Anda di halaman 1dari 13

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been

fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TSG.2017.2715371, IEEE
Transactions on Smart Grid

A Unified Control for the DC-AC Interlinking Converters


in Hybrid AC/DC Microgrids
Xialin Li, Member, IEEE, Li Guo, Member, IEEE, Yunwei Li, Senior Member, IEEE, Zhen Guo,
Chao Hong, Ye Zhang, Chengshan Wang, Senior Member, IEEE
reliable power supply for the local loads compared to a pure ac
AbstractA novel unified control of the dc-ac interlinking conve- or dc MG [1], [2]. Moreover, the grid-connected hybrid MGs
rters (ICs) for autonomous operation of hybrid ac/dc microgrids can actively participate in the auxiliary services for the local
(MGs) has been proposed in this paper. When the slack terminals grid such as optimal active power dispatching, reactive power
in the ac and dc MGs are available, the ICs will operate in control and voltage regulation, power quality improvement
autonomous control of interlinking power between the ac and dc and so on, so as to further improve the utilization efficiency of
subgrids, with the total load demand proportionally shared amo- the DGs and ESSs [3], [4]. A hybrid ac/dc MG always consists
ng the existing ac and dc slack terminals. With a flexible control
of an ac MG, a dc MG and bi-directional dc/ac interlinking
variable added in power control loop, design of the interlinking
power control and droop features of ac and dc MGs can be
converters (ICs). Due to the increasing interlinking power and
decoupled. Moreover, this control variable can be tuned flexibly possible multiple interconnection ports between ac and dc
according to different power control objectives, such as proporti- subgrids, parallel operation of multiple ICs are always needed
onal power sharing in terms of capacity (which is considered in to enhance power capacity and improve power supply
this work), interlinking power dispatch, and other optimal power reliability. As the critical components in a hybrid ac/dc MG,
dispatch algorithms, ensuring a well-designed flexibility and the ICs and their control strategies play a key role in
compatibility. Furthermore, if the dc MG or the ac MG loses dc interaction and mutual support between ac and dc MGs, and
voltage control or ac voltage and frequency control capability stable operation of a hybrid ac/dc MG under different
due to failures of operation of its slack terminals, the ICs can operating modes [5], [6].
automatically and seamlessly transfer to dc MG support or ac
A hybrid ac/dc MG can operate in grid-connected and
MG support control modes without operation mode detection,
communication, control scheme switching and control saturation.
islanded modes. In grid-connected mode, the ICs are always
In order to enhance the stability of the proposed unified control used to control dc voltage, the interlinking power are decided
in different modes with different control plants, a phase compen- by the outputs of DGs, charging/discharging power of ESSs
sation transfer function has been added in the power control loop. and load demand in the dc MG [7], [8]. If dc voltage is
After thorough theoretical analysis and discussions, detailed controlled by ESSs in the dc subgrid, the IC can work in power
simulation verifications based on PSCAD/EMTDC and experim- dispatching mode, usually with its active power reference set
ental results based on a hardware experimental MG platform by the higher level power or energy management system [9].
have been presented. In the islanded mode, ac voltage and frequency and dc bus
Index TermsHybrid ac/dc microgrids, IC, unified control, voltage control through coordinated control between the DGs,
autonomous operation, plug-and-play. ESSs and ICs in a hybrid ac/dc MG [7][9] have become the
I. INTRODUCTION primary tasks. Typically there are three normal operation
modes of an islanded hybrid MG: 1) autonomous interlinking
H ybrid ac/dc MGs are an emerging power distribution
scheme which can more efficiently integrate local
renewable energy sources based distributed generations
power control, where the ac voltage and frequency in the ac
MG and the dc voltage in the dc MG are controlled by their
respective controllable DGs or ESSs, and the ICs usually work
(DGs) and energy storage systems (ESSs), and to provide high
in power (or PQ) control based power dispatching mode; 2) dc
MG support control through ac MG, where the ICs control the
This work was supported in part by the National Key Research and dc voltage and the ac MG can be seen as the main unit of the dc
Development Program Simulation and Test of Combining, Boosting and MG, while the ac voltage and frequency are formed by
Accessing System and Equipment for HVDC-connected Photovoltaic Station
(2016YFB0900204), National Nature Science Foundation under Project controllable DGs or ESSs in the ac system; 3) ac MG support
(51507109), 2016 Science and Technology Project of China Southern Power control through dc MG, where the ICs are used to control the
Grid (CSGTRC-K163001), and Future Energy System research under Canada ac voltage and frequency of the ac MG, which is supported by
First Research Excellent Fund (CFREF). This study was also conducted in the dc MG.
cooperation of APPLIED ENERGY UNiLAB-DEM: Distributed Energy &
Microgrid. In autonomous interlinking power control, [10][12]
X. Li, L. Guo, Z. Guo and C. Wang are with the Key Laboratory of Smart proposed an autonomous power control scheme of a bi-directi-
Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China onal IC in a hybrid ac/dc MG, where the droop method was
(e-mail: xialinlee@tju.edu.cn; liguo@tju.edu.cn; 1344078925@qq.com; used in both the two sub-systems and PQ control was used for
cswang@tju.edu.cn).
Y. Li is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, the IC. Per-Unit (p.u.) values of the dc voltage and ac frequen-
University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4, Canada (e-mail: cy were measured, and their difference was used to adjust the
yunwei.li@ualberta.ca). active power reference of PQ control of the IC via a PI
C. Hong and Y. Zhang are with China Southern Power Grid(CSG), Electric controller or proportional controller. A decentralized power
Power Research Institute, Guangzhou 510663 China (hongchao@csg.cn;
zhangye@csg.cn). sharing method based on an improved dc voltage and ac

1949-3053 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TSG.2017.2715371, IEEE
Transactions on Smart Grid

frequency droop characteristic was proposed for the IC to and control settings changing are necessary for operation
achieve flexible power flow and management of the hybrid mode switching. Moreover, the above presented controls for
ac/dc MG in [13]. In these methods, the bi-directional ICs the ICs can be useful only when the dc voltage was stable, and
adopt PQ control, behaving as current-sources, which is useful therefore smooth transfer of operation mode and transient
only when the dc voltage and ac frequency are stable, and stability of the hybrid ac/dc microgrid would also be difficult
cannot be adopted for the dc micogrid support and ac to realized
microgrid support operation modes. E.g, when the ac slack The above reviewed methods mainly aims at specific opera-
terminal is faulty, the ICs do not have the capability to control tion modes, which cannot meet smooth switching and transient
the ac voltage and frequency with PQ control. A possible stability control requirements of a hybrid ac/dc MG. Moreover,
solution is that the ICs can transfer their control from current with the MG structure change or operation characteristic
control mode to voltage control mode. In order to realize variations of slack terminals, operation modes change of ICs
seamless transfer, ac system operation mode detection and would be necessary, which demands a more unified IC control
controller switching are always necessary in this case. Another strategy. In this paper, a novel unified control for multiple ICs
main disadvantage in [10] is the strong coupling design of in a hybrid ac/dc MG is proposed. The main contributions of
ac/dc MGs droop control and power control. For autonomous this work can be drawn as:
power control in [10], the droop gains in ac and dc MGs should 1) A real unified control with outer autonomous interlinking
be related to the slack terminals capacity. While in an actual power control and inner ac voltage/frequency control is propo-
system, the droop gains in ac and dc MGs always need to be sed for real autonomous operation of IC in hybrid ac/dc MGs,
carefully designed for both steady-state and dynamic stability which can realized seamless transfer without control switching,
requirements. If the droop gains need to be adjusted for a better control saturation, operation mode detection and communicat-
stability margin, the power sharing may not be ensured. Thus, ion. It should be noted that the main topic and issued to be
the control flexibility and reliability will be affected. addressed between our paper and the literature [10] and
In dc microgrid support control mode, droop method for [24]-[26] is different. Our work tries to provide a unified
both IC and ESS in the dc MG had been proposed in [14]. The control for ICs in hybrid ac/dc MGs.
IC can control the dc voltage together with the droop based 2) In the autonomous interlinking power control outer loop,
ESS in normal condition. A three-level hierarchical control design of the interlinking power control and droop features of
system containing local droop method, secondary dc voltage ac and dc MGs are well decoupled with a flexible control
recovery and tertiary power management for parallel ICs in a parameter. Furthermore, this control parameter can be tuned
hybrid ac/dc MG was presented [15]. In order to realize flexibly according to different power control objectives, such
flexible interlinking power regulation of a hybrid MG, an as proportional power sharing in terms of capacity (which is
improved dc voltage droop control was implemented in [16], considered in this work), interlinking power dispatch, and
in which the ac frequency was feed forwarded to the normal dc other optimal power dispatch algorithms, ensuring a well-desi-
voltage droop, ensuring that the IC could response the power gned flexibility and compatibility.
disturbances in the ac MG while controlling the dc voltage as 3) The inner ac voltage/frequency control is droop based
well. For stable control of a multi-terminal HVDC system, voltage source control mode. Especially the frequency setting
[17], [18] proposed a general dc voltage droop control in this work is always obtained from PLL algorithm, without
structure, which could be used for dc voltage droop, constant droop setting changing, control saturation, and mode detection
dc voltage and constant power control modes. These methods during operation mode switching of hybrid ac/ac MGs.
for ICs are also current-source control nature, which means the 4) In order to enhance the stability of the proposed unified
ICs can only work normally with stable ac voltage and control in different modes with different control plants, a
frequency. If control stability of ac voltage and frequency phase compensation transfer function has been added in the
cannot be maintained due to faults or output limits of the slack power control loop.
terminals in the ac MG, these methods may not be able to Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the
ensure smooth switching of operation mode and stable proposed control can realize plug-and-play of ICs and achieve
transient of the hybrid ac/dc MG. transient stability, mutual support between subgrids and
In ac microgrid support control mode, [19] proposed a control operation mode smooth transition automatically without
combining droop control and virtual impedance for multiple switching control scheme in different operation modes. Both
ICs, mainly used to realize parallel operation and eliminate simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the
switching and reactive current circulations. Droop method had effectiveness of the proposed control.
been used for both the ICs and slack terminals in the ac
II. IC CONTROL REQUIREMENTS AND THE PROPOSED UNIFIED
microgrid [20]. In order to regulate the interlinking power
CONTROL SCHEME
autonomously, an improved P-f droop feature adjusted by the
measured dc voltage was implemented. For coordinated A. Control requirements for the ICs
control of a multi-terminal HVDC system, an inertia mimicry Fig. 1 shows a hybrid ac/dc MG structure considered in this
control was integrated in the normalized P-f droop method for work, which is composed of an ac MG, a dc MG and multiple
weak grid supporting [21]. [24]-[26] proposed virtual ICs in parallel. Here each IC is connected to the common dc
synchronous generator concept for DGs, which is naturally bus through a feeder, and the ICs can be located far from each
droop and low-pass filter based method, and could operate in other. In ac MGs, reactive power circulation and sharing
set-mode to behave like a current source and droop mode to accuracy among droop controlled DGs are the main issues
emulate a voltage source. However, operation mode detection

