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Artificial Intelligence

α
Suyog Dixitª and Pankaj Kumar Jha

a B.E. Computer Science, Third year, SD Bansal College of Technology, Indore (M.P.)
α B.E Computer Science, Second year, SD Bansal College of Technology, Indore (M.P.)
Email: pankajjha@suyogdixit.com

ABSTRACT

A rtificial intelligence (AI) is a field of


computer science that explores
computational models of problem solving,
where the problems to be solved are of the
complex problems in a more human-like fashion.
This generally involves borrowing characteristics
from human intelligence, and applying them as
algorithms in a computer friendly way. Today, people
complexity of problems solved by human beings. are interacting more and more with computers. Life is
Artificial Intelligence is the study of how to make running at a microchip speed. If all computers are
computers do things, which, now, people do stopped for a day, complete civilization comes to a
better. The central problems of AI include such halt! Fifty years ago, this might have been a science
traits as reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, fiction, but today it is a reality. Further, with
communication, perception, and the ability to Computers being embedded in all of our life
move and manipulate objects. This paper accessories like mobiles, watches, cars, even our
elaborates the new approaches to AI. Artificial bodies and brains there is no indication that this
intelligence in the future will churn out machines microchip speed will not be multiplied in the future.
and computers, which are much more Over the last decade, these electronic tiny minuscule
sophisticated than the ones that we have today. It signals have fundamentally revolutionized the way
is expected that the robots in future, will take on we live. People are spending more hours per day with
everybody's work. Whether it is office work or the machines than humans. An amazing a human-
work at home, robots will accomplish it even machine relationship is developing. So far this bond
faster and efficiently than human beings will. So if has been one sided because the ability to generate,
somebody's falling ill, they can obtain a robot recognize and express emotions are a unique
nurse who will give periodic medicines to them. prerogative of living human beings. If this
How much care, concern, and empathy the robot intelligence or abstract attribute could be taught to
nurse will have towards the patient is anybody's machines, it would re-conceptualize the perception of
guess! This paper intends to study the techniques machines. It will fundamentally change the way we
developed in artificial intelligence (AI) from the will life, in the third millennium.
standpoint of their applications in all fields related
to engineering. In particular, it focuses on We taught machines how to read, speak and
techniques developed (or that are being understand humans by voices, actions and events.
developed) in artificial intelligence that can be Now we are fast approaching a stage where we will
deployed in solving problems associated with have to impart intelligence to make these non
distinct processes. This paper highlights a biological machines a part of living beings family.
comparative study between approaches and its Further, diminishing the difference between living
applications. and non-living, biological and non-biological. The
INDEX TERMS: Artificial Intelligence, Robots, intelligence attributes could be Emotions, Creativity
Engineering, Computational model and Spirituality.

INTRODUCTION HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Science, which The history of artificial intelligence began
deals with helping machines, finds solutions to in antiquity, with myths, stories and rumors of

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artificial beings endowed with intelligence or NEURAL NETWORKS AND PARALLEL
consciousness by master craftsmen; as Pamela COