of the Alkene homologous series. H H
You previously learnt about the Physical Properties of the C C + HCl H C C H
alkenes: H H H H
low m.p. & b.p.s. Due to non-polar bonding
insoluble in water. within, there are only weak Ethylene + Hydrogen Chloride Chloroethane
non-conductors Dispersion Forces between
of electricity. the molecules Reaction with Water
H OH
The only Chemical Property you know about so far is that H H
+ H2O H C C H
alkanes and alkenes will undergo combustion... they burn. C C
Now youll find out more... H H H H
Chemistry of Ethylene
The reason that ethylene is one of the most useful Ethylene + Water Ethanol
chemicals on the planet is all about that double C=C bond.
H H
These are just a few of the possible Addition Reactions
that can occur across the double bond
Y
C C X Ethylene C2H4
is the simplest, and most important
The double
H bond is highly H THIS IS CALLED AN of the Alkenes.
reactive ADDITION
REACTION It is one of the most important Petrochemicals
because of the variety of products

Y
that can be made from it.
It readily splits open
leaving a single C-C C
X
Its chemical versatility is due to the
bond, and creating 2
new bond positions for double C=C bond
other atoms/groups to
attach to the molecule
H C C H which is highly reactive
and allows many Addition Reactions
to occur.
H H
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Practical Work Before Shaking
Identifying Alkenes with Bromine
You may have done simple experiments to learn how an
alkene can be quickly and easily identified, and Hexene layer
differentiated from an alkane.

A water solution of bromine (Br2(aq)) has a brown colour.


Brown Bromine Water
If it is in contact with a liquid hydrocarbon, the water and layer
the hydrocarbon form separate layers... they are immiscible
liquids. Water, being denser, will always be at the bottom.
After Shaking
Bromine is actually more soluble in a hydrocarbon, so
when shaken, it will switch to the top hydrocarbon layer,
and changes colour from brown to purple. Clear Hexene layer

In an alkane (hexane is often used) the colour will change


and switch layers, but it will remain coloured because no Clear water layer
reaction occurs.
The bromine is
discoloured by any
In an alkene (e.g. hexene) the bromine totally loses all
alkene.
colour because an addition reaction occurs.
The Reaction of Bromine with Hexene

H H H H H Br Br H H H H
C C C C C C H + Br2 H C C C C C C H
H H H H H H H H H H H
H
Hexene Bromine 1,2-dibromohexane

The Industrial Source of Ethylene


Crude petroleum contains very little ethylene. When the If you add up all the atoms
fractions are separated by Fractional Distillation, there is in these 3 product H H
a large fraction of low-value alkanes with 15 or more molecules, youll see that C C
carbon atoms. the total is the same
H H
e.g. pentadecane C15H32
Ethylene, C2H4
H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H
H C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C H Cracking
H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H
H
These large molecules are broken into smaller molecules by
C C C C C H
a process called Cracking, which can be done by simply
H
heating (Thermal Cracking) or by the use of a Zeolite H H H H
catalyst... Cat Cracking.
Octane, C8H18 Pentene, C5H10

When the molecule is broken into fragments, some pieces


H H H H H H H H
form as alkanes, but others must form as alkenes, because
there are no extra atoms to occupy the bond positions that H C C C C C C C C H
are created.
H H H H H H H H
Once cracked, the mixture is fed back into the Fractional
Distillation process. Many of the smaller molecules end up Ethylene
in the valuable petrol or diesel fractions. is obtained from the
Cracking
Any ethylene formed is recovered from the gas fraction. of long-chain petroleum fractions

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Polymers Industrial Production of Polyethylene
One general category of chemicals are known as More Polyethylene is manufactured than all other plastics
Polymers. All polymers are large molecules made by put together... it is one of the most used materials in our
joining together many small molecules, called monomers. world. There are basically 2 different production methods,
(poly = many, mono = one, mer = unit) which produce 2 different forms of polyethylene.

Many of the important molecules in living cells are Low Density Polyethylene
polymers, for example: If the monomer ethylene is treated with
high pressure (over 1,000 atmospheres)
starch is a polymer of many glucose molecules. high temperature (300oC)
proteins are polymers of amino acids. an initiator chemical
DNA is a polymer of nucleotides, sugar and phosphate. addition polymerization occurs, with about 2,000
monomers joining to form each super-molecule of
Many common, widely used substances are manufactured polymer. In this case, the initiator chemical also causes the
polymers, including all the different plastics and synthetic polymer molecules to have side-branches.
fibres such as nylon.
These molecules cannot pack
Ethylene is the starting chemical (feedstock) in the together closely, so the plastic
manufacture of many polymers. is low-density, highly
flexible, soft and clear...
Addition Polymerization of Ethylene
Not only can ethylene carry out addition reactions with
bromine, water, etc., but many ethylene molecules can react
with each other.

You may have used molecular models to help visualize the


process. C l i n g - Wr a p F i l m
& Plastic Ba g s.
High Density Polyethylene
is manufactured
at lower pressure (2-3 atmospheres)
CH2=CH2 CH2=CH2 CH2=CH2 at lower temperature (about 60oC)
with a complex catalyst

This time there are no side-branches. The long polymer


molecules can pack together forming a higher-density,
harder plastic used for toys, plastic utensils, and the tough,
crinkly carry bags from shops.

Condensed Structural Formula (-C


CH2-C
CH2-))n

The result is that the ethylene monomers join together by


addition reactions across the double bond. This is an
Addition Polymerization process and results in a
polymer called Polyethylene, also known by the trade
name Polythene As with all materials, the uses of these plastics is closely
linked to the properties they have, and their properties are
Addition Polymerization is an controlled by their chemical and molecular structure and
Addition Reaction across a double C=C bond bonding.
which joins monomers to make a polymer.
This idea is taken further on the next page.
Polymers can be named by adding poly-
as a prefix to the monomer name.

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Other Important Addition Polymers Systematic Common Polymer
The compound chloroethene is an ethylene molecule with Name of Name of Name(s)
Monomer Monomer
one hydrogen atom replaced by a chlorine.

H H ethene ethylene Polyethylene


Chloroethene
Polyethene
C C is also known by its
Polythene
H Cl common name
vinyl chloride
chloroethene vinyl chloride P.V.C.
polyvinylchloride
Since this molecule contains a double bond, it can undergo
polychloroethene
addition polymerization to form Poly Vinyl Chloride or
P.V.C.
ethenylbenzene styrene polystyrene
(-CH2-CHCl-)n
polyethenylbenzene

H H H H H H H H Uses, Properties & Structure


C C C C C C C C The molecular structure and bonding of each plastic
determines its properties, and the properties determine
H H Cl H
Cl H Cl Cl what uses the material is best suited for.

To keep it simple (K.I.S.S. Principle) consider just the 3


If one of the hydrogen atoms of an ethylene molecule is
plastics above, and consider just their hardness and rigidity.
replaced by the ring-shaped benzene group, the
compound has the technical name ethenylbenzene, but is
In low-density polyethylene, the molecules are long, non-
commonly known as styrene.
polar, branched chains (diagram previous page). Being non-
polar (so only weak dispersion forces operate) and unable
This is commonly to get close together, each molecule can bend and twist
H H abbreviated as easily.
C C
H H H So, the plastic is soft and very flexible. It is perfect for cling-
C C wrap film, sandwich bags and as the plastic lining in milk or
C H juice cartons.
H H
C C
Bonding
C C Benzene ring & Properties Uses
H C H Structure
H
If this undergoes addition polymerization, the polymer is
In P.V.C., the chlorine atoms more than double the mass of
polystyrene, so familiar in insulation, hot-drink cups,
each molecule. Since dispersion forces increase with
bean-bag filling, etc.
molecular weight, it means that the polymer molecules
attract each other more strongly. Each molecule is held in
Polystyrene (-CH2-CH(C6H5)-)n
place more, so the entire substance is harder and less
flexible.
H H H H H H H H H H
P.V.C. is a tougher, more rigid plastic. This makes it ideal for
C C C C C C C C C C drainage pipes, guttering and electrical conduit pipes.
H H H H H
In polystyrene, the compact benzene side group is almost
twice the mass of a chlorine atom, so the molecules are
even heavier and dispersion forces stronger. Polystyrene is
a hard, tough, rigid plastic, often used for making handles
The Syllabus Requires
for cookware and hand-tools such as hammers or chisels.
that you know both the
Systematic and Common Names Note that the more familiar use of polystyrene is in light-
for these important monomers weight foam-plastic for insulation, hot-cups and
packaging. In this form it has been injected with gas to
A summary follows make very light, fluffy granules. The plastic itself is hard
and rigid.

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Condensation Polymers When the Petrochemicals Run Out
There is another way that polymers can form. Petroleum is a non-renewable, fossil fuel. The estimates are that
For example; it will last only about 30 years at current usage rates. When
the monomer 6-aminohexanoic acid has the structure supplies begin to run short, (this may already be happening) we
NH2 will not only face a shortage of fuel, but of vital chemicals for
amino H H H H O-H
H our manufacturing industries.
H
group
H N C C C C C C COOH Ethylene is an example of a critical petrochemical. It is one
acid
H H H H H H O group
of the raw feedstock chemicals for making plastics,
fibres and fabrics, medicines, dyes and pigments for ink and
paint, cosmetics, detergents, and much more.
O-H
H
This can be abbreviated as Eventually, and maybe sooner than we realize, we will need
H N (CH2)5 C
to find new raw material resources to replace the dwindling
H O oil supplies. It makes sense that the new sources are
renewable and sustainable, so that we can manufacture
the things we need far into the future.
Two of these molecules can join together as follows
These atoms form O-H
H For renewable and sustainable, we must use living things
water, H2O and their products...
H N (CH2)5 C
Cellulose
O-H
H H O You may be aware that all plant cells are surrounded by a
H N (CH2)5 C and the molecules join
rigid cell wall which supports, protects and strengthens
together at the vacant
plant tissue. The plant cell wall is made of cellulose.
H O
bond positions
The result is:
O-H
H
H N (CH2)5 C H
+ O-H
H
H N (CH2)5 C O
H O

Since a molecule of water is formed each time 2 monomers


combine, this reaction is called Condensation. Each
molecule can join to another at each end, so many Cellulose is a condensation polymer. The monomer is
monomers can join in long chains... a polymer is formed. glucose, the sugar made by plants during photosynthesis.

The example above results in the polymer we call Nylon, When glucose molecules join together, each pair eliminates
widely used in fabrics and clothing. a water molecule... a condensation reaction. To make
cellulose, thousands of glucose molecules join into
interlocking chains.
Condensation Polymers
are formed when monomer molecules
join together
by eliminating a molecule of
WATER

As well as nylon, other common condensation


polymers are polyester (fabrics) and P.E.T. (drink bottles).
You are familiar with cellulose... it is the fibrous stuff of
ALL BIOLOGICAL POLYMERS, such as proteins cotton and linen. We make enormous use of it as paper. We
and starch, ARE CONDENSATION POLYMERS. also waste a lot of it in the plant husks, leaves, stalks and
stubble left over from our crop growing and timber
industries. Could it be better used?
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Cellulose as a Future Raw Material Biopolymers
The glucose molecule CAN be used to replace many The word Biopolymer refers to those naturally occurring
petrochemicals. polymers made by living things, such as starch and
cellulose. Humans have always used these polymers (e.g.
Simple, existing technology allows: using cotton for clothing) and for nearly 100 years have
been using chemically modified versions of them. For
example, rayon is a synthetic fibre made from modified
Glucose cellulose.

Research has been going on for many years on ways to get


Fermentation living things to make polymers with properties more like
will be studied in the next section those of the useful petrochemical-based plastics.

A lot of the research has centred around the polymer


Ethanol Can be used as a fuel polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) which has properties not
too different from polyethylene. It was discovered 80 years
Chemical ago that PHB can be made by bacteria, such as the species
Processing Bacillus magaterium.

In recent years, the Monsanto company has used Genetic


Ethylene Engineering (G.E.) to transfer the genes for PHB
Feedstock for production into corn plants. The crop is grown, harvested
Plastics & other and eaten as usual, but then the stalks and leaves are
manufacturing harvested for their PHB content, which is as high as 20%
of the dry weight.
Unfortunately, we have not yet developed a simple,
efficient and economical way to break the cellulose
polymer down into molecules of glucose.

We can make ethanol and ethylene on a large scale from


starch or sugar, but real sustainability will come by being
able to use the cellulose in all the waste plant matter.

Photo by Luis Rock


Analysis
PHB has properties which make it suitable to replace
some plastics for packaging, but it tends to be brittle, and
extra breakages must be accepted.
PHB has the major advantage of being biodegradable, but
this also limits its range of uses, since it can rot and
disintegrate during use.
There is resistance from farmers and consumers regarding
the use of G.E. plants.
The production of PHB is not yet as cheap as using
petrochemical plastics.

Photo by Maciej Ciupa Conclusion: PHB grown in corn has potential, but is
unlikely to become widely used yet.

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Worksheet 1 Other important polymers are:


P.V.C. which stands for y).......................................................
Fill in the Blank Spaces The monomer is commonly called z).......................................,
but its correct chemical name is aa)...........................................
When petroleum is refined the main products are The added chlorine atom makes the molecular mass much
a)................................, but there are also other chemicals higher, so that the ab).......................................... forces
extracted for use in manufacturing. These chemicals are between molecules are stronger. The plastic is
collectively called b)............................................................ ac)............................... and more ad)............................... so it is
and the most important is c).................................................. used for ae)....................................................................................

The reason for ethylenes great usefulness is the d)................. Polystyrene is made from the monomer af)..........................
carbon-carbon bond. This bond is highly e)........................... for which the correct systematic name is ag)...........................
and readily splits open allowing other atoms/groups to .................................. The side group on this molecule is
join onto the molecule. This is called an f)............................... the ring-shaped ah)................................... group. This
Reaction. increases the molecular mass so that the ai).............................
forces hold the polymer molecules even more strongly so
In the laboratory, compounds containing a double bond the plastic is aj)....................................... and ..............................
can be identified using a solution of g)...................................
If this is added to an alkene, the g)................................... will Polymers can also form by a ak)........................................
be h)............................................. because of an addition reaction. This occurs when 2 monomer molecules join
reaction. With an alkane, the colour may change and shift together by elimination of a al)..................................................
from one solvent to the other, but will not be h).................... Examples of condensation polymers are nylon,
am)........................................ and .................................... All
The yield of Ethylene from petroleum is greatly increased biological polymers, such as an)..................................... and
by the process of i)............................................ in which ............................................... are condensation polymers.
long-chain alkanes are broken into smaller fragments by
either j).................................. or ........................................ This One important biological polymer is ao).................................
increases the yield of valuable fuel fractions such as which is a polymer of ap)................................. and is found
k)....................................... and increases the yield of ethylene in large amounts in all plants, where it forms the cell
which is extracted from the l).......................... fraction. aq)................................ which strengthens and protects all
plant tissues. We already use cellulose for fabrics such as
The major use of ethylene is the manufacture of ar)................................... and ................................. and process
m)............................................... Thousands of ethylene it to make as)....................................... When the petroleum
monomers join together by n).................................. reactions supplies run out, cellulose has great potential to supply our
to form o)........................................................... If the reaction needs.
is carried out at high p).......................... and .............................
with an initiator chemical, the result is q)...................- Its monomer at)............................... can easily be turned into
density polyethylene. The long chain molecules have many the alcohol au).................................... which can be used as a
r).......................................... and cannot pack close together, fuel, or chemically converted to av).........................................
so the plastic is soft and s)........................................, ideal for to feed the plastics industry. Unfortunately, we have not yet
soft plastic bags and t)............................................... film. developed a simple, efficient and economical way to
convert cellulose to aw)................................... to begin the
If the reaction is carried out at lower pressure and process.
temperature with a u)................................................., the
polymer molecules lack branches and can v)........................... Research is also progressing in the use of engineered
................................... to form w)......................-density Biopolymers such as ax)...................... (abbreviation). This
polyethylene, used (for example) in crinckly x).................... polymer has properties similar to some petrochemical
.................................. from shops. plastics, but is made naturally by microbes such as the
bacterium ay)........................ ................................ (scientific
name). The Monsanto company has used az)..........................
................................ techniques to transfer the genes for
PHB into ba)................................. plants. After normal
growth and harvesting, PHB can be extracted from the
WHEN COMPLETED, WORKSHEETS waste leaves and stems of the crop.
BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES
Although this is very promising, it is unlikely to be used on
a large scale while cheaper petrochemicals are still available.

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2. ALTERNATIVE FUELS - ETHANOL & THE ALKANOLS

The Alkanols (Alcohols) Properties of the Alkanols


You should recall that the Alkanes and Alkenes are 2 What a difference that oxygen atom makes!
Homologous Series of compounds. In each series, the
compounds follow a pattern of having the same basic Non-PPolar Polar Covalent Bond
structure, and are able to be described by a general Covalent
Bonds creates
molecular formula. electric
- + charge
Series General Structure Formula dipole

Alkanes all single C-C bonds CnH2n+2


Ethanol
Alkenes one C=C double bond CnH2n

Now you are introduced to another important


Homologous Series... the Alkanols, also known as The polar covalent bond in the -OH group creates a charge
Alcohols. dipole, and strong hydrogen bonding exists between the
molecules.
The alkanols contain all C-C single bonds, but on one of
the carbon atoms there is an -OH group... an oxygen atom This results in:
and hydrogen atom. mps and b.ps being much higher than the corresponding
alkanes. The first 8 alkanols are all liquids at room
temperature.
To name any ALKANOL
add -ANOL to the appropriate prefix.
smaller alkanols are soluble and fully miscible in water,
General Formula CnH2n+1OH
because they can form hydrogen bonds with water
molecules. The larger ones become less soluble as the non-
O-H
H
Methanol CH3OH polar hydrocarbon chain grows longer.
(Formula could be written CH4O, H C H
but it is usual to emphasize the alkanols (especially ethanol) are excellent solvents,
the -OH group) H able to dissolve many water-soluble (polar) solutes, but also
able to dissolve many non-polar substances which do not
Ethanol C2H5OH H O-H
H dissolve well in water. This is why ethanol is widely used in
H C C H industry to dissolve reagents, pharmaceuticals and food
This is by far, the most important chemicals. Around the home methylated spirit is used as
member of the series. H H a cleaning agent... it dissolves things well.

(Methylated Spirit, or metho is about 95% ethanol with


Condensed Structural water and small amounts of additives to make it distasteful
Formula
to discourage anyone from drinking it)
CH3CH2OH
alkanols are inflammable, and can be used as fuels,
although their energy content is not as high as the
corresponding alkanes.
H H O-H
H
Propanol C3H7OH H C C C H Ethanol is, of course, the alcohol in beer, wine and spirits.
These are made by the process of fermentation carried
CH3CH2CH2OH H H H out by living microbes, especially yeast, which is a single-
celled fungus organism.
and then...
Butanol C4H9OH CH3(CH2)2CH2OH You should be aware that, despite our societys acceptance
Pentanol C5H11OH CH3(CH2)3CH2OH of the consumption of alcohol as a social drug, all the
Hexanol C6H13OH CH3(CH2)4CH2OH alcohols are toxic. Our bodies can tolerate ethanol in small
Heptanol C7H15OH CH3(CH2)5CH2OH doses, but others such as methanol or propanol, are quite
Octanol C8H17OH CH3(CH2)6CH2OH deadly.

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Ethylene to Ethanol Fermentation of Sugar to Ethanol
Ethylene can readily be converted to ethanol by an The fermentation process is the oldest known chemical
Addition Reaction across the double bond. You may have process used by humans. We dont really know when it was
used molecular model kits to help visualize this reaction. discovered by ancient peoples, but the brewing of beer and
wine was practiced by all the early civilizations of the
Middle East, Europe and Asia.
The reaction is facilitated by dilute sulfuric acid, which acts
as a catalyst.
dilute H2SO4 catalyst The overall chemical reaction is very simple:
CH2=CH2 + H2O CH3-CH2-OH Glucose Ethanol + Carbon dioxide
yeast

C6H12O6(aq) 2 C2H5OH(aq) + 2 CO2(g)


+
It looks simple enough, but the actual chemistry is very
complicated, involving many separate steps, each catalysed
by a different enzyme produced by the living yeast cells.
Ethanol to Ethylene
However, you dont need to know all those details, and just
The reverse reaction is also possible:
like any maker of home-brew beer soon finds out, it really
conc. H2SO4 catalyst is simple as long as you provide certain conditions. For
fermentation to work there must be:
CH3-CH2-OH CH2=CH2 + H2O
a suitable carbohydrate source. This can be sugar from
Once again a catalyst is need to make the reaction run at a fruit, starch from wheat, corn, potatoes, etc. (Note that the
practical rate for an industrial process. The same catalyst, yeast is able to digest starch and other carbohydrates to
sulfuric acid, is used but in concentrated (not dilute) form. glucose, so it is not necessary to actually start with glucose.)
live yeast.
o
Since water is produced as a product, it is reasonable to a temperature kept fairly constant around 22-25 C.
anaerobic conditions (i.e. no oxygen available). If oxygen
describe the reaction as a Condensation, but it is also
is available, the yeast will produce only CO2 and H2O, but
known as a Dehydration, meaning to take water from. no alcohol.
The significance of this reaction is that ethanol can be
made from plant materials, by processes that are renewable Practical Work Fermentation
and sustainable. Making ethylene from ethanol would result You may have carried out an experiment with fermentation
in a major chemical resource being available without the which is essentially a little home-brew exercise.
use of petrochemicals.
The photo shows a typical laboratory set-up.
Model of Ethanol Dehydration Any gas produced
Sealed flask bubbles through a
Ethylene Water contains beaker of limewater
sugar &
+ yeast.

Ethanol Temp. kept


at about
Fractional Distillation 25oC
of Your Home-Brew
You may have weighed the flask before, and after, several
Heat gently and monitor the vapour temp.o
Collect the fraction produced at about 80 C. days of fermentation. It will have lost mass due to the loss
of gas.
To test your distillate: pour into a watch glass
and ignite carefully in a darkened room or You would also observe bubbling in the flask over several
fume-cupboard. If it burns with a blue flame, days, and the limewater would rapidly go milky proving
your distillate is 80-90% ethanol.
that the gas produced is CO2.

When the bubbling subsides, the contents of the flask may


have the yeasty, alcohol smell of beer.

You may have even distilled your brew to collect ethanol, as


described at left.

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Getting Pure Ethanol Combustion of the Alkanols
Even under ideal conditions the fermentation of sugar to Ethanol has been mentioned as a possible fuel, so what is
ethanol by yeast can only produce a brew with about the chemistry of the combustion?
15% ethanol. At about this level, the yeast is killed by the
alcohol, and no further fermentation takes place. Basically it is the same as combustion of the alkanes:

To get close to pure ethanol, the fermented liquor must be alkanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water
distilled. In the making of brandy, whiskey, rum, etc, the
spirit is usually around 40% ethanol. Example: Combustion of Ethanol

Fractional distillation will yield a distillate which is about C2H5OH(g) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(g)
95% ethanol, which is quite suitable as a fuel.
The only tricky part is balancing... be careful balancing the
The Industrial Process Today oxygen atoms, noting that there is already 1 oxygen atom
Due to the cheap availability of petrochemicals, most of on the left side in the alkanol molecule.
the ethanol used as an industrial solvent or for cleaning
(i.e. non-drinking purposes) is made from ethene by the Try the worksheet at the end of this section
addition reaction with water, and NOT from the
fermentation of sugar. Heat of Combustion of a Fuel
How much energy is actually released when a fuel burns?
The only industrial-scale use of fermentation to make
high-purity ethanol is in the sugar industry. A major waste All combustion reactions are exothermic, so the energy
product from sugar refining is molasses which contains a profile is
large amount of sugar. Rather than waste it, molasses is
used as the sugar source for yeast fermentation, and the Ea = Activation
fermented liquor is distilled for the ethanol. Ea Energy
Reactants
In Australia, the sugar industry is based in Queensland, and
Energy Content

this is where the sugar-to-ethanol production takes place. H negative


Apart from producing the famous Bundy rum, the
ethanol produced is used for:
Products
manufacture of vinegar.
extending petrol by adding 10% ethanol. (more later)
industrial and pharmaceutical solvent.
domestic cleaner, in the form of metho. Although technically the value for H is a negative quantity,
for Heat of Combustion the value is usually written as a
positive quantity because the formal definition is:

The Molar Heat of Combustion is the heat given out


when 1 mole of a fuel is burned completely, with all
reactants and products in their standard states at SLC.

Notes:
1. Since the definition is the heat given out, it follows that the
value is expressed as a positive quantity. You must remember that
combustion is exothermic, and technically it has a negative value,
for example when using an equation such as H = -mCT.
2. You learned previously that fuels generally burn only after being
vaporized, and that the water forms in the gas state, as shown in
the equation above. However, the definition demands that all
substances are in their standard states at SLC, so both ethanol
and water must be in the liquid state.

Read the So, the Molar Heat of Combustion ( Hc) of ethanol would be
labels the (positive) quantity of heat released when 1 mole of ethanol
(=46.1g) burns as follows: (note the states)

C2H5OH(l) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l)

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Prac Work Comparing Hc of Fuels
Measuring Hc of Alkanols The syllabus requires that you measure and compare the
You may have carried out experiments to measure and Heat of Combustion for at least 3 different alkanols, on a
calculate values for the Heat of Combustion of several per gram, and per mole basis.
alkanol fuels. A typical school experimental set-up is shown:
Hopefully youve done exactly that. To help you understand
the figures, here is a summary of typical results. For
Thermometer measures temp. comparison purposes, values for an alkane fuel (octane is a
change in water. typical component of petrol) are included.

Metal can holds a measured Heat of Combustion Values


quantity of water. It acts as a Fuel School Experiment Text
calorimeter, absorbing heat kJ/gram kJmol-1 kJ/gram kJmol-1
released by the fuel. Methanol 10 350 22.7 726

Spirit burner burns an Ethanol 11 630 29.7 1367


alkanol fuel using a wick.
Burner is weighed before and Propanol 12 720 33.6 2021
after to measure the mass of
fuel used. Butanol 14 1040 36.1 2676

Typical results using Ethanol: Octane - - 47.9 5470

Mass of ethanol burnt = 0.80g Although the values that are typically obtained in a simple
school experiment are well below the accepted text
Mass of water in metal can = 100g values, the trends are the same: the Heat of combustion
of the alkanols increases steadily (on both per gram and per
Starting temperature of water = 16oC mole basis) with increasing molecule size.
Final temperature of water = 42oC
T = 26oC It is notable also, that ethanols Hc is much lower than the
typical value for the compounds found in petrol. This
Analysis of Results: means that ethanol, a candidate to replace petroleum fuels,
Heat absorbed by water in the calorimeter: is a much lower-energy fuel.
H = -mC T (C = Specific Heat Capacity of
= - 100 x 4.18 x 26 water = 4.18 J/oC/g) Ethanol as a Renewable Fuel
= - 10,868 J The use of ethanol as a fuel to eventually replace petrol, as
11 kJ of heat released. the petroleum supplies run out, has been proposed
This is the heat released for 0.80g of ethanol burnt. because:

Heat of Combustion per gram = 11/0.80 = 13.75 kJ/g the technology to make ethanol from the fermentation of
sugar (followed by distillation) is a well known and proven
MM(ethanol) = 46.1g process... we know it can be done.
-1
Molar Heat of Combustion = 13.75 x 46.1 630 kJmol . sugar for ethanol production can be harvested from
plants, so it is a renewable, and sustainable energy source.
Discussion:
The text book value of Hc (ethanol) = 1367 kJmol-1. when ethanol from plants is burnt, the carbon dioxide
Typically, in a school experiment, values of only about half, or released is exactly the same amount that was absorbed by
less, are obtained. Why?
the plants during photosynthesis to make the sugar.
Therefore, the use of plant-derived ethanol does not
The analysis of results assumes that all the heat released by the
burning fuel is absorbed by the water in the calorimeter can. contribute to the Greenhouse Effect.
However, this calorimeter is very primitive and inefficient. A lot
of (most of ?) the heat of the fuel can escape into the There is no doubt that ethanol can be considered as a
surroundings, and therefore does not get measured. renewable fuel.

The set-up can be improved by using a larger can, wind baffles, However, thats not the whole story...
insulation, etc., but will always give results well below text
values.

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Using Ethanol as an Alternative to Petrol Advantages & Disadvantages
Ethanol can be added to petrol in mixtures up to about 10- of Ethanol Fuel
20% and burnt in car engines without any modifications Some of the Advantages have already been discussed:
needed, and with only a slight loss of engine performance.
Ethanol is a renewable fuel, when made from sugar.
This use of ethanol as an extender, to conserve petrol
and help reduce Greenhouse emissions has been around The technology is already known and proven.
for years on a small scale. Following the fuel price crisis of
2005, the Australian Government has proposed making it It is Greenhouse-friendly.
happen on a very large scale.
It can be mixed with petrol up to about 20% and used
As long as the ethanol is being made from the wastes of without any modifications to existing engines.
the sugar industry, and used only at about the 10-20% level
with petrol, this strategy seems both economical and This, however, is only part of the story...
scientifically sound.
Disadvantages and Difficulties
To run vehicles on pure ethanol fuel however, requires a To totally replace petrol with ethanol, the use of sugar
total new engine design to allow for the fact that ethanol industry wastes would be nowhere near enough. Huge
tends to be corrosive, has a different energy content, tracts of land would have to be dedicated to growing sugar
ignition temperature and burn characteristics. cane (or other crops) to supply the ethanol industry. The
attempt by Brazil to do exactly this in the 1980s was an
economic failure, and disrupted a lot of their food
production farming to make way for ethanol farming.