1949-3053 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TSG.2017.2715371, IEEE
Transactions on Smart Grid

AC Microgrid AC Bi-directional DC DC Microgrid intelligent control of the ICs. It should be noted that this
ac,pu Droop feature Bus Interlinking Converters Bus udc,pu Droop feature
ac,pu= IC#1 udc,pu=
control variable K can be flexibly designed according to other
ac*+(Pac*-Pac_s,pu)/kac
PIC1,pu Udc*+(Pdc*-Pdc_s,pu)/kdc power control objectives, such as interlinking power dispatch,
udc_1,pu
and other optimal power dispatch algorithms, which are out of
0 Pac_s,pu 0 Pdc_s,pu scope of this paper. Thus the two sub-microgrids can be
Slack Slack
terminal PIC2,pu IC#2
Pdc_s,pu
terminal treated as a unified system in which the demanded power of
Pac_s,pu
the lumped power terminals can be proportionally shared
Udc_acs udc_2,pu Udc_dcs between the existing slack terminals in this hybrid ac/dc MG.
...
PQ Control Power Control Then, the installed power reserve of these slack terminals in
Power PICN,pu IC#N Power
terminal Pac_p,pu terminal the hybrid MG can be utilized more efficiently. How to realize
Pdc_p,pu
udc_N,pu
the above control through autonomous interlinking power
Udc_acp Udc_dcp control of the ICs without communication, is one of the issues
Fig. 1. Configuration of the generic hybrid ac/dc microgrid. to be addressed in this work.
(2) DC microgrid support control
caused by the mismatched line impedance, which can be When the slack terminal in the dc MG becomes unavailable
addressed through virtual impedance [22], adaptive voltage or faulty due to its insufficient reservation, or other operation
droop control and secondary control strategies [23]. While in constraints, the dc MG would lose the power balancing and dc
this work, active power control and sharing among ICs, and voltage control capability. In this case, the ICs are expected to
autonomous active power transfer between ac and dc MGs in control the dc voltage automatically and therefore the ac MG
islanded mode are the main issues to be addressed. Therefore can support the dc MG.
only transformers are considered for electrical isolation in the (3) AC microgrid support control
ac side, as shown in Fig. 1. If the ac MG loses ac voltage and frequency control units
In the ac and dc MGs, power electronics based lumped slack during the MG operation, the ICs should be able to control the
and power terminals are both included. Here the slack termina- ac voltage and frequency automatically, then the dc MG can
ls means the power balancing units such as controllable DGs provide support to the ac MG.
or ESSs in the ac and dc MGs, which are used to control the ac (4) Plug-and-play and automatic operation switching
voltage, frequency and the dc voltage. While the renewable In summary, in order to realize stable control of the hybrid
energy sources based DGs with MPPT or DGs in power ac/dc MG in islanded mode, the ICs should have the above
dispatch mode, and loads can be seen as the power terminals. three basic control modes. Moreover, realizing plug-and-play
Assume that the lumped active power outputs of the power operation of multiple ICs and achieving automatic and
terminals in the ac and dc MGs are Pac_p,pu and Pdc_p,pu seamless control mode switching among different operation
respectively (Pac_p,pu and Pdc_p,pu are p.u. values), with their modes of the hybrid MG are also very important for the stable
positive directions defined as into the ac bus and dc bus operation and transient stability of the hybrid ac/dc MG, which
respectively. In the islanded mode, the lumped slack terminals are the main issues to be addressed in this paper.
in this work are considered to have the following droop
characteristics B. Proposed unified control for the ICs

ac , pu ac ( Pac Pac _ s , pu ) / kac


* * As mentioned earlier, the designed actual active power
(1)
outputs of the slack terminals in ac and dc MGs (Pac_s,pu and
u
dc , pu U dc
*
( Pdc
*
Pdc _ s , pu ) / k dc Pdc_s,pu) should be proportional to the capacity ratio K in
where ac,pu, ac*, Pac* and Pac_s,pu are actual ac frequency, ac normal condition. The power error of expected outputs of the
frequency reference, active power reference and actual active lumped ac and dc slack terminals Ps_i is defined firstly as
power output of the clumped slack terminal in ac system respe- Ps_i= Pac_s,pu - K*Pdc_s,pu (2)
ctively; udc,pu, Udc*, Pdc* and Pdc_s,pu are actual dc voltage, dc where i means the i-th IC in the hybrid microgrid.
voltage reference, power reference and actual power output of As the actual active power outputs Pac_s,pu and Pdc_s,pu satisfy
the lumped slack terminal in dc microgrid respectively; kac and the droop characteristics shown in (1) in normal condition, (2)
kdc are the droop gains of the ac and dc lumped slack terminals can be further modified as
respectively. It should be noted that the above variables are all
Ps _ i [ Pac* kac (ac* ac, pu )] K[ Pdc* kdc (U dc* udc, pu )] (3)
p.u. values. Here the base values of the ac frequency, dc
voltage and power are defined as B, UdcB and SB respectively. It can be deduced that if power error Ps_i in (3) can be
For plug-and-play and unified control of the ICs in a hybrid reduced or even eliminated through the intelligent control of
MG shown in Fig. 1, the following control requirements need ICs, the autonomous interlinking power control objective can
to be satisfied: be realized. To avoid high-speed communication, the IC will
(1) Autonomous control of the interlinking power between measure its local ac frequency and dc voltage. Considering
ac and dc subsystems line impedances, there will be a unique ac frequency, while the
Here the rated capacity of the lumped slack terminals in ac ICs may measure different dc voltages. So (3) need to be
and dc MGs are PacB_s and PdcB_s respectively, with their ratio modified into (4) for the autonomous power control design.
being PacB_s:PdcB_s=K: 1. When lumped slack terminals in the Ps _ i [ Pac* kac (ac* ac, pu )] K[ Pdc* kdc (U dc* udc _ i , pu )] (4)
hybrid MG work normally with droop characteristics shown in where udc_i,pu is the local dc voltage (p.u. value) measured by
Fig. 1 and (1), their actual active power outputs Pac_s,pu and the i-th IC.
Pdc_s,pu are expected to be proportional to the ratio K through

1949-3053 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TSG.2017.2715371, IEEE
Transactions on Smart Grid

