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PT MEGASURYA MAS

FORMULATING AND PROCESSING


PALM
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To formulate a candle wax and to be able to use that wax to


produce a candle it is important to understand the differences
between palm and paraffin wax.

These differences result from the fact that palm is not a wax
but a fat and behaves as a fat. The behaviour of a fat is
different to that of a wax.
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FATTY ACID CONTENT FAC

The Fatty Acid Content or FAC is the ratio of the different carbon chains in the
material. For palm this is C12 to C20 although C16 and C18 are the major
components.

Palm waxes with similar MP and IV can have different FAC and so will behave
differently in a candle formulation. Consider 2 RBD palm stearines:

Stearine IV MP Texture C16:0 C18:0 C18:1 C18:2


A 5 58-60 Hard 55 42 3 -
B 5 58-61 Hard 85 10 5 -

Both products have a similar IV and MP but have different FAC profiles. Product
B has a higher C16 content. What affect does this have on performance?
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# Is the FAC suitable for the intended application? A high C16 content will
result in excessive crystallization (foaming). This will limit the amount of palm
in the candle formulation.

SAMPLE A SAMPLE B
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SOLID FAT CONTENT - SFC

The Solid Fat Content or SFC is the % of the fat that is solid at a given
temperature.

It is important to select a palm with the correct SFC for the intended application.
Consider 2 different RBD palm stearines.

Stearine 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600

A 93% 90% 86% 80% 75% 65% 58% 42% 12%

B 46% 30% 19% 12% 8% 3% - - -

The SFC of stearine A is typical of a fully hydrogenated palm stearine. Stearine B


is a soft low melt stearine with no hydrogenation.
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# Using a palm in a formulation with the wrong SFC can lead to problems
with sweating in jar candles
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POLYMORPHISM

Polymorphism is the ability of a fat to solidify into different crystal forms


depending on cooling conditions.

Unlike paraffin wax which always cools to an orthorhombic crystal whatever the
conditions fats can cool into three different forms alpha, beta and beta prime.

These 3 crystal forms have different structures and where a mix of crystal forms
exists then surface imperfections can be seen.

What is the effect of polymorphism?


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# Controlled process conditions will help prevent polymorphism. For container


candles warm glasses, for moulded candles fixed temperature cooling water help
to eliminate variations caused by changes in ambient temperature.
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SUPERCOOLING

The formation of a super saturated solution resulting in a depressed solidification


point. # Process palm waxes at lower temperatures to reduce cooling times. Pour
temperatures should be close to the 1st transition point.

Paraffin Palm

Liquid Liquid
1st transition

Solid Super saturated


Liquid

2nd transition

Solid Solid
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APPLICATIONS

Palm can be used as a replacement for paraffin in most candle applications. The
optimum palm paraffin ratio will depend on a number of factors but there are
some general guidelines

Type of candle Container candles can often use a higher palm content than
pillars and other free standing candles.

Size of candle As the size of the candle increases then the palm content of the
blend may decrease.

Production process A higher palm content is possible for moulding and filling
compared to pressing and extrusion.
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APPLICATIONS

Palm cannot be used as a paraffin wax replacement for certain candle types and
certain processes. They are not recommended for the following

Candle type Any special effect candle such as mottle, rustic, cracked where
the unique properties of paraffin are needed to create the effect.

Process Drawing and dipping which need to wax to be flexible and with
specific cooling characteristics.
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FORMULATION - Pillar

Candle type 1 pillar


Process Moulding

Palm wax1 80-85%


FRPW / SRPW 58-60 15-20%

Wax pour temperature 60-650C


Water cooling required Yes
Cooling water temperature 20-250C (Ambient)

Palm wax: SM2000, G4792 or similar


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FORMULATION - Pillar

Candle type 3 pillar


Process Moulding

Palm wax1 70-75%


FRPW / SRPW 58-60 25-30%

Wax pour temperature 650C


Water cooling required Yes
Cooling water temperature 20-250C (Ambient)

Palm wax: SM2000, G4792 or similar


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FORMULATION - Pillar

Candle type 1 pillar


Process Moulding

Palm wax blend1 100%

Wax pour temperature 60-650C


Water cooling required Yes
Cooling water temperature 20-250C (Ambient)

Ready to use Palm blend: SM8280, Gxxx or similar


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FORMULATION - Extrusion

Candle type 1 pillar


Process Extrusion

Palm wax1 40-50%


FRPW / SRPW 58-60 50-60%

Extruder Piston
Form Process as beads
Process as pre-blend. Do not feed
Blend
waxes into extruder separately

Palm wax: SM2000, G4792 or similar


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FORMULATION - Extrusion

Candle type 3 pillar


Process Extrusion

Palm wax1 25-40%


FRPW / SRPW 58-60 60-75%

Extruder Piston
Form Process as beads
Process as pre-blend. Do not feed
Blend
waxes into extruder separately

Palm wax: SM2000, G4792 or similar


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FORMULATION - Pressing

Candle type 3 pillar


Process Press

Palm wax1 50-70%


FRPW / SRPW 58-60 30-50%

Press Piston
Form Process as beads

Palm wax: SM2000, G4792 or similar


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FORMULATION - Filling

Candle type 2 / 60mm religious jar


Process Filling

Palm wax1 100%

Wax pour temperature 60-650C


Glass temperature 25-350C

Palm wax: SM6035, G4798 or similar


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FORMULATION - Filling

Candle type 2 / 60mm religious jar


Process Filling

Palm wax1 50-70%


Slack wax 30-50%

Wax pour temperature 650C


Glass temperature 25-350C

Palm wax: SM3874, G4797 or similar


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FORMULATION - Filling

Candle type 3 / 80mm decorative


Process Filling

Palm wax1 85-92.5%


Paraffin wax 5-10%
Microcrystalline wax 2.5-5%

Wax pour temperature 60-650C


Glass temperature 35-450C

Palm wax: SM6535, Gxxx or similar


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Conclusions
Palm offers the candle maker an alternative to paraffin wax but the following
points must be taken into account:

Palm is not a wax but a fat and has different performance characteristics
compared to paraffin wax. These differences need to be taken into account when
working with palm especially process conditions. Ensure the right process
conditions for the type and amount of palm added.

Palm with the same apparent melt point and IV can behave very differently. Make
sure you know the source of the palm being used.

In most cases optimum results both product performance and process quality
come from using palm / paraffin blends. Work on the optimum blend for each
application.

For maximum candle performance the changes may also need to be made to the
wick, colour and fragrance when using palm in the formulation. Do not assume
that the same wick and colour combinations that work for 100% paraffin will work
in palm / paraffin blends.