The current technology for ethanol production requires


massive amounts of energy for the distillation process.
Currently, fossil fuels are used for the heating, and so the
process is not as renewable nor Greenhouse-friendly as
first thought.

As mentioned at left, entirely new engines are needed to


run on pure ethanol. The cost of the change-over, to both
manufacturers and car-owners is too high to be feasible.

Assessment
Weighing up advantages and disadvantages, the following
conclusions seem realistic:

The use of about 10-20% ethanol (derived from sugar


The cost of setting up factories to make a totally new industry wastes) to extend petrol seems likely to continue
engine design is such that it is very unlikely that ethanol will and even become more widespread.
be used as any more than a 20% fuel-extender anytime
soon. The use of pure plant-derived ethanol fuel seems very
unlikely until one or both of these technologies develops;

Sugar Cane Harvesting - efficient production of glucose from cellulose,


derived from crop wastes, so that no crops have
to be grown just for ethanol production.

- renewable energy sources (e.g. solar power) to


operate the distillation process for ethanol.

Photo Robert Lincolne 2006


Used with permission

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Worksheet 2 Although the reaction is always ak)..............-thermic and


should have a al)............................. value for H, the value is
Part A Fill in the Blank Spaces stated as a am).................................... quantity because of the
definition.
The Alkanols are an a)....................................... series of
carbon compounds with general formula b).......................... Generally, the values for Hc for the alkanols
They are also known as the c)................................ Each an)................................ with increasing molecular size, but
alkanol has an d)................... group attached to one of the are much lower than the values for an ao)...............................
carbon atoms. This group contains a e)................................
covalent bond which creates an electric f)............................ The advantages of using ethanol as a fuel are
on the molecule. This causes quite strong g).......................... it is a ap).......................................... resource
bonds between the molecules, which result in the following the aq)................................................ is known & proven
properties: it is ar)......................................-friendly
it can be mixed with petrol to about as)..............% without
m.p.s & b.p.s are much h)..................................... than the any modifications to existing car engines.
corresponding alkanes.
alkanols are generally i)............................... in water. Disadvantages include:
they are excellent j).............................., because they can to totally replace petrol, vast areas of land would have to
dissolve both k)............................... and ................................... be at)..............................................................................................
(opposites) solutes. large amounts of energy are needed for the au)..................
they are inflammable, and can be used as l)......................., ...................................... process, and we cannot yet do this in
although their m).................................................. is lower than a renewable and eco-friendly way.
the alkanes. vehicle av).............................. would have to be totally re-
designed and replaced to run on pure ethanol.
Ethylene can be converted to ethanol by an n)........................
reaction, adding o).............................. across the double Part B Practice Problems
bond. Dilute p)................................................... acts as a
catalyst for this reaction. The reverse reaction, converting 1. Combustion Equations for Alkanols
q)...................................... to ........................................ is also Write a balance equation for the complete combustion of
possible if r).................................. H2SO4 is the catalyst. This a) methanol b) propanol
reaction could be considered as a condensation, but is c) hexanol d) octanol
usually referred to as s)..........................................
2. Heat of Combustion Problems
Biologically, ethanol can be made from t)............................... a) In an experiment, 1.4g of butanol was burnt and the heat
by the process of u)............................................ The catalysts collected by a metal can containing 200g of water. The
are the v)..................................... in living w).............................. water temperature rose by 23oC.
cells. The requirements for the reaction are: i) Write a balanced equation for the combustion,
a suitable source of x).................................... from fruits or showing all chemicals in their standard states.
grains. ii) Calculate the value of Hc per gram & per mole.
live y)............................
at temperature maintained around z)..................oC b) In a similar experiment using pentanol, 0.50g of fuel was
aa)............................................ conditions (no oxygen). burnt, which raised the temperature of 150g of water from
18 to 30oC.
Fermentation can produce a mixture containing a i) Write a balanced equation for the combustion
maximum ab)..................% ethanol. This can be purified by showing all chemicals in their standard states.
ac).................................................................... to obtain about ii) Calculate the value of Hc per gram & per mole
ad)...................% purity. Industrial scale fermentation (apart
from beer & wine production) uses wastes from the c) The accepted value for Hc(ethanol) = 1367 kJmol-1.
ae)........................................ industry, and then fractional If 2.80g of ethanol was burnt in a perfect calorimeter
af)..................................... to obtain near-pure ethanol for containing 500g of water, by how much would the
manufacturing ag).................................... (food use) or for temperature of the water rise?
solvent and cleaning purposes.
d) The accepted value for Hc(pentanol) = 3330 kJmol-1.
When alkanols burn, the products of complete combustion If 0.50g of pentanol was burnt in a perfect calorimeter
are ah)............................................. and .................................. containing 150g of water, by how much would the
The Molar Heat of Combustion is defined as ai).............. temperature of the water rise?
........................................................................................................ Compare your answer to the data in Q(b) and comment.
with all reactant & products in their aj)...................................

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3. REDOX CHEMISTRY & BATTERIES

Displacement of Metals From Solution The reaction is


And now for something completely different, we go back to
some Chemistry you learned in Preliminary topic 2 copper(II) + zinc zinc + copper
Metals. Remember the Activity Series of the Metals? sulfate sulfate

CuSO4(aq) + Zn(s) ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)


Most K React readily with
Active oxygen This is a Metal Displacement. It will occur whenever a
Na water metal is placed into a solution containing ions of a less-
acid active metal. The reverse will not react.
Li
Transfer of Electrons
Ba The equation above can be re-written in ionic form:
Ca Cu2+(aq)+SO4
2-
Zn2+(aq)+ SO4
2-
(aq)+Zn(s) (aq)+Cu(s)

Mg Look carefully and you will see that the sulfate ions
Decreasing reactivity

2-
(SO4 ) have not changed at all... they are spectators and
Al can be left out, to form the net ionic equation:
Zn Cu2+(aq) + Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s)
Fe Now you can see what really happened; copper ions turned
into copper atoms, and zinc atoms turned into zinc ions.
Sn This can only happen if:
Pb each copper ion gains 2 electrons
Cu Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s)
Ag No reaction, Electrons
and each zinc atom loses 2 electrons transferred
Least or very slow
Active Au Zn(s) Zn2+(aq)+ 2e-

One of the best hands-on ways to see the Activity Series This is one of the most common and important
in action is to place a piece of metal into a solution general types of chemical reaction; when electrons are
containing the ions of a less-active metal. This experiment transferred from one chemical species to another.
is not actually specified by the syllabus, but hopefully you
have seen what happens. Loss of Electrons = OXIDATION

Example: Gain of Electrons = REDUCTION


Drop a piece of zinc into copper(II)
sulfate solution. Reactions where this occurs are called
OXIDATION-REDUCTION
A reaction occurs which slowly or simply
eats away the zinc, and a solid
deposit forms at the bottom. Later, REDOX
the deposit is seen to be orange-
coloured... it is copper metal.

The zinc has dissolved, and Note that neither part can occur alone. To lose electrons,
displaced the copper ions from there must be another species to accept them, and to gain
solution. electrons, there must be another species to give them.

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REDOX and the Activity Series Galvanic Cells
Now the Activity Series of the metals can be seen in a new Just because Oxidation & Reduction must always occur
way. together doesnt mean that they must occur in the same
container.
Metals higher up the Activity Series have a greater
It was discovered about 200 years ago that the 2 processes
tendency to be oxidized (= lose electrons) and so their
can be separated to 2 different locations, so long as there is
atoms readily form ions by reacting with acids, oxygen, a conducting wire to allow the flow of electrons from the
water, or the ions of less active metals. site of oxidation to the site of reduction.

Metals lower down the Activity Series have a greater This forms a Galvanic Cell which is the basis of all our
tendency to be reduced (= gain electrons). Their atoms are electric cells and batteries.
less likely to react with acids or oxygen, and their ions are
more likely to be displaced from solution by more active Galvanic is
metals. named for one of
the pioneering
You should recall also, that less active metals are easier to scientists, the
Italian Luigi
extract from their ores, (or may even be found uncombined
Galvani who lived
in nature) while more active metals require more and more 200 years ago. At
energy to extract from their ores. Extracting any metal that time, electron
from its ore involves reducing the metals ions, so this idea transfer and REDOX chemistry was NOT understood.
links to that above.

Prac Work: Galvanic Cells What You May Have Discovered


You may have done several experiments to investigate the
construction of simple Galvanic Cells, and to measure the Conditions under which a Galvanic Cell works
voltage (potential difference) produced by different Half-cells must be connected by a wire to allow electron
combinations of metals. flow from one to the other.
Half-cells must be connected by a salt-bridge
A typical experimental set-up is shown. (explanation next page)
Electrodes must be 2 different metals.
Electrodes must dip into an
Connecting wires
allow electrons to electrolyte solution containing ions.
flow from one half-
cell to the other
Which Electrode is Which?
You will quickly find that if you connect
the voltmeter the wrong way around,
Voltmeter that the needle deflects backwards.

To make it read correctly, the more


active metal is always connected to the
negative connection.

This is because the more active metal


always oxidizes (loses electrons).
Therefore, electrons flow from the more
active metal.

Zinc electrode Copper electrode The Size of the Potential Difference


in solution of in solution of If you test various combinations of metals (but always use
zinc ions copper ions the same concentration of solutions) you will find that...

They must be connected by a s


salt bridge
for ion transfer
...the further apart the metals are in
the Activity Series, the higher the cell
Each beaker is a half-c
cell, containing a voltage (potential difference).
metal electrode dipping into a solution
of ions of the same metal.