PIC_i,pu
Unified Control
Sep_i
AC Voltage&Frequency Control
Pac* ac* ac,pu
PIC_i,pu set_i Pset_i - 1 i 0/s i
Eq.(4)
Ps_i
Gc_i(s)
Pset_i -
+
1 i + ref_i,pu
+ B/s i + Kp_i+Hp_is
Kp_i+Hp_is AC uabc,pwm_i
Pdc* udc* udc_i,pu QIC_i,pu Eset_i Voltage Fig. 3. Line-frequency-averaged small-signal model of the P-f droop control.
Qset_i - 1 Ei + Eref_i,pu loop
Autonomous Interlinking + Kq_i+Hq_is
+ EB
Power Control
ac,pu AC Microgrid
PIC_i,pu/ PWM IC #i Operation Feature
QIC_i,pu udc,pu
Ri PIC_1,pu
IC#1 Unified Control
udc_i,pu +
... .
...
AC
Unified Control
DC Pac* ac* ac,pu IC#i Unified Control .
Microgrid Microgrid
.
Ps_i Pset_i PIC_i,pu PIC,pu
PIC_j,pu/ PWM IC #j Eq.(4) Gc_i(s) Gp_i(s) +
QIC_j,pu
Rj .
udc_j,pu
Pdc* udc* udc_i,pu .
...
.
Fig. 2. Proposed unified control for the DC-AC Interlinking Converters. PIC_N,pu
IC#N Unifeid Control
+

In addition, the ICs also need to work in ac voltage and udc_i,pu DC Microgrid
Operation Feature
frequency control, and dc voltage control to support the ac MG Fig. 4. Generic control scheme of multiple ICs in a hybrid ac/dc microgrid.
and dc MG respectively. Moreover, plug-and-play feature and
automatic operation mode transfer capability should be d Ei
satisfied. For this purpose, a novel unified control for the ICs is Hq _ i (Qset _ i QIC _ i , pu ) K q _ i Ei (6)
dt
proposed, as shown in Fig. 2. Eref _ i , pu Eset _ i Ei
In Fig. 2, the proposed unified control for the ICs contains
two main parts. (I) Upper control system: autonomous where Pset_i is the active power setting value, obtained from the
interlinking power control. Based on the droop features of the autonomous power control; PIC_i,pu is the interlinking power of
ac and dc sub-systems shown in (1), and the measured local ac the i-th IC, with its positive direction defined as into the ac bus;
frequency ac,pu and dc voltage udc_i,pu, the power error Ps_i ref_i,pu, set_i and i denote the actual ac frequency, ac
(shown in (4)) of the ac and dc lumped slack terminals can be frequency setting value and frequency error of the i-th IC
calculated. Then the active power reference Pset_i can be respectively; Kp_i and Hp_i are the droop gain and inertia
obtained via the regulator Gc_i(s). (II) Inner control system: ac parameter of the P-f droop control respectively. It should be
voltage and frequency control. Based on the active power and noted that these variables are all in p.u. values.
frequency droop (P-f), and reactive power and voltage droop In (6), Qset_i is the reactive power setting value; QIC_i,pu is the
(Q-V) with inertia mimicry capability [24][26], phase reactive power of the ith IC, with its positive direction defined
reference i and amplitude reference Eref_i,pu*EB (EB is the ac as into the ac bus; Eref_i,pu, Eset_i and Ei denote the actual ac
voltage base value) of the ac voltage reference can be obtained. voltage amplitude, ac voltage setting value and voltage error of
Then the ac voltage tracking control can be realized through the ith DC-AC IC respectively; Kq_i and Hq_i are the droop gain
the instantaneous value control system of the output and inertia parameter of the Q-V droop control respectively.
three-phase ac voltage (referred to AC Voltage loop shown in The base value of the ac voltage is EB.
Fig. 2). In this work, PR controller is used for the ac voltage The dynamic of P-f droop control is discussed here first
tracking to reduce the steady error and improve dynamics [26], before further analysis of the proposed unified control. Here
[27]. the ac frequency setting value set_i is directly set to be the
It will be discussed and verified through theoretical analysis actual ac frequency ac,pu, which can be obtained via a PLL
and simulation/experimental results in the following sections system. From (5), it can be derived that i =0 and PIC_i,pu =
that the proposed unified control shown in Fig. 2 can satisfy Pset_i after transient regulation, and the dynamic of the power
the control requirements mentioned in Section II-A. With the tracking system can be analyzed through the line-frequency-
unified control, the ICs can realize plug-and-play and averaged small-signal model [26], shown in Fig. 3.
operation mode transfer automatically to support the hybrid As shown in Fig. 3, Sep_i is used to describe the incremental
ac/dc microgrid. change characteristic of active power output PIC_i,pu to the
power angle i, expressed as
III. ANALYSIS OF THE PROPOSED UNIFIED CONTROL 3E U (7)
S ( i i )2 P 2 / S
ep _ i i0 B
A. Generic control scheme of multiple ICs 2Xi
In the ac voltage and frequency control shown in Fig. 2, the where Ei and Ui are the amplitude values of phase-to-ground
principles of the active power and frequency droop (P-f), and voltages of the i-th IC and ac bus respectively; Xi is the
reactive power and voltage droop (Q-V) with inertia mimicry equivalent connection reactance between the IC and ac bus; Pi0
capability can be described as (5) and (6) respectively represents a steady state point of the i-th IC. The power angle
d i i means the relative voltage phase between Ei and Ui.
H p _ i ( Pset _ i PIC _ i , pu ) K p _ i i (5) The close loop transfer function of P-f droop control can be
dt
ref _ i , pu set _ i i obtained from Fig. 3, shown as

1949-3053 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TSG.2017.2715371, IEEE
Transactions on Smart Grid

400
Sep _ iB / H p _ i (n _ i )2 (8) ++++ l_i=0, d_i=0.01 0.7
G p _ i ( s) 300 **** l_i=0, d_i=0.5 i=2, l_i=0, d_i=0.01
s 2 K p _ i s / H p _ i Sep _ iB / H p _ i s 2 2 in _ i s (n _ i )2 xxxx l_i=0.1, d_i=0.5
Orientation of i
1
0.6 i=2, l_i=0, d_i=0.5
i=2, l_i=0.1, d_i=0.5
200 from 0.1 to 4
where i and n_i are the damping and natural angular 100
0.5

frequency of the P-f droop control system. 0


2 0.4

Hence, the dynamic of the P-f droop control system can be -100
0.3

designed with the following damping i and setting time ts_i -200 0.2

K p_i 3.5 7H p _i (9) -300 0.1


i , ts _ i
2 Sep _ iB H p _ i in _ i K p_i -400
-600 -500 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
(a) (b)
Based on Fig. 2 and (8), the following generic control Fig. 5. Influence of Gc_i(s) on the stability and dynamic of autonomous interli-
scheme of multiple ICs in a hybrid ac/dc MG can be obtained, nking power control: (a) close loop poles, and (b) step response of G(s).
as shown in Fig. 4. It should be noted that the operation
features of the ac and dc MGs shown in Fig. 4 can be changed In order to ensure the output of each IC is proportional to its
under different operation modes. Moreover, during the rated capacity, i in (14) should be selected as
transitions between different operation modes of the hybrid 1 :...:i :...:N SIC _1 :...: SIC _ i :...: SIC _ N (15)
MG, the ICs can change their actual control modes automatic- where SIC_i means the rated capacity of the i-th IC.
ally with the proposed unified control. From (4) and Fig. 4, when the power error Ps_i is not equal
From Fig. 4, the dynamics of PIC_i,pu and PIC,pu can be obtain- to 0 and take Ps_i>0 for example, it means the output of the
ed as lumped slack terminal in ac MG is greater than the expected
PIC _ i , pu {[ Pac* kac (ac* ac , pu )] K [ Pdc* kdc (U dc* udc _ i , pu )]}Gc _ i ( s)G p _ i ( s) (10) value under current operation status. Then according to the

N
autonomous interlinking power control, the active power
PIC , pu PIC _ i , pu
i 1
reference Pset_i will increase. After inner P-f droop control, the
Considering the dc line resistance, the relationship of the injected power from dc sub-grid to ac MG should be increased
measured local dc voltage udc_i,pu and the common dc bus or the delivered power from ac system to dc MG through the
voltage udc,pu can be expressed as ICs will be reduced, which can make the outputs of the slack
udc, pu Ri , pu PIC _ i , pu udc _ i , pu (11) terminals in ac and dc MGs close to the expected ratio K.
where Ri,pu is the resistance value of i-th dc line. It should be From (12) and (13), the dynamic of total active power
noted that the values in (11) are all p.u. values, and the base delivery of ICs PIC,pu can be derived as
N
value of the dc resistance is defined as UdcB2/SB. G IC _ i (s)
Thus, (10) can be further modified to PIC , pu i 1
N
( K Pdc _ p , pu Pac _ p , pu ) G ( s)( K Pdc _ p , pu Pac _ p , pu )
PIC _ i , pu {[ Pac* kac (ac* ac , pu )] K [ Pdc* kdc (U dc* udc, pu )]}GIC _ i ( s) (12) 1 ( K 1) GIC _ i ( s)
i 1
N
(16)
PIC , pu PIC _ i , pu
i 1 It can be seen from (16) that the control system of each IC
where GIC_i(s)=Gc_i(s)Gp_i(s)/[1+KkdcRi,puGc_i(s)Gp_i(s)]. will have impact on the stability of the whole hybrid ac/dc MG.
For qualitative analysis of the autonomous power control
B. Autonomous Interlinking Power Control
stability and parameters design, only the i-th IC is considered
In autonomous interlinking power control mode, the slack in (16). Assume the damping i and setting time ts_i of Gp_i(s)
terminals in the hybrid MG work normally with output are selected as i=0.74 and ts_i=0.0175s respectively, and the
features shown in Fig. 1 and (1). When considering the follow- line resistance Ri is 25m, the impact of the proportional gain
ing power balancing (ignoring the switching and line resistan- i, lead and delay time constants l_i and d_i of Gc_i(s) on the
ce losses), the actual operation features of the ac MG and dc stability and dynamic of the autonomous interlinking power
MG shown in Fig. 4 can be described as control is shown in Fig. 5.
Pac _ s , pu Pac _ p , pu PIC , pu 0 As shown in Fig. 5(a), when l_i and d_i are selected as 0 and
(13)
Pdc _ s , pu Pdc _ p , pu PIC , pu 0 0.01 respectively, with the increase of i, a pair of conjugate
close loop poles shown as 1 are moving gradually towards
ac , pu ac ( Pac Pac _ p , pu PIC , pu ) / kac
* *

u imaginary axis, which would reduce the stability margin,


dc , pu U dc ( Pdc Pdc _ p , pu PIC , pu ) / kdc
* *
making the system to be more oscillating and even leading to
As shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 4, the controller of the autonom- instability. On the other hand, with the compensation item
ous interlinking power control is Gc_i(s). In order to realize Gf_i(s), especially with the increase of delay time constants d_i,
plug-and-play feature, in this work Gc_i(s) is designed as the stability margin of the conjugate close loop poles can be
1l _is (14) well enhanced. However, the dominant pole 2 on the real axis
G (s) G (s)
1 d _is
c_i i f _i i
will be closer to origin point, reducing the dynamic of the
where i is the proportional gain; Gf_i(s) represents the phase control system, which can be verified from the comparisons of
compensation transfer function, with its lead and delay time step response with different parameters in Fig. 5(b). In Fig.
constants to be l_i and d_i respectively, expecting to enhance 5(b), with the same values of i and d_i, the dynamic can be
the stability of the proposed unified control under different effectively improved by increasing l_i.
control and operation modes of the hybrid ac/dc MG, which From (12) and (13), the steady state values of PIC,pu and
will be further discussed later in this paper. PIC_i,pu can be calculated respectively as

1949-3053 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TSG.2017.2715371, IEEE
Transactions on Smart Grid

i / (1 Kkdc Ri , pui ) the ICs still work under the proposed unified control, without
PIC _ i , pu N
( KPdc _ p , pu Pac _ p , pu ) (17)
1 ( K 1)i / (1 Kkdc Ri , pui ) control system switching.
i 1 With the operation mode shown in (19), the initial expressi-
N
PIC , pu PIC _ i , pu on of the output of ICs shown (12) can be updated as
i 1 PIC _ i , pu {[ Pac* kac (ac* ac , pu )] K ( Pdc _ p , pu Pac _ p , pu )}GIC _ i ( s)
(21)
Due to the proportional controller (with proportional gain to N

be i) adopted in Gc_i(s) and the power error introduced in (4), PIC , pu GIC _ i ( s)PIC _ i , pu
i 1
the outputs ratio of the slack terminals in ac and dc MGs would
As the stability of GIC_i(s) can be guaranteed in autonomous
not absolutely satisfy Pac_s,pu: Pdc_s,pu=K:1. It can be obtained
interlinking power control, the stability of (21) can be ensured
from (17) that a higher proportional gain i can ensure that the
in this operation mode.
sum of the outputs of the multiple ICs (referred to PIC,pu) is
From (21), in ac microgrid supporting mode, the steady
closer to the theoretical value (Pdc_p,puK - Pac_p,pu)/(K+1).
state value of ac frequency and the power output of each IC
However, without any compensation, a larger i will affect the
will satisfy the following characteristics respectively
stability of the proposed unified control, as shown in Fig. 5.
N
i
The purpose of Gf_i(s) adopted in the power controller in (14) Pac* K ( Pdc _ p , pu Pac _ p , pu ) Pac _ p , pu / (22)
i 1 1 Kkdc Ri , pui
is used to enhance the system stability. ac , pu ac*
kac
From (17), the actual power sharing among different ICs is i N
i
PIC _ i , pu i / (1 Kkdc Ri , pui ) PIC _ i , pu Pac _ p , pu /
(18) 1 Kkdc Ri , pui i 1 1 Kkdc Ri , pui
PIC _ j , pu j / (1 Kkdc R j , pu j ) It can be seen that with the proposed unified control, the ac
It can be seen that the dc line resistance will affect the power frequency can be maintained with P-f droop feature. It should
sharing accuracy among the ICs. When the influence cannot be be noted here that there is no need for the ICs to detect the fault
ignored, enhanced power sharing through secondary control of the ac slack terminal or ac MG operation status. Moreover,
can be implemented, which is out of scope of this work. without control system switching, the actual control and
C. AC Microgrid Support Control operation mode of ICs has been automatically transferred to ac
microgrid support control mode from autonomous interlinking
During the normal operation of the hybrid ac/dc MG, if the power control mode. This means that even if the ac slack
ac slack terminal becomes unavailable, the ac MG would lose terminal is faulty, the ICs can maintain the power balancing
power balancing and ac voltage and frequency control capabil- and ac frequency & voltage stability within the ac MG.
ity. Here assume the ac slack terminal is unavailable and the dc Furthermore, the demand power in ac MG can be shared
MG in normal condition, the power balancing and actual proportionally among the multiple ICs. Although the sharing
operation features of the ac and dc MGs shown in Fig. 4 can be accuracy will be affected by the dc line resistance, the sharing
described as feature shown in (18) has been maintained after the transient.
Pdc _ s , pu Pac _ p , pu Pdc _ p , pu 0 In summary, the ICs with the proposed control shown in Fig.


(19)
Pac _ p , pu PIC , pu 0 2 can support the ac MG intelligently and autonomously with-
out changing the control system and receiving any external
udc , pu U dc ( Pdc Pdc _ p , pu PIC , pu ) / kdc
* *

information. In addition, the plug-and-play feature is achieved.
As shown in Fig. 2, the proposed unified control includes
two main parts, denoted as autonomous interlinking power D. DC Microgrid Support Control
control and ac voltage & frequency control. Due to the inner ac When the dc microgrid loses dc voltage control and power
voltage & frequency control loop, the IC has the voltage-sour- balance capability due to faults or output limitation of the dc
ce control nature, meaning it has the capability to work in slack terminal, the power balancing and actual operation
islanded mode to control ac voltage & frequency of the ac features of the ac and dc MGs can be demonstrated as
micrgrid. Moreover, the frequency reference ref_i,pu and Pac _ s , pu Pac _ p , pu Pdc _ p , pu 0
voltage reference Eref_i,pu of the i-th IC have droop features

(23)
ac , pu ac ( Pac Pac _ p , pu PIC , pu ) / kac
* *
related to its active power and reactive power respectively.
udc , pu CU dcB / S B Pdc _ p , pu PIC , pu
2
Thus the multiple ICs can work in parallel without any
high-speed communication for transient power sharing. From where C represents equivalent capacitance of the dc MG.
Fig. 2, the frequency reference ref_i,pu for the inner ac voltage When the operation feature of the hybrid ac/dc MG
loop can be obtained as changing from (13) to (23), the actual control mode of the ICs
{[ Pac* kac (ac* ac , pu )] K [ Pdc* kdc (U dc* udc _ i , pu )]}Gc _ i (s ) PIC _ i , pu will automatically change to dc MG support control from
ref _ i , pu set _ i
K p _i H p _i s
autonomous power control without operation mode detection,
(20) communication or control structure switching. This is because
As mentioned earlier, the ac frequency setting value set_i is with the power mismatch in the dc MG at the very beginning
directly set to be the actual ac frequency ac,pu, which can be of the transient, the dc voltage will change. Take the case of
obtained via a PLL system. Due to the self-synchronization load demand higher than power generation as an example, the
nature of the voltage-source control shown in Fig. 2, the dc voltage would start to decrease. With the unified control of
frequency reference ref_i,pu will converge to the ac microgrid ICs shown in Fig. 2, the active power reference Pset_i will begin
frequency ac,pu. It should be noted that during the transient to decline. Then the power injected to ac system will decrease
operation of the hybrid ac/dc MG changing from (13) to (19), or the power delivered to dc MG will increase, which can