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A Typical Galvanic Cell

Voltmeter

V Electrons always flow from ANODE


to CATHODE in the external circuit

ele
w
flo

ct
ro
on

n
tr

re

flo
ec

wi
el

w
in
Salt Bridge
Zn Cu
Typical Anode Reaction Typical Cathode Reaction

Metal Metal + electrons Metal + electrons Metal


atoms ions ions atoms

+ve
+ve

example example

ve
ve

-v
-v

Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) + 2e- Electrolyte Electrolyte Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s)


solution solution
The zinc electrode would dissolve, Solid copper deposits
as zinc ions go into solution e.g. e.g. onto the electrode
ZnCl2 CuSO4
solution solution

ANODE CATHODE
Half-c
cell where Half-c
cell where
OXIDATION REDUCTION
occurs occurs
If both electrodes are metals, If both electrodes are metals,
this will be the this will be the
more active metal less active metal

An Electrode
Definitions is a conductor placed in each
& half-ccell to pick up or
Things To Know... An Electrolyte release electrons.
is a substance which will
conduct electricity when Sometimes the electrode is
molten, or in solution. involved in the reaction; in
The Salt Bridge can be just a other cases it can be inert.
filter paper soaked in Generally, it refers to
electrolyte, or a tube of ionic solutions
electrolyte jelly, or even just
the electrolyte solution itself. Spectator Ions
It must allow diffusion of Be aware that there must be
ions from one half-c cell to the Each cell can be described by
other ions in the solutions as
other a short-h
hand. The cell above
well. For example, the
would be described by
Ions migrate through solutions shown contain Cl-
the Salt Bridge to keep and SO42- ions as well as the
the total charge in Zn|Zn2+ || Cu2+|Cu
metal ions. They take no
each half-c cell neutral part, except to migrate
anode salt cathode
through the Salt Bridge.
species bridge species

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Standard Electrode Potentials Using Electrochemical Data
The actual voltage reading you get when you set up an Consider the cell described previously, which contained
electrochemical cell depends on many factors: zinc and copper electrodes in solutions of matching ions.
V Short-H
Hand
the metals used at the electrodes (in particular, how far
e-
apart the 2 metals are in the Activity Series) Zn|Zn2+ || Cu2+|Cu
the concentration of electrolyte solutions
the temperature
Zn Cu
the gas pressure, if any gases are involved

Therefore, to make comparisons and predictions, it is


necessary to specify a set of standard conditions for
measuring the voltage of any cell.

The standard conditions are (predictably) Zn2+ Cu2+


-1
all solutions are 1.0 molL
temperature and gas pressure at SLC (25oC & 1 atmos)
The Half-Cell reactions, with Eo values are:
Under these conditions, each half-cell has a Standard Eo
Zn2+(aq) -
Electrode Potential when measured against a Reference Zn(s) + 2e +0.76 V
Half-Cell. The reference used is the reaction
Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s) +0.34 V
+ - o
2H (aq) + 2e H2(g) E = 0.0 V __________
Total Cell Voltage = +1.10 V
This half-cell has been assigned a Standard Electrode
Potential (Eo) of zero volts, and all other half-cells are This means that, under standard conditions, this cell will
measured from this. produce a voltage (technically, an Electromotive Force
(EMF), or Potential Difference) of 1.10 volts.
You may have been given a Chemistry Data Sheet
containing a list of standard electrode potentials. Here is a Notes:
shorter version for quick reference, which will be used 1. The zinc reaction was written as an oxidation, the reverse
throughout these notes and exercises. of the half-cell equation given in the table at left. Since the
equation was reversed, the sign of the Eo value was
o reversed also.
Some Standard Potentials E (V)
2. The total cell voltage is simply the sum of the half-cell
Ca2+ + 2e- Ca(s) -2.87 Eo values.

Mg2+ + 2e- Mg(s) -2.36 3. The overall equation for the reaction can be found by
simply adding together the 2 half-equations, being sure that
Zn2+ + 2e- Zn(s) -0.76 the same number of electrons are on each side and
therefore, cancel-out as follows:
Fe2+ + 2e- Fe(s) -0.44
Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq)+ 2e- Cu(s) + Zn2+(aq)+ 2e-
2H+ + 2e- H2(g) 0.00
Any 2 half-equations can be combined this way, but
2+ - sometimes it may be necessary to multiply one or both by
Cu + 2e Cu(s) +0.34 a factor so that the electrons will cancel.
I2(aq) + 2e- 2I-(aq) +0.62 Example:
-
Cl2(aq) + 2e 2Cl-(aq)
Fe3+ + e- Fe2+(s) +0.77 combined with
Fe2+ Fe3+(s) + e-
O2(g)+ 4H+(aq) + 4e- 2H2O(l) +1.23 You need to multiply everything in the 2nd equation x2
before combining them
Cl2(aq) + 2e- 2Cl-(aq) +1.36
Cl2(aq)+ 2e- + 2Fe2+ 2Fe3+(s)+ 2e- + 2Cl-(aq)
Notice that each half-equation is written as a reduction. If
However, when you do this, the Eo values
you need to write it backwards as an oxidation, then simply
o DO NOT CHANGE
reverse the sign of the E value.

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Using Electrochemical Data (continued) Oxidation States & Numbers
So, how do you know which half-equation to reverse and We use a simple number system to describe the oxidation
write as an oxidation? state of any chemical species.

Simple! neutral elements, in their normal state,


In all Galvanic Cells the sum of the Eo values must be a have oxidation number = zero
positive voltage. THE HALF-EQUATION HIGHER simple ions, oxidation number = charge on ion
UP THE STANDARD POTENTIALS TABLE
MUST ALWAYS BE REVERSED AND WRITTEN Examples: Species Oxidation number
AS AN OXIDATION. iron atom Fe(s) 0
V
Study this example: iron(II) ion Fe2+(aq) +2

Inert graphite iron(III) ion Fe3+(aq) +3


Cu
electrode
chloride ion Cl-(aq) -1
Note: this electrode is
not involved in the chlorine molecule Cl2(aq) or (g) 0
chemistry of the cell. I2(aq)
It simply serves as If, during a REDOX reaction the oxidation number of a
and
Cu2+
pick-up for electrons. I-(aq) species increases, then it has been OXIDIZED.

From the table, the half-cell reactions involved must be: If, during a REDOX reaction the oxidation number of a
Eo species decreases, then it has been REDUCED.
2+ -
Cu + 2e Cu(s) +0.34
and Examples of Half-Equations with Oxidation Numbers
I2(aq) + 2e- 2I-(aq) +0.62
Fe(s) Fe2+(aq)
The copper equation is higher up the Standard Potentials oxd no. 0 +2
table, so it must run in reverse as an oxidation. Dont forget Oxd number has increased, Oxidation has occurred.
to reverse the sign of the Eo value too.
2Cl-(aq) Cl2(g)
2+ -
Cu(s) Cu + 2e -0.34 oxd no. -1 0
Oxd number has increased, Oxidation has occurred.
Now combine the half-equations to form the overall
equation, and add the Eos to get the total cell EMF. Fe3+(aq) Fe2+(aq)
oxd no. +3 +2
I2(aq)+ 2e-+ Cu(s) Cu2++ 2e-+ 2I-(aq) +0.62 Oxd number has decreased, Reduction has occurred.
-0.34
Total Cell EMF = +0.28 V 2H+(aq) H2(g)
oxd no. +1 0
In the diagram above, the Copper half-cell is the ANODE Oxd number has decreased, Reduction has occurred.
(oxidation) and the Iodine half-cell is the CATHODE
(reduction). Electrons would flow from the copper Wherever an oxidation has occurred, electrons have been
electrode towards the graphite (carbon) electrode. lost. If you add electron(s) to the RIGHT side of the half-
equation, the charges will balance.
The Shorthand description for this cell is:
e.g. from above, Fe(s) Fe2+(aq) + 2e-
2+ - Inert electrode
Cu|Cu || I2|I (C)
in brackets
Notes For reductions, add electron(s) to the LEFT side.
1. There would also be spectator ions in each half-cell.
They have been totally ignored above. e.g. from above, 2H+(aq)+ 2e- H2(g)

2. Inert electrodes are used whenever a metal is not


involved in one of the half-reactions. Compressed graphite Try the WORKSHEET at the end of section
(carbon) is commonly used. Platinum (Pt) is the best, but
very expensive.

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More on Galvanic Cells (Optional) What if the Cell Voltage is Negative?
Galvanic Cells are those which run spontaneously, and Lets take the same cell that has previously been used as the
produce energy, in the form of electricity. example, and write both half-equations in reverse:
Eo
2+ -
This means that the reactions involved are Exothermic. Zn + 2e Zn(s) -0.76 V

Cu(s) Cu2+ + 2e- -0.34 V


Cell EMF = -1.10 V
Ea Ea = Activation
Reactants Energy
What does this mean?
For ions in solution
Energy Content

H in a galvanic cell,
the Ea is very low
The cell is NOT Galvanic. It will NOT run
spontaneously. Instead of producing electricity, you would
have to put electricity INTO the cell (minimum 1.10 Volts)
Energy is released Products to make these reactions run.
by the reaction
The overall reaction is Endothermic.

The size of H in the energy profile is related to the cell Ea = Activation


EMF (voltage) produced by a Galvanic Cell. Confusingly, Energy
for exothermic reactions H is defined to be negative,
Products
while the cell voltage must be positive. This is entirely due Ea Energy

Energy Content
to the definitions involved, and is not really a contradiction. must be put
H IN, to make
positive
this reaction
Battery
go.
Reactants

To make this cell, you could use exactly the same half-cells,
Cell
but instead of connecting a voltmeter in the circuit, you
would need to place an electrical source, such as a battery
or power pack to provide energy.

Electrical
source
(The difference is explained Electron flow
soon)
Zn Cu
All Dry Cells & Batteries

are Galvanic Cells...


...spontaneous, Exothermic, Endothermic Cells
with positive cell voltage like this are called
Zn2+ Cu2+ Electrolytic

Notice that all the half-equations in the Standard


Potentials table are shown with double arrows.
This is to indicate that each reaction is reversible, and can
run in either direction, depending on the energy situation.

The material on this page is NOT required


learning according to the Syllabus.
It has been included in the interests
of better understanding.

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Cells & Batteries Cost, Practicality and Impact on Society
Firstly, whats the difference? The standard dry cell is very cheap to produce, and can be
made in a variety of sizes so it is very practical as a power
A cell is an electrochemical unit with just one anode and source for flashlights, remote controls, portable radios,
one cathode. A battery is 2 or more cells linked together many toys, calculators, etc.
to provide more power. When you place 2 or more cells
into a flashlight you are making a battery. A car battery is For more power, multi-cell batteries (photo at left) can be
made of six cells connected together. Each cell provides 2 made to power larger flashlights or other devices.
volts, and the entire battery gives 12 volts.
In fact, the dry cell encouraged the development of all
In everyday usage, this is called a battery, these devices. Small portable electrical devices would never
but in fact it is a cell. have been invented if cells and batteries had not been
available to power them.