1949-3053 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TSG.2017.2715371, IEEE
Transactions on Smart Grid

l_i=0, d_i=0.01
300 1
++++
**** l_i=0, d_i=0.5 1
It can also be seen that with the proposed unified control,
xxxx l_i=0.1, d_i=0.5
200 1
Orientation of i
from 0.1 to 4 0.8
i=2, l_i=0, d_i=0.5 the dc voltage can be controlled with P-Udc droop feature.
i=2, l_i=0.1, d_i=0.5
100
2
0.6
Without any communications, operation mode detection, and
0
40
30
2 0.4
control scheme switching, when the dc slack terminal becomes
20
2 10
0 0.2
unavailable, the ICs can maintain the power balancing and dc
-100 -10
-20
-30 0
voltage stability of the dc MG automatically. Moreover, the
-200 -40
-20-18-16-14-12-10-8 -6 -4 -2 0
-0.2
demand power of the dc MG can be shared proportionally
-300
-0.4
among the multiple ICs.
-200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
(a) (b)
Fig. 6. Influence of Gc_i(s) on the stability and dynamic of dc microgrid E. Discussion about extreme conditions
support control: (a) close loop poles, and (b) step response of G0(s). The above analysis, especially in ac microgrid and dc
microgrid support control modes, considers the conditions that
prevent further dc voltage collapse and help to balance the the dc slack terminal (in ac MG support control) or ac slack
power demand eventually within the dc system. terminal (in dc MG support control) has adequate capacity to
With the actual operation mode of the hybrid ac/dc MG, the sustain the steady-state operation, which are shown in (19) and
dynamic features of the outputs of ICs shown in (12) should be (23) respectively. In this section, conditions that the slack ter-
converted to minals (such as ESSs) have limited capacity will be discussed
PIC _ i , pu GIC _ i ( s){( Pac _ p , pu PIC , pu ) K [ Pdc* kdc (U dc* udc, pu )]} briefly.
(24)
N The incremental expression of the output characteristic of
PIC , pu PIC _ i , pu ICs shown in (12) can be derived as
i 1
N
Then from (23) and (24), the dynamic of dc voltage can be PIC , pu ( Kkdc udc , pu kac ac , pu ) GIC _ i ( s) (28)
derived as i 1

udc, pu G0 (s)Pdc _ p, pu G1 (s)(Pac _ p, pu K Pdc* Kkdc U dc* ) (25) When the hybrid ac/dc MG is in ac microgrid support or dc
microgrid support mode, PIC,pu can be further expressed as
where G0(s) and G1(s) are expressed as:
-Pac_p,pu or Pdc_p,pu respectively through power balancing.
N
(26)
{1 GIC _ i ( s )}S B / sCU dcB 2 In a real system, if the slack terminals in ac microgrid
G0 ( s ) i 1


N N
1 GIC _ i ( s) Kkdc GIC _ i ( s ) S B / sCU dcB 2 support or dc microgrid support mode cannot supply the total


i 1
N
i 1
power demand after a large disturbance of ac or dc power

GIC _ i ( s ) S B / sCU dcB 2 terminals, the slack terminals need to switch to power/current
1
G ( s ) i 1


N N
1 GIC _ i ( s) Kkdc GIC _ i ( s ) S B / sCU dcB 2
limiting control mode from voltage droop control mode. Due
i 1 i 1 to the power mismatch, dc voltage or ac frequency will contin-
The dynamic and stability of unified control in Fig. 2 under ue to change. It can be obtained from (28) that, with the unified
dc microgrid support mode can be discussed through (25) and control of ICs, the dc voltage and ac frequency will have the
(26). With the same damping i and setting time ts_i of Gp_i(s) same variation trend. Thus, when the storage units reach limits
selected as i=0.74 and ts_i=0.0175s respectively, the impact of and dc voltage and ac frequency exceed preset thresholds,
the proportional gain i, lead and delay time constants l_i and emergency strategies such as load shedding or DGs outputs
d_i of Gc_i(s) on the stability and dynamic of the dc microgrid curtailment [28][30] can be implemented for a hybrid ac/dc
support control is shown in Fig. 6. MG. Load shedding or DGs outputs curtailment strategies
As shown in Fig. 6(a), in order to improve the stability [28][30] are typically designed to ensure the whole system
margin of the pair of conjugate close loop poles with high stability and reliability, which are out of scope of this paper.
oscillation angular frequency shown as 1, delay time
constants d_i needs to be increased. However, it will reduce the IV. SIMULATION VERIFICATION
stability margin of the dominant poles with low oscillation A. Simulation Platform Details
angular frequency shown as 2, which would lead to low
In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed unified
oscillation or even instability. Fortunately, the phase-leading
control shown in Fig. 2 under different operation modes, a
transfer function (with time constant l_i) can be used to
hybrid ac/dc microgrid shown in Fig. 1 was implemented in
improve the stability, which can be effectively validated by the
PSCAD/EMTDC. The basic configurations of the simulation
step response of G0(s) shown in Fig. 6(b).
platform are as follows: (1) in this work the ratio of the rated
Therefore, considering that the control parameters of Gc_i(s)
capacity of the two slack terminals is selected as PacB_s :
can be designed to ensure the control shown in (16), (21) and
PdcB_s=K:1=1:1; (2) two ICs (referred to IC#1 and IC#2) using
(25) to be stable simultaneously, the stability of ICs with
the proposed unified control are considered, with their
proposed unified control shown in Fig. 2 under different
capacity ratio to be 1: 2=2:4 (due to the dc line resistance, the
operation modes can be realized.
theoretical value of actual power sharing ratio from (17) will
From (24), the steady dc voltage and the steady output of the
be PIC_1,pu : PIC_2,pu =1:1.74); (3) in dc side of the two ICs, the
i-th IC can be obtained respectively as
values of line resistances are selected as R1=25m and

P {( P P )P / [ / (1 Kk R )]} / K
*
(27) N
R2=25m respectively; while in ac side, the primary and
dc ac _ p , pu dc _ p , pu dc _ p , pu i dc i , pu i
udc , pu U dc
* i 1

kdc secondary line voltages (RMS values) of the transformers are



P / (1 Kkdc Ri , pui )
Pdc _ p , pu N i
270V and 380V respectively; (4) the base values of the ac
IC _ i , pu frequency, ac voltage, dc voltage and power defined as B, EB,



i 1
i / (1 Kkdc Ri , pui )

1949-3053 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TSG.2017.2715371, IEEE
Transactions on Smart Grid

TABLE I Switching frequency 10kHz


PARAMETERS OF THE AC MICROGRID Power Gc_2
4/0.1s/0.5s
Terminals Subsystem Parameter Value control (2/l_2/d_2)
Rated capacity 400kVA Setting reference
ac / Pset_2
Rated dc & ac P-f (set_2*/Pset_2)
750V/380V
Hardware voltages droop Droop gain(Kp_2) 80
Control
parameters 0.3mH / Damping (Hp_2) 0.1
LC filter system
150F,0.25 Setting reference
1/0
Switching frequency 10kHz Q-V (Eset_2*/ Qset_2*)
Slack
Setting reference droop Droop gain(Kq_2) 10
terminal P-f 1/0
(ac*/Pac*) Damping (Hq_2) 0.05
droop
Droop gain(kpac) 40 PR kp/kr/c 4/5/15.7rad/s
Control
Setting reference
system Q-V 1/0
(Eac*/Qac*) UdcB and SB are selected to be 314.15rad/s, 220V, 750V and
droop
Droop gain(kqac) 10
200kW respectively. The other detailed main circuit and
PR kp/kr/c 4/5/15.7rad/s
Rated capacity 200kVA
control parameters of the ac MG, dc MG and the two ICs are
Rated dc & ac listed in Table I, Table II and Table III respectively.
750V/380V
voltages
Power Hardware parameters 0.4mH / B. Simulation Validations
terminal LCL filter 100F,0.25/ (1) Case 1: Autonomous control the interlinking power
0.1mH between ac and dc subsystems
Switching frequency 10kHz
Current PI Controller kp/ki 0.4/160
The performance of the proposed unified control working in
autonomous control of the interlinking power between ac and
TABLE II dc MGs is verified in this case. Fig. 7 shows active power
PARAMETERS OF THE DC MICROGRID
outputs of the two terminals and two ICs, and ac frequency and
Terminals Subsystem Parameter Value
Rated capacity 400kW
dc voltage during the simulation are demonstrated in Fig. 8.
DC source voltage 500V t<0.5s: The outputs of power terminals in ac and dc MGs
Hardware parameters LC filter 0.5mH/10000F were Pdc_p = 50kW (0.25 in p.u.) and Pac_p = -100kW (-0.5 in
Switching
10kHz p.u.) respectively. The two ICs were both in standby state. So
Slack frequency in order to balance the power demand, the active outputs of dc
terminal Setting reference
P-Udc
(Uac*/Pdc*)
1/0 and ac slack terminal were to be Pdc_s,pu =-0.25 and Pac_s,pu = 0.5
Control droop respectively, as shown in Fig. 7(b). From the droop features
Droop gain(kdc) 10
system
Voltage PI kp/ki 1/100 with the parameters listed in the above tables, the steady state
Current PI kp/ki 0.003/5.3 values of dc voltage and ac frequency were to be udc,pu = 1.025
Rated capacity 200kW and ac,pu = 0.9875 respectively, as shown in Fig.8.
DC source voltage 400V t=0.5s~1.5s: The two ICs started up at t=0.5s. Due to the
Power Hardware parameters LC filter 0.5mH/10000F
terminal Switching slack terminals in the hybrid MG working normally with
10kHz droop features shown in Fig. 1 and (1), the two ICs with the
frequency
Current PI Controller kp/ki 0.003/5.3 proposed unified control demonstrated in Fig. 2 worked in
autonomous interlinking power control mode. It could be seen
TABLE III
PARAMETERS OF THE TWO ICS from Fig. 7(a) that the steady state values of active powers of
Terminals Subsystem Parameter Value the two ICs were to be PIC_1,pu = 0.124 and PIC_2,pu = 0.215
Rated capacity 100kVA respectively, which were consistent with the theoretical values
Rated dc & ac (L-L shown in (17). It could be seen that the power sharing accuracy
750V/220V
RMS) voltages
Hardware
0.4mH, / had been influenced by the line resistance.
parameters t=1.5s~2.5s: The output of the dc power terminal was
LCL filter 150F,1.0/
0.05mH changed to be Pdc_p = 150kW (0.75 in p.u.) at t=1.5s. Under the
Switching frequency 10kHz power disturbance in dc MG, the outputs of the two ICs were
Power Gc_1
control (1/l_1/d_1)
2/0.1s/0.5s changed to be PIC_1,pu = 0.2 and PIC_2,pu = 0.35 (consistent with
IC #1 the actual power sharing ratio shown in (17)) autonomously
Setting reference
ac / Pset_1
P-f (set_1*/Pset_1) with the unified control. Therefore the control of active power
droop Droop gain(Kp_1) 40 injection to the ac slack terminal is achieved. It can be seen
Control
Damping (Hp_1) 0.1 from the simulation results that the ac and dc slack terminals
system
Setting reference
Q-V (Eset_1*/ Qset_1*)
1/0 could share the disturbance in dc MG almost simultaneously.
droop Droop gain(Kq_1) 10 t=2.5s~3.5s: The active power of the ac power terminal was
Damping (Hq_1) 0.05 changed to be Pac_p=-200kW (-1 in p.u.) at t=2.5s. Due to inner
PR kp/kr/c 4/5/15.7rad/s P-f droop feature in the proposed unified control shown in Fig.
Rated capacity 200kVA 2, the two ICs could regulate their outputs rapidly to support
Rated dc & ac (L-L
750V/220V the ac MG when the disturbance occurred, as shown in Fig.
Hardware RMS) voltages
IC #2
parameters 0.25mH / 7(a). Then the active powers of the two ICs converged to theo-
LCL filter 100F,0.5/ retical steady state values according to the proposed control.
50H