Environmental Impact
of this technology is minimal, since the chemicals involved
This battery really is a battery. do not cause any significant problems when disposed of
Inside are 4 connected cells, into landfill rubbish dumps.
each 1.5 volts.
The Silver Oxide Button Cell
The entire device gives 6 volts. There is a limit to how small you can make a standard dry
cell and still get a practical amount of electricity from it.

The development of really small electrical devices such as


hearing aids, digital watches and remote-locking devices for
cars, was made possible by the invention of the
The Ordinary Dry Cell (Leclanche Cell) Button Cell. Structure
The original cells and batteries were all wet cells, in that
they contained liquid solutions which had to be kept Zinc -v
ve
upright and tended to be large, messy and not easily (ANODE)
transported. A vital use was the Morse Code Telegraph. Insulating sealant

The first dry cell was invented by Leclanche in 1866, and KOH electrolyte paste
developed to commercial standard by Gassner in 1881. The
electrolyte solution is a thick paste, and the entire cell is +ve
Ag2O + water paste
sealed against spillage, and easily transported.
(CATHODE)
Structure of a Dry Cell Positive Terminal Stainless steel casing

+ve Insulating seal Chemistry


Oxidation at the Anode
Graphite rod (CATHODE) Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) + 2e-
Electrolyte paste containing
Reduction at the Cathode:
NH4Cl and MnO2 Ag2O + H2O + 2e- 2Ag + 2OH-
Zinc canister is the ANODE So, overall reaction is:
as well as the cell container
Ag2O+ H2O + 2e-+ Zn 2Ag + 2OH-+ Zn2++2e-
-v
ve Negative Terminal
Button Cells are relatively expensive, but last a long time
Chemistry of the Leclanche Cell in miniature, low-energy devices. Their tiny size and good
Oxidation at the Anode: performance are worth the expense.
Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) + 2e-
10c Silver
Reduction at the Cathode: Environmental Impact piece oxide
for scale Button
NH4 + MnO2 + H2O + e-
+
Mn(OH)3 + NH3 is low because these cells
contain so little material, Cells,
To get the overall cell reaction, you need to firstly multiply and the relatively inert and the
the cathode equation x2, so the electrons will cancel. stainless steel and silver devices
metal inside them is not a they
+
2NH4 + 2MnO2 + 2H2O +2 e- + Zn significant environmental power
2Mn(OH)3 + 2NH3 + Zn2+ + 2e- hazard.

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Worksheet 3 A Galvanic Cell is one which has a ah)....................... cell


EMF and will run ai)............................................. when
Part A Fill in the Blank Spaces connected. The chemical reaction is aj)................-thermic.

The a)....................................... Series of Metals contols The original ak)................... cell allowed the invention and
what happens when a metal reacts with the b).................... development of many small, portable, electrical devices.
al).......................................... cells have allowed even
of another metal in solution. If the metal is
further miniaturization.
c).......................................... the Series, it will
d)......................................... the lower-activity ion from the Part B Practice problems
solution. In this process, the atoms of the higher-activity
metal e)............................... electrons, and become ions in 1. Metal Displacement Reactions
the solution. The process of losing electrons is called For each combination below, firstly use the Activity Series
f).......................................... Meanwhile, the ions of the to decide whether or not a reaction would occur.
less-active metal g)............................. electrons and form If not, write no reaction. If so,
atoms, which form a solid precipitate. The process of write half-equations for the change occurring to each
gaining electrons is called h)................................................. species. Label each half-reaction as oxidn. or reduction
write a balanced, net ionic equation for the overall
reaction.
Neither process can occur alone; each can only happen
with the other, so the entire reaction is called a) Magnesium metal placed in a solution of Pb2+ ions.
i)..................................... - .......................................... or simply b) Lead metal placed in a solution of Mg2+ ions.
j)............................... c) Aluminium metal placed in a solution of Cu2+ ions.
d) Copper metal placed in a solution of Ag+ ions.
2+
Although oxidation and reduction must occur together, e) Iron metal placed in a solution of Ba ions.
they can be separated as long as k)..................................... can f) Calcium metal placed in a solution of Sn2+ ions.
flow from the site of l).......................................... to the site
of m)...................................... through a wire. This is the 2. Galvanic Cells
basis of all electrical n)...................................... and For each cell diagram or description, below:
................................................. i) Write half-equations for each half-cell. Label each as
Anode reaction or Cathode reaction
ii) Find the cell EMF under standard conditions.
A typical electric cell consists of 2 o)........................................ iii) Write an overall, balanced, net ionic equation for the cell
In one, called the p)....................................., oxidation occurs,
a)
while reduction occurs in the q)............................. half-cell. V
The 2 half-cells must be connected by a conducting circuit
so that r).......................... can flow from the s).........................
to the t)...................................... Half-cells must also be
connected by a u)....................... Bridge to allow v).............. Mg Cu
to diffuse between half-cells, so that the total w)....................
.................................. remains balanced.

The voltage (or x)............................) of a cell can be


determined from a table of y)..................................................
Potentials. Each half-reaction has been measured (under Mg2+ Cu2+
z)...................................... conditions) against a reference
half-cell. The reference used is the aa).................................. b) One half cell comprises an iron electrode in a solution
............................. half-reaction which has been given of Fe2+ ions. The other has a magnesium electrode in Mg2+
a value of ab).................... volts, and all other half-cells
measured against it. c) Ca|Ca2+ || Cu2+|Cu

For Galvanic Cells, when combining any 2 half-equations d) An inert graphite electrode is in contact with an acid
from the table, the one ac).................................... the table (contains H+) in a stream of H2(g). This is connected to a
Zn /Zn2+ half-cell.
must always by written as an ad)...............................................,
and its Eo value ae)................................................... You can e) The same H+/H2 half cell is connected to one
then af)............................. the 2 Eo values to get the total cell containing a graphite electrode in a solution containing Cl-
ag).................................. under standard conditions. ions, and dissolved Cl2(aq)

f) (C) I-(aq)|I2 || O2, H+|H2O (C)


WHEN COMPLETED, WORKSHEETS
BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES

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4. RADIOACTIVITY & ITS USES

Atomic Mass Number and Atomic Weight ISOTOPES


You should recall that the mass of an atom: are atoms of the same element
(same Atomic Number)
Mass = sum of (protons + neutrons) but with different numbers of neutrons
Number and different MASS NUMBERS
The mass number is always a whole number.
Mass Number

Br
80
Most elements exist in nature as a mixture of 2 or more
Any atom can be described this way: isotopes. The Atomic Mass shown on the Periodic
35 Table is the weighted average of the mixture of
Atomic Number isotopes that occurs on Earth.
However, on the Periodic Table, elements are described like
Example: Chlorine exists as 2 isotopes:
this:
Atomic Number
35
Cl 37
Cl
18 Equal to the number of electrons
and the number of protons in
17 17

each atom 17 protons 17 protons


17 electrons 17 electrons

Ar
Argon
Chemical Symbol

Element Name
18 neutrons 20 neutrons

On Earth, there is a mixture of these 2 isotopes in such a


proportion so that the average atomic mass is 35.45. This
39.95 Atomic Weight
is the value of Atomic Weight shown in the Periodic Table.
NOT the Mass Number Isotopes are commonly described by their individual mass
numbers. The isotopes above are called Chlorine-35 and
... and the Atomic Weight is usually NOT a Chlorine-37, or simply Cl-35 and Cl-37.
whole number. Now (finally) the explanation:
Below left are Hydrogen-1, Hydrogen-2 and Hydrogen-3.
Isotopes
You already know that each element is composed of atoms Radioactivity
which are all the same as each other. Well, thats almost true! In 1896, the French scientist Henri Becquerel discovered
that certain minerals, containing uranium, were emitting a
All the atoms of an element have exactly the same mysterious, invisible radiation.
number of protons
number of electrons }
= Atomic Number It was then discovered that there were, in fact, 3 different
radiations that were soon called alpha (), beta () and
It is the number of electrons, and their arrangement in their gamma () rays, and that these were coming from the
orbits which gives each atom its chemical properties, and nucleus of atoms.
defines it as a particular element.
Alpha Radiation
is a stream of particles. An alpha particle + n
However, the number of neutrons can vary:
is a chunk of nucleus, made up of n+
Example: the Isotopes of Hydrogen 2 protons and 2 neutrons.
1 2 3
1H 1H 1H Beta Radiation
is also a stream of particles,
- - n - this time high-speed electrons e-
n
+ + + n
ejected from an atomic nucleus.

0 neutrons 1 neutron 2 neutrons Gamma Radiation


is very high frequency
These atoms all have the same chemistry, because the electromagnetic waves, similar to
electrons are the same in each; so they are all Hydrogen. X-rays, but carrying even more
However, their Mass Numbers are different. energy. Gamma radiation is often associated with the
emission of alpha and beta particles.
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Radioactivity and Nuclear Stability Transuranic Elements
It turns out that you cant have any old combination of As the graph shows, once a nucleus has more than about 80
protons and neutrons in an atomic nucleus... the nucleus protons (and about 120 neutrons) it becomes too large to
can only be stable if the proton-neutron ratio is within be fully stable. There are naturally occurring elements with
certain, very narrow limits. larger nuclei, but they are all unstable and radioactive.

This is best seen if all the known isotopes of all the The largest naturally occuring atoms are isotopes of
elements are plotted on a graph, as follows. uranium (Atomic Number 92), and in early text books you
will see that the Periodic Table ended at uranium. However,
In this zone, over the past 50 years or so, it has become possible to
140

Line of nuclei are too big


artificially manufacture atoms of elements larger than
Stability to be stable, and
These atoms are radioactive uranium. These are called the Transuranic Elements.
100 120

are stable
Most Periodic Tables now list transuranic elements as far as
number of Neutrons

p
Atomic Number 110 or even to No.118, although the
=
n

names for some of these have not been agreed upon, and
re
he
w

in some cases only tiny quantities have ever been made, and
e
lin
80

they are so unstable that their existence is fleeting.

Making Transuranic Atoms


60

Within the dotted line zone,


nuclei can exist, but have the The elements immediately after uranium can be made in
wrong balance of neutrons &
protons, and are unstable,
relatively large quantities in a nuclear reactor, by a process
40

radioactive isotopes of neutron bombardment.

Beyond the dotted line Example:


20

zone, no atomic nucleus


can even exist.
If the isotope uranium-238 is placed in a nuclear reactor, it
will be bombarded by neutrons (released by the nuclear
20 40 60 80 100 fission occurring in the reactor). A neutron will eventually
number of Protons strike the nucleus and cause the following nuclear reactions:

As an example, consider the isotopes of carbon: 238 1 239 decay 239


U + 0
n U 93
Np
92 92
12
6 C Uranium + neutron
atom
Neptunium
atom
6p+
6n0 Carbon-12, if plotted on the Beyond element number 95, it is only possible to make
graph, lies exactly on the small numbers of new atoms in a Particle Accelerator.
Line of Stability Atomic nuclei are accelerated up to very high speeds by
powerful magnetic fields, and then collided so that
sometimes 2 nuclei will fuse together, such as:
14
6 C 206
82
Pb +
48
20
Ca
254
102
No
6p+
Carbon-14 lies just above the 8n0
Line of Stability, inside the Lead + Calcium Nobelium
nucleus nucleus nucleus
dotted-line zone.
Recent Discoveries
The nucleus is unstable because it has too A 1999 claim for the production of element 118 has not
many neutrons, (or not enough protons) in its been confirmed by other scientists.
neutron:proton ratio.
In 2004, a few atoms of element 115 (temporarily named
To achieve stability, it undergoes a Radioactive Decay to Ununpentium) were apparently made by the reaction:
get rid of some electric charge and some energy.
243 48 287 1
In the case of Carbon-14, it emits a Beta particle and Am + Ca Uup + 4
0
n
Gamma energy and transmutes into a stable nitrogen atom. 95 20 115
(Details are NOT required by the Syllabus)

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Commercial Radioisotopes Industrial Uses of Cobalt-60
Although making a few atoms of a new Transuranic The gamma rays from Cobalt-60 are very penetrating, and
element might capture the scientific headlines, the very destructive to living cells.
important routine job of making useful, radioactive
materials goes on every day. In the production of medical supplies, such as bandages
and dressings, it is vital that the product is totally sterile
Australia is a non-nuclear country, but we do have one (germ-free). This is achieved by irradiating the products
small nuclear reactor at Lucas Heights in Sydney. Its with doses of gamma radiation high enough to destroy any
purpose is research, and to prepare useful radioisotopes for bacteria or fungi spores which might be present.
medical and industrial use.

Production of Commercial Radioisotopes


Generally, the production of useful radioactive materials is
achieved by placing the appropriate target atoms inside a
nuclear reactor and allowing neutron bombardment to
occur.

In a nuclear reactor there is


a constant flux of
neutrons.
When one collides with the
nucleus it may stick and
create a new isotope of that
element

One of the most important and commonly used In aircraft manufacture, the airplane parts may be welded
radioisotopes produced is Cobalt-60. It is produced when together. It is essential that the welded joints are totally
ordinary, stable Cobalt-59 absorbs a neutron: strong and free of defects. (Having a wing fall off in flight
is not a good look this season!) To see inside the weld,
59 1 60 gamma rays are used like X-rays; they are beamed through
27
Co + 0
n 27
Co the welded joint and an image captured by a gamma-ray
camera. Analysis of the image allows engineers to be sure
Uses of Radioisotopes of the quality of the welding.
Cobalt-60 is unstable and undergoes Beta Decay:
Medical Uses of Cobalt-60
0
Some forms of cancer can be treated by beaming the
60 60
Co Ni + -1
1
e + gamma rays into the tumour. Cancer cells are actively
27 28 growing and this makes their DNA more susceptible to
particle gamma gamma ray damage than healthy cells.
electron ray

By focusing the beam into the tumour, and using carefully


It is the gamma radiation which makes Cobalt-60 very controlled doses of radiation, it is possible to destroy
useful in a variety of roles in both medicine and industry. cancer cells with minimal damage to healthy tissue.

By enclosing the radioactive material inside a heavily Why is Cobalt-60 Ideal for These Uses?
shielded container with a narrow aperture, a narrow beam
of gamma rays can be produced. Cobalt-60 has a half-life of 5.3 years, so once a cannister
is prepared, it will have a useful life of about 6-10 years
before it needs to be replaced. This is convenient for
industrial and medical uses.
The energy of the gamma rays emitted by Cobalt-60 is
ideal for the imaging of welded metal joints, and for killing
living cells, whether tumour cells or bacteria on a bandage.
The energy carried by gamma rays can vary considerably.
The radiation from Cobalt-60 is ideal for certain industrial It is relatively cheap and easy to prepare Cobalt-60 by
applications and in the medical treatment of some cancers. inserting ordinary Cobalt-59 into a nuclear reactor and
allowing neutron-bombardment to occur.

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Detection of Radiation Benefits and Problems
The Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiations from radioisotopes of the Use of Radioisotopes
can be detected in various ways. Some practical uses of radioisotopes were described on the
previous page.
Photographic Film is exposed by these radiations, and
can be used to detect it. (This was how radioactivity was Benefits
first discovered.) Using gamma rays to check the quality of a welded joint
is the only way to ensure quality, without breaking the joint
The Geiger-Counter, or Geiger-Muller Tube is an open to inspect it visually. X-rays will not penetrate the
electronic device which detects radiation because of the metal well enough; only the penetrating nature of the
ionization it causes. gamma rays makes this possible.

Radiation causes electrons to be knocked out of their The benefits to air safety should be obvious.
orbits, so the atom becomes an ion. One alpha paticle can
ionize thousands of atoms, causing a tube of non- Using gamma rays to sterilize bandages is cheaper and
conducting gas (Argon is often used) to become more effective and reliable than the alternatives which
momentarily conductive. include heat treatments and/or chemical antiseptics.

The use of gamma ray therapy for certain cancers is


Electronic sometimes the best option in cases where surgery and/or
Counter chemotherapy are not appropriate. Medical professionals
have found that there are positive benefits in terms of
treating the disease.

Problems
The problems associated with the use of radioisotopes,
centre mainly around the safety of the people who work
with the radioactive materials.

Geiger All radiations are dangerous to living cells, and even low-
Tube level exposure is known to increase the risk of genetic
mutations and development of cancers.

An electronic circuit detects the change and counts the From the workers at the nuclear reactor, to those who
ionization events occurring when radiation is present. handle and transport the isotopes, to the professional end-
users in hospitals or industry, there are risks of dangerous
A Scintillation Counter detects radiation by the flash of exposure to radiation.
light which some chemicals emit when struck by radiation.
Light-sensitive detectors pick up each tiny flash of light The key to safety is effective packaging and shielding of the
and an electronic circuit counts and records the events. material, and constant monitoring for escaped radiation.
For example, all personnel in at-risk jobs and
environments must wear small tell-tale detectors to warn
of radiation exposure.

Use of a Radioisotope Related to Chemistry If a small amount of I-131 is


The syllabus requires that you are able to explain the use of injected into a patient who has a
radioisotopes in terms of their chemical properties. tumour in the thyroid gland, the
radiation level is so low that there
A good example is the use of Iodine-131 in the medical is little risk to their healthy tissue.
treatment of thyroid cancer. The thyroid gland is located in
the throat, and produces a vital hormone which has iodine However, due to the chemistry of
atoms in it. the iodine, the thyroid gland
rapidly absorbs the isotope and
Thyroid
This gland is the only part of the body which uses iodine, Gland concentrates it. The radiation is
and enzymes in the gland are able to chemically recognize concentrated in the target
iodine ions and very efficiently harvest iodine from the organ and is very effective in
blood stream. destroying the tumour.

Iodine-131 is radioactive and emits beta and gamma rays. I-131 has a short half-life and the
radiation disappears rapidly.
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Worksheet 4

Fill in the blanks

Isotopes are atoms of the same The largest naturally-occurring atoms are of the
a)........................................ which have the same element q).................................... which has atomic
atomic b)..................................., but different number r)............. Atoms larger than this are
c)............................................... because they have a called s)........................................ Elements and
different number of d).................................. in the are all made artificially by either t)............................
nucleus. Most elements occur in nature as a - bombardment in a nuclear reactor, or by
mixture of 2 or more e)........................................... colliding different nuclei in a
u).................................... .........................................
The Atomic Weight shown on the periodic
table is the weighted f)......................................... Commercial Radioisotopes can also be prepared
of the masses of the mix of isotopes in nature. by neutron- v)........................................ in a
w).............................. .................................... One of
Isotopes of an element show exactly the same the most commonly used radioisotopes is Cobalt-
g)..................................... properties, but some may x)...................., which is unstable and decays by
be unstable and h)..................................................... emitting y)................... and ........................ rays.
There are 3 different radiations that might be
emitted: It is used in industry for
z).......................................... medical bandages and
i).............................. () radiation is a stream of dressings, and for checking the quality of
particles. Each particle is composed of aa)................................................. in aircraft
j)................................... and ........................................ manufacture. In medicine, it is used to treat
Beta radiation (symbol, k).................) is a stream ab)...................................... by killing the tumour
of l)........................................... cells with ac)............................ rays.
m).................................. () radiation is
n)....................-frequency waves. The radiations from radioactive substances can
be detected and measured by
Whether or not any isotope is stable or ad)....................................... film, as well as the
radioactive is mainly determined by the ratio of ae).................................-Counter which
o).............................. to ..................................... in electronically registers the af)....................................
the nucleus, and also how large the nucleus is. All effects of the radiation. Another method of
atoms with more than about p).............. protons detection, called a ag............................. -Counter,
are too big to be stable. detects the ah)..........................................................
which some chemicals emit when struck by
radiations.