1949-3053 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TSG.2017.2715371, IEEE
Transactions on Smart Grid

Active Power(pu)

Active Power(pu)
PIC_1,pu
PIC_1,pu PIC_2,pu
PIC_2,pu

(a)
Active Power(pu)

(a)

Active Power(pu)
Pac_s,pu
Pdc_s,pu
Pac_s,pu
Pdc_s,pu

(b)
Time(s)
Fig. 7. Case 1: Active power of the slack terminals (a) and the two ICs (b). (b)
Time(s)
Fig. 9. Case 2: Active power of the slack terminals (a) and the two ICs (b).
ac,pu
udc,pu
AC Frequency(pu)&
DC Bus Voltage(pu)

ac,pu
udc,pu

AC Frequency(pu)&
DC Bus Voltage(pu)
Time(s)
Fig. 8. Case 1: DC voltage and ac frequency.
Time(s)
(2) Case 2: Automatic switching between autonomous Fig. 10. Case 2: DC voltage and ac frequency.
interlinking power control and dc MG support control
This case was designed to verify the ability of the proposed respectively, which was consistent of the theoretical analysis
unified control to automatically change between autonomous shown in (17) with current operation conditions. The
power control and dc microgrid support control modes. The simulations revealed that the ICs with the proposed unified
results were shown in Fig. 9 and Fig. 10. control could be adaptive to autonomous power control and dc
t<1.0s: The outputs of the power terminals in ac and dc MGs MG support modes of the hybrid MG, without communication,
were Pdc_p=175kW (0.875 in p.u.) and Pac_p= -150kW (-0.75 in operation mode detection and control switching.
p.u.) respectively. The two ICs with proposed control worked (3) Case 3: Automatic switching between autonomous
in autonomous interlinking power control mode, with outputs interlinking power control and ac MG support control
to be PIC_1,pu=0.26 and PIC_2,pu =0.46 (consistent with the actual In this scenario, performances of the unified control for the
power sharing ratio shown in (17)) respectively. ICs switching between autonomous interlinking power control
t=1.0s~1.5s: The dc slack terminal became unavailable at and ac microgrid support control modes had been verified,
t=1.0s. It could be seen from the simulation results that the dc with simulation results shown in Fig. 11 and Fig. 12.
voltage and power balancing in the dc MG had been maintain- t<1.0s: Outputs of dc and ac power terminals were
ed. The outputs of ICs and dc voltage after this transient shown Pdc_p=-150kW (-0.75 in p.u.) and Pac_p= 175kW (0.875 in p.u.)
in Fig. 9 and Fig. 10 are consistent with the theoretical analysis respectively. The two ICs with the proposed control worked in
in (27).It can be verified that with the unified control, the two autonomous interlinking power control mode.
ICs had been transferred to dc MG support control mode from t=1.0s~1.5s: The ac slack terminal became unavailable at
autonomous interlinking power control automatically, without t=1.0s. It could be seen from the simulation results that the ac
operation mode detection and control scheme switching. frequency and power balancing in the ac MG could be well
maintained. After the transient, PIC_1,pu and PIC_2,pu in Fig. 11
t=1.5s~2.5s: Dc power terminal output was changed to be
are -0.32 and -0.55 respectively, and ac frequency in Fig. 12 is
Pdc_p,pu =0.125 at t=1.5s. The outputs of two ICs were changed
1.008, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis in (22).
to be PIC_1,pu =0.05 and PIC_2,pu =0.08 respectively after a short
It can be verified that with the unified control, the two ICs had
regulation transient, indicating that the output of each IC was
been transferred to ac MG support control mode from
also proportional to its rated capacity, and plug-and-play
autonomous interlinking power control automatically, without
feature was maintained in dc microgrid support control mode,
operation mode detection and control system switching.
which was consistent with the theoretical analysis in (18).
t=1.5s~2.5s: Output of the ac power terminal was changed
t=2.5s~3.5s: The dc slack terminal is re-connected at t=2.5s.
to be Pac_p,pu =0.25 at t=1.5s. The outputs of the two ICs were
From the simulation results, the hybrid ac/dc MG could be
changed to be PIC_1,pu =-0.09 and PIC_2,pu =-0.155 respectively,
shifted to a new stable equilibrium point smoothly. Outputs of
indicating that the output of each IC was still proportional to
the two ICs were changed to be PIC_1,pu =0.15 and PIC_2,pu =0.25
its rated capacity, and plug-play feature was also maintained

1949-3053 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TSG.2017.2715371, IEEE
Transactions on Smart Grid

Active Power(pu)
shifted to another stable equilibrium point smoothly. Outputs
of ICs were changed to be PIC_1,pu =-0.165 and PIC_2,pu =-0.29
respectively, which was consistent with the theoretical
PIC_1,pu
PIC_2,pu analysis shown in (17) with current operation conditions. The
simulations revealed that the ICs with the proposed unified
(a) control can realize operation modes transfer automatically
Active Power(pu)

without control scheme switching.


V. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION
Pac_s,pu
Pdc_s,pu A. Experimental Platform Details
(b)
In order to further verify the effectiveness of the proposed
Time(s) unified control, a simple experimental hybrid ac/dc MG had
Fig. 11. Case 3: Active power of the slack terminals (a) and the two ICs (b). been setup, as shown in Fig. 13. Due to hardware setup
limitations, a single Interlinking Converter (IC) was impleme-
ac,pu nted. In addition, a programmable dc source (udc) with a
udc,pu
seriesresistor (Rdroop) are used to simulate the droop
AC Frequency(pu)&
DC Bus Voltage(pu)

characteristic of the dc microgird. The ac microgrid contains a


programmable ac source and two resistive loads. The hardware
setup of the developed platform is shown in Fig. 14, with its
main circuit parameters listed in Table IV.
The IC adopted the proposed unified control, with the detai-
led control system and parameters shown in Fig. 13 and Table
V respectively. The main purpose of the experimental work is
Time(s)
to verify that the unified control based IC can automatically
Fig. 12. Case 3: DC voltage and ac frequency. change to ac microgrid support control mode from power
control mode, without any communication, operation mode
in ac microgrid support control mode, which was consistent detection and control system switching.
with the theoretical analysis in (18).
t=2.5s~3.5s: The ac slack terminal is re-connected at t=2.5s.
From the simulation results, the hybrid ac/dc MG could be
Rdroop idc
+ PIC /QIC
Eac/ac
Rinv Linv SG
Rs Ls
udc uo Cdc
Rf Rload1

-
Cf uabc
iabc SL Rload2
uo uabc,pwm

Pac* ac* ac,pu P-f &Q-V uabc abc u /u


ac,pu iabc i /i Power calculation
PIC,pu droop loop
1+sl Pset - ref PIC,pu=1.5(u*i+u*i)/SB
B/s ref cos
1
1+sd + Kp+Hps ++ QIC,pu=1.5(u*i-u*i)/SB
QIC,pu Eset
Interlinking Qset -
++ Eref EB
1
Pdc* udc* uo,pu + Kq+Hqs
power loop PLL
sin 0= 1
u
uabc uabc,ref -
2Kr_uis ac,pu B/s Mod ac
uabc,ref -
+ Kp_u + 2 ++- uabc,pwm u +
EB kp_pll+ki_pll
s ++ (0~2)
s 2+ 2Kr_uis + 0
Inner voltage loop iabc 0.5uo cos
Rd

Fig. 13. Configuration and unified control of the experimental platform.

TABLE IV
PARAMETERS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL PLATFORM
Terminals Parameter Value
AC voltage(L-L RMS)/Frequency 98V/ 49Hz
AC MG
AC load (Rload1/ Rload2) 8.5 /8.5
DC voltage 300V
DC MG
Droop feature (Rdroop) 4.8
DC side capacitance (Cdc_i) 2200F
Inductance of inverter side (Linv / Rinv) 1.12mH/ 0.01
IC Filter capacitance (Cf / Rf) 10F/ 0.5
Inductance of grid side (Ls / Rs) 2.0mH/ 0.01
Switching Frequency 10kHz

Fig. 14. Hardware setup.

1949-3053 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TSG.2017.2715371, IEEE
Transactions on Smart Grid

TABLE V
UNIFIED CONTROL PARAMETERS
Terminals Parameter Value
(b)
PLL PI (kp_pll/ki_pll) 1/ 20
Droop gains & power
Interlinking 20/ 4.5/ 1
ratio(kac/kdc/K)
power loop (a)
Power controller(/l/d) 2/ 0.05/ 0.4
P-f & Q-V P-f droop (Kp/Hp) 5/ 0.1
droop loop Q-V droop (Kq/Hq,Qset/Eset) 10/ 0.1, 0/1.0
PR controller 0.05/ 0.5/ t=t1 t=t2
Inner loop (Kp_u/Kr_u/0/i) 314.15*ac (rad/s) / 39(rad/s) *(a) dc voltage (uo) : 10V/div.
(b) dc load current (idc) : 2A/div.(It should be noted there is -0.45A zero shift of dc current.)
Active damping(Rd) 0.1
Fig. 15. Experimental results of dc side voltage and current of the IC
DC voltage, ac frequency
300V/ 314.15rad/s
Base Values & voltage, Power
/ 80V/ 4kW
(UdcB/B/EB/SB)

B. Experimental Validations
The experiments are mainly used to verify that the IC under
the proposed unified control could work in ac microgrid
support control mode automatically when the ac source
became unavailable. The experimental results are shown in Fig. (b)
(a)
15~ Fig. 17. Fig. 15 and Fig. 16 show the voltages and currents Transient: Transient:
ac load step change
islanding
of the ICs dc and ac side respectively, and Fig. 17(a) and (b) t=t1 t=t2
give the zoom in parts of the islanding and ac load step *(a) Phase C current (ic) : 4A/div. (b) ac line voltage (ubc) : 60V/div.
response transients in Fig. 16. Fig. 16. Experimental results of ac side voltage and current of the IC.
When dc source and ac source were both available (t < t1),
the steady state characteristics of the simple hybrid microgrid
shown in Fig. 13 could be obtained as
(a)
PIC , pu {[ Pac kac (ac ac , pu )] K [ Pdc kdc (U dc uo, pu )]} (29)
* * * * (b)


udc , pu Rdroop , pu PIC , pu uo, pu

With the main circuit and control parameters listed in
Tables IV and V (Pac*=0, kac=20, ac*=1, ac,pu=0.98, K=1,
Pdc*=0, kdc=4.5, Udc*=1, Rdroop,pu=0.213), the theoretical values (1) Transient: islanding
of the active power and dc voltage of IC(PIC,pu and uo,pu) can be
calculated respectively as: PIC,pu=0.27 and uo,pu=0.94. In Fig. (b)
15, the dc side current and voltage of IC (idc and uo) were idc (a)
=3.65A and uo =282.5V, so the p.u. values of the input active
power and dc voltage of IC were 0.26 and 0.94 respectively,
which were consistent with the theoretical values (the little
power difference was mainly the switching and line losses).
The ac source was disconnected by opening the switch SG at (2) Transient: ac load step change
*(a) Phase C current (ic) : 4A/div. (b) ac line voltage (ubc) : 60V/div.
t = t1. After that, a load step change via closing switch SL was Fig. 17. AC side voltage and current of the IC during transients in islanding (1),
triggered at t = t2. These transients here were denoted as and ac load step change (2).
islanding and ac load stepping respectively. Fig. 16 shows the
ac side voltage and current of the IC (line voltage ubc and ng smooth transition intelligently, automatically and seamles-
current of phase c current ic). It could be seen from the experi- sly among different operation modes.
mental results that ac voltage and power balancing in ac For future work, the following aspects would be recommen-
system were well maintained, which could be verified that ded. Firstly, in order to satisfy the plug-and-play feature of the
with the unified control, the actual control mode of the ICs, proportional control shown in (14) was used in this work,
interlinking converter had been transferred to ac microgrid so the ratio of the actual outputs of the two slack terminals
support control mode from power control automatically and could not absolutely satisfy Pac_s,pu: Pdc_s,pu = K:1 and the
seamlessly. It should be noted that, with the proposed unified accuracy of autonomous interlinking power control will be
control, the IC did not need to detect the operation mode or ac affected, which had been verified by both theoretical analysis
slack terminal faults in this case. and simulation/experimental results. In addition, in an actual
hybrid ac/dc microgrid, these droop features in both ac and dc
VI. CONCLUSION MGs will be changed due to the variations of these slack
A unified control for parallel operation of multiple dc-ac terminals, or secondary control for ac frequency and dc
interlinking converters in hybrid ac/dc MGs is proposed in this voltage. So the updated droop characteristics of ac and dc
paper. Theoretical analysis and simulation/experimental resul- microgrids are needed for the proposed unified control shown
ts have shown that plug-and-play feature can be realized with in Fig. 2. In order to solve the aforementioned issues, and
the presented unified control. Moreover, the ICs can be adapti- realize autonomous and intelligent control of hybrid MGs
ve to operation mode change of the hybrid microgird, achievi- under complicated operation conditions, secondary coordinat-

1949-3053 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TSG.2017.2715371, IEEE
Transactions on Smart Grid