The benefits of using radioisotopes are related to


each specific use. The problems associated with
radioactive materials are mainly linked to the
WHEN COMPLETED, WORKSHEETS ai)............................... of personnel who work with
BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES them.

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CONCEPT DIAGRAM (Mind Map) OF TOPIC


Some students find that memorizing the OUTLINE of a topic
helps them learn and remember the concepts and important facts.
Practise on this blank version.

PRODUCTION
of
MATERIALS

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Practice Questions 6.
These are not intended to be "HSC style" questions, but to Cellulose is:
challenge your basic knowledge and understanding of the A. an addition polymer of ethylene.
topic, and remind you of what you NEED to know at the B. a condensation polymer of glucose.
K.I.S.S. Principle level. C. an addition polymer of glucose.
D. a monomer which can be polymerized.
When you have confidently mastered this level, it is
strongly recommended you work on questions from past
7.
exam papers.
Theoretically, we should be able to use cellulose as a raw
Part A Multiple Choice material to replace petroleum compounds. However, there
is one technology lacking which prevents this becoming an
1. economically viable process. The step missing is a cheap
If propene (C3H6) underwent an addition reaction with efficient way to convert:
water, the correct structural formula for the product would A. cellulose into glucose.
be B. glucose into ethanol.
A. H H H B. H H O-H H C. ethanol into ethylene.
D. ethylene into plastics.
H C C C H H C C C H
H H H H H H 8.
The alkanol with condensed structural formula
C. H H O-H
H D. H H O-H
H CH3(CH2)4CH2OH would be called:
A. butanol B. pentanol C. hexanol D. heptanol
H C C C H H C C C H
H H H H O-H
H 9.
The alkanols have much higher m.p.s & b.ps compared to
the corresponding alkanes, because:
2. A. the mass of the OH group increases dispersion forces.
Alkenes can be identified by their reaction with bromine B. the intra-molecular covalent bonds are stronger.
water, in which the bromine: C. the O-H bond is polar, creating a dipole.
A. moves from one liquid layer to the other.
D. the C=C double bond is much stronger than C-C bonds.
B. changes colour from brown to purple.
C. completely loses its colour.
D. changes from colourless to purple. 10.
As well as a source of carbohydrates and some live yeast,
3. the other necessary conditions for the production of
In the Catalytic Cracking of the alkane C20H42, the ethanol by fermentation are:
molecule happened to break up into 4 pieces; 1 molecule of A. temperature above 40oC and plenty of oxygen.
ethylene, one of octane, 1 of hexene, and another B. anaerobic conditions and temperature below 20oC.
hydrocarbon molecule. The formula for the 4th fragment C. temperature around 25oC and plenty of oxygen.
would be: D. anaerobic conditions and temperatures about 25oC.
A. C4H8 B. C6H12 C. C2H4 D. C3H8
11.
4. Which equation for the combustion of methanol is the one
An addition polymer is formed when: for which the energy released would be equal to Hc ?
A. long-chain alkane molecules combine.
B. C=C double bonds are formed in monomer molecules. A. CH3OH(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)
C. molecules join by removing atoms to create bonds.
D. monomers join by splitting C=C double bonds. B. CH3OH(l) + 3O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
2
5. C. 2CH3OH(l) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 4H2O(l)
In general terms, increasing the size and mass of any side
groups in an ethylene-based plastic, will probably result in D. CH3OH(g) + 3O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)
the plastic being 2
A. softer and more flexible.
B. less soluble in water.
C. a better conductor of electricity.
D. harder and more rigid.

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12. 18.
Which of the following is NOT a reason to consider In order to manufacture atoms of Meitnerium (element
ethanol as a fuel to replace petrol? number 109) a suitable method might be:
A. Ethanol is a higher energy fuel than petrol. A. neutron bombardment of uranium atoms.
B. Ethanol is a renewable and sustainable resource. B. allow radioactive decay of element No.110.
C. Ethanol is potentially Greenhouse friendly. C. collision of lead & cobalt atoms in a particle accelerator.
D. The technology to produce ethanol is already known. D. chemical addition reaction of uranium & chlorine.

13. Longer Response Questions


If each of the following metals were placed into a solution Mark values shown are suggestions only, and are to give you
of copper(II) sulfate, which one would NOT react? an idea of how detailed an answer is appropriate.
A. silver B. zinc
C. iron D. magnesium 19. (3 marks)
Using structural formulas, show the addition reaction
14. between ethylene and hydrogen bromide (HBr). Show the
reactants and product(s). You do not need to name any
V compounds.

20. (4 marks)
Explain, using chemical equation(s) when needed, why
Mg Zn liquid hexene will de-colourize a bromine solution, but
liquid hexane will not.

21. (6 marks)
The main industrial source of ethylene is Cat-Cracking of
certain molecules in petroleum.
Mg2+ Zn2+ a) Outline the general process of Cat-Cracking, including
the meaning of the term.
In the cell shown: b) Outline the process of Addition Polymerization of
A. electrons would flow towards the Mg half-cell. ethylene.
B. zinc would be oxidized by the reaction. c) Draw a structural formula for a section of a polyethylene
C. positive ions would flow out of the Mg half-cell. molecule containing 3 monomer units.
D. the zinc half-cell is the anode.
22. (7 marks)
15. A common plastic is known as P.V.C.
The Galvanic Cell shown in Q14 uses a metal and ions of a) Draw a structural formula for the monomer from which
the same metal in each half-cell. If you built a series of PVC is made, and give both its common name and
similar cells, but used different metal combinations in each systematic chemical name.
case, which of the following would give the highest cell b) Account for the differences in properties and typical
voltage? (Assuming all other variables were kept the same.) uses of PVC compared to polyethylene.
A. iron & zinc B. copper and silver
C. copper and magnesium D. magnesium and zinc 23. (4 marks)
The amino acid Glycine has the following structure:
16. H O-H
H
In the following equation, which species has undergone
H N C C
reduction?
H H O
Cl2(aq) + 2Br-(aq) Br2(aq) + 2Cl-(aq)
The condensation polymer polyglycine can be formed by
A. Cl2(aq) -
B. Br (aq) joining together many glycine molecules.
C. Br2(aq) D. Cl-(aq)
a) Use structural diagrams to show the 2 products formed
17. when two glycine monomers join together.
Isotopes have
A. the same mass number as each other. b) Explain why this is called condensation
B. different atomic numbers. polymerization.
C. different electron configurations.
D. the same chemical properties as each other.

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24. (9 marks) 28. (6 marks)
a) Describe the structure of the cellulose molecule, Assess the potential of ethanol as an alternative fuel,
including the name of the monomer. including discussion of the advantages and disadvantages
b) Explain why cellulose can be considered a renewable of its use.
resource.
c) Write symbol equations (including catalysts) to
summarize the reaction 29. (10 marks)
i) of glucose to form ethanol. a) Write a net ionic equation for the reaction which occurs
ii) of ethanol to form ethylene. when a piece of magnsium metal is dropped into a solution
of lead(II) nitrate.
25. (5 marks) b) Write 2 separate half-equations for the reaction, and
a) Describe in general terms, the differences in the label each as either oxidation or reduction.
properties of solubility in water, and m.p. & b.p., between c) Sketch a galvanic cell which could be set up (using simple
the alkanes and the alkanols. laboratory equipment and appropriate chemicals) which
would use the same reactions described in part (a) & (b).
b) Account for these differences in terms of the intra- Label the anode, cathode and salt bridge and show
molecular and inter-molecular bonds in each type. the direction of electron flow in the external circuit.
d) Determine the value of the cell voltage under standard
26. (6 marks) conditions.
As part of your studies you have carried out an experiment
to produce ethanol by fermentation. 30. (6 marks)
Solid copper metal reacts with a solution containing
a) List the chemical substances placed in the reaction flask. molecular chlorine (Cl2(aq)) to form chloride ions and
b) Describe the conditions used to promote the reaction. copper(II) ions, both in solution.
c) List the significant observations made over several days a) Write a balanced equation (including states) for the
of the reaction occurring. reaction described.
d) As part of the experiment, you will have monitored any b) State the oxidation number for each species in the
mass change. State the result, and explain the change. equation, and hence state which species has been oxidized
e) What process was (or may have been) used to collect and which has been reduced.
relatively pure ethanol. c) Write half-equations for the reaction, and calculate the
cell voltage which would be produced if this reaction was
27. (8 marks) used in a Galvanic cell under standard conditions.
Using the equipment shown, the Heat of Combustion
of methanol was measured experimentally. 31. (6 marks)
The ordinary dry cell (Leclanche cell) and the silver oxide
Results button cell both use exactly the same anode reaction, but
Mass of methanol different cathode reactions.
burnt = 0.58g a) Write a half-equation for the anode reaction of both
Mass of water in can = 100g cells.
Change in temperature of b) Choose either of the cells mentioned above and write
water in can = 14oC i) the cathode half-equation.
ii) the overall cell equation.
a) Write a balanced, symbol c) Discuss the impact of each of these cells on society, and
equation for the complete their relative cost and practicality.
combustion of methanol.
b) Calculate the amount of heat 32. (10 marks)
energy captured by the water in a) What are isotopes?
the can. b) What, in general terms, determines whether an isotope is
c) Assuming 100% efficiency in stable or radioactive?
this calorimeter, calculate the c) List the 3 types of radioactive emissions, and for each
Heat of Combustion for methanol state what it is.
i) per gram. ii) per mole. d) Describe a method for making Transuranic elements.
d) Explain why this value is unlikely to agree closely with
the text-book value. 33. (3 marks)
Identify 3 different instruments or processes that can be
used to detect nuclear radiations.

34. (5 marks)
FOR MAXIMUM MARKS SHOW
a) Indentify one use of a named radioisotope in industry.
FORMULAS & WORKING,
APPROPRIATE PRECISION & UNITS b) Identify one use of a named radioisotope in medicine,
IN ALL CHEMICAL PROBLEMS and explain how its use is related to its chemical properties.

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