ed control between ac microgrid, dc microgrid and ICs can be Control and Power Sharing in Multi-terminal DC Grids Based on
Optimal DC Power Flow and Voltage-Droop Strategy, IEEE Journal of
a feasible approach. As the secondary control systems for ac
Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electro., vol. 2, no. 4, pp.
frequency and dc voltage recovery are always contained in a 11711180, Dec. 2014.
hybrid microgrid, the proposed unified control as a local [19] H. Xiao, A. Luo, Z. Shuai, G. Jin, and Y. Huang, An Improved Control
controller can be quite compatible with these secondary Method for Multiple Bidirectional Power Converters in Hybrid AC/DC
Microgrid, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 340347, Jan.
control systems. Moreover, the control variable K can be
2016.
flexibly designed according to other power control objectives, [20] M. Baharizadeh, H. R. Karshenas, J. M. Guerrero, Control strategy of
such as interlinking power dispatch, and other optimal power interlinking converters as the key segment of hybrid ACDC
dispatch algorithms. Thereby, the proposed unified control microgrids,IET Gener. Transm. Distrib.,, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 16711681,
Jan. 2016.
scheme has better flexibility and compatibility.
[21] W. Zhang, K. Rouzbehi, A. Luna, G. B. Gharehpetian, P. Rodriguez,
REFERENCES Multi-terminal HVDC grids with inertia mimicry capability,IET
Renew. Power Gener., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 752760, Jan. 2016.
[1] A. A. Eajal, M. A. Abdelwah., E. F. El-Saadany, and K. Ponnambal, A [22] J. He, Y. W. Li, J. M. Guerrero, F. Blaabjerg, and J. C. Vasquez, An
Unified Approach to the Power Flow Analysis of AC/DC Hybrid Islanding Microgrid Power Sharing Approach Using Enhanced Virtual
Microgrids, IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1145 Impedance Control Scheme, IEEE Trans. Power Electro., vol. 28,
1158, Jul. 2016. no.11, pp. 52725282, Nov. 2013.
[2] C. Wang, X. Li, L. Guo, and Y. Li, A Nonlinear Disturbance Observer [23] Y. Han, H. Li, P. Shen, E. A. A. Coelho, and J. M. Guerrero, Review of
Based DC Bus Voltage Control for a Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid, IEEE Active and Reactive Power Sharing Strategies in Hierarchical
Trans. Power Electro., vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 61626177, Nov. 2014. Controlled Microgrids, IEEE Trans. Power Electro., vol. 32, no.3, pp.
[3] P. Wang, C. Jin, D. Zhu, Y. Tang, P. C. Loh, and F. H. Choo, 24272451, Mar. 2017.
Distributed Control for Autonomous Operation of a Three-Port AC/DC [24] J. Liu, Y. Miura, and T. Ise, Comparison of Dynamic Characteristics
/DS Hybrid Microgrid, IEEE Trans. Industrial Electro., vol. 62, no. 2, Between Virtual Synchronous Generator and Droop Control in
pp. 12791290, Feb. 2015. Inverter-Based Distributed Generators, IEEE Trans. Power Electro.,
[4] A. A. Eajal, M. A. Abdelwah., and E. F. El-Saadany, A Sequential vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 36003611, May. 2016.
Power Flow Algorithm for Islanded Hybrid AC/DC Microgrids, IEEE [25] J. Liu, Y. Miura, H. Bevrani, and T. Ise, Enhanced Virtual Synchronous
Trans. Power Syst., vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 3961-3970, Sep. 2016. Generator Control for Parallel Inverters in Microgrids, IEEE Trans.
[5] F. Nejabatkhah, and Y. Li, Overview of Power Management Strategies Smart Grid, early acess.
of Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid, IEEE Trans. Power Electro., vol. 30, no. [26] H. Wu, X. Ruan, D. Yang, X. Chen, W. Zhao, Z. Lv, and Q.-C. Zhong,
12, pp. 70727089, Dec. 2015. Small-Signal Modeling and Parameters Design for Virtual Synchrono-
[6] T. Dragicevi, X. Lu, J. C. Vasquez, and J. M. Guerrero, DC us Generators, IEEE Trans. Industrial Electro., vol. 63, no. 7, pp.
MicrogridsPart II: A Review of Power Architectures, Applications, 42924303, Jul. 2016.
and Standardization Issues, IEEE Trans. Power Electro., vol. 31, no. 5, [27] X.Chen, X. Ruan, D. Yang, H. Wu, and W. Zhao, Step-by-Step
pp. 35283549, May. 2016. Controller Design of Voltage Closed-Loop Control for Virtual Synchr
[7] K. Kurohane, T. Senjyu, A. Yona, N. Urasaki, T. Goya, and T. onous Generator, 2015 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and
Funabashi, A Hybrid Smart AC/DC Power System, IEEE Trans. Exposition (ECCE), pp. 37603765, 2015.
Smart Grid, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 199204, Sep. 2010. [28] M. S. Golsorkhi, Q. Shafiee, D.D.C. Lu, and J. M. Gue, A Distributed
[8] X. Liu, P. Wang, and P. C. Loh, A Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid and Its Control Framework for Integrated Photovoltaic-Battery Based Islanded
Coordination Control, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. Microgrids, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, early acess.
278286, Jun. 2011. [29] S. Pulendran, and J. E. Tate, Energy Storage System Control for
[9] J. M. Guerrero, J. C. Vasquez, J. Matas, L. G. Vicua, and M. Castilla, Prevention of Transient Under-Frequency Load Shedding, IEEE Trans.
Hierarchical Control of Droop-Controlled AC and DC MicrogridsA Smart Grid, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 927936, Mar. 2017.
General Approach Toward Standardization, IEEE Trans. Industrial [30] M. Karimi, P. Wall, H. Mokhlis, and V. Terzija, A New Centralized
Electro., vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 158172, Jan. 2011. Adaptive Underfrequency Load Shedding Controller for Microgrids
[10] P. C. Loh, D. Li, Y.K. Chai, F. Blaabjerg, Autonomous Operation of Based on a Distribution State Estimator, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol.
Hybrid Microgrid With AC and DC Subgrids, IEEE Trans.Power 32, no. 1, pp. 370380, Feb. 2017.
Electron., vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 22142223, May 2013.
[11] P. C. Loh, D. Li, Y. K. Chai, and F. Blaabjerg, Hybrid AC-DC Micro-
grids With Energy Storages and Progressive Energy Flow Tuning,
IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 28, no. 4,pp. 15331542, Apr. 2013.
[12] P. C. Loh, D. Li, Y. K. Chai, and F. Blaabjerg, Autonomous Control of Xialin Li (M15) received the B.Sc. degree and the
Interlinking Converter With Energy Storage in Hybrid ACDC Ph.D. degree from Tianjin University, Tianjin,
Microgrid, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 13741382, China, in 2009 and 2014, respectively.
May/Jun. 2013. Since 2014, he has been a lecture with the School of
[13] N. Eghtedarpour and E. Farjah, Power Control and Management in a Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin
Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. University, China. In 2016, under the State
14941505, May 2014. Scholarship Fund, he was invited as a Visiting
[14] J. Xiao, P. Wang, and L. Setyawan, Power Control and Management in Professor to the Department of Electrical and
a Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. Computer Engineering, University of Alberta,
273281, Jan. 2016. Canada. His current research interests include the
[15] X. Lu, J. M. Guerrero, K. Sun, J. C. Vasquez, R. Teodorescu, and L. modeling and control of power converters, distributed generation, hybrid
Huang, Hierarchical Control of Parallel AC-DC Converter Interfaces ac/dc microgrid, and multi-terminal dc grids (MTDC).
for Hybrid Microgrids, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 5, no. 2, pp.
683692, Mar. 2014.
[16] Y. Xia, Y. Peng, P. Yang, M. Yu, and W. Wei, Distributed Li Guo (M11) received the B.Sc. the Ph.D degree in
Coordination Control for Multiple Bidirectional Power Converters in a Electrical Engineering from South China University of
Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid, IEEE Trans. Power Electro., vol. 32, no. 6, Technology in 2002 and 2007, respectively.
pp. 49494959, Jun. 2017. Dr. Guo is currently a full Professor at Tianjin
[17] K. Rouzbehi, A. Miranian, J. I. Candela, A. Luna, and P. Rodriguez, A University. His research interests include the optimal
Generalized Voltage Droop Strategy for Control of Multiterminal DC planning and design of microgrid, the coordinated
Grids, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 607618, Jan./Feb. operating strategy of microgrid, and the advanced
2015. energy management system.
[18] K. Rouzbehi, A. Miranian, A. Luna, and P. Rodriguez, DC Voltage

1949-3053 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TSG.2017.2715371, IEEE
Transactions on Smart Grid

Yun Wei Li (S04M05SM11) received the B.Sc.


in Engineering degree in electrical engineering from
Tianjin University, Tianjin, China, in 2002, and the
Ph.D. degree from Nanyang Technological University,
Singapore, in 2006.
In 2005, Dr. Li was a Visiting Scholar with Aalborg
University, Denmark. From 2006 to 2007, he was a
Postdoctoral Research Fellow at Ryerson University,
Canada. In 2007, he also worked at Rockwell
Automation Canada before he joined University of
Alberta, Canada in the same year. Since then, Dr. Li has been with University
of Alberta, where he is a Professor now. His research interests include
distributed generation, microgrid, renewable energy, high power converters
and electric motor drives.
Dr. Li serves as an Associate Editor for IEEE Transactions on Power
Electronics, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions
on Smart Grid, and IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power
Electronics. Dr. Li received the Richard M. Bass Outstanding Young Power
Electronics Engineer Award from IEEE Power Electronics Society in 2013
and the second prize paper award of IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
in 2014.

Zhen Guo received the B.S. degree from Hefei


University of Technology, Hefei, China, in 2015.
Currently, he is a graduate student in the school of
electrical and information engineering from Tianjin
University, Tianjin, China. His research interests focus
on the power quality improvement and coordination
control of ac/dc microgrids.

Chao Hong is a Senior Power System Engineer with


the Electric Power Re-search Institute of China
Southern Power Grid (CSG). His current research
in-terests are in the areas of power system dynamics
and control, and power system planning.

Ye Zhang was born in Liaoning, China, in 1986. He


received the B.S. degree and Ph.D degree in the
Electrical Engineering from Tianjin University,
Tianjin, China, in 2009 and in 2014. Now he is
working in Electric Power Research Institute of CSG
His current researches include power inverter control,
energy management method, distributed generations
and smart grid.

Chengshan Wang (SM11) received the B.Sc. degree,


the M.Sc. degree and the Ph.D. degree from Tianjin
University, Tianjin, China, in 1983, 1985 and 1991,
respectively.
He became a full professor of Tianjin University in
1996. He has been to Cornell University as a visiting
scientist from 1994 to 1996 and to Carneigie Mellon
University as a visiting professor from 2001 to 2002.
Prof. Wang is the gainer of Fok Ying Tung Fund,
Excellent Young Teacher Fund of Education Ministry
and a winner of National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars. He
is the Chief Scientist of 973 project, Research on the Key Issues of
Distributed Generation Systems from 2009 to 2013 that was participated by
Chinese power engineering scientists from 8 leading institutions. His research
is in the area of distribution system analysis and planning, distributed
generation system and microgrid, and power system security analysis.

1949-3053 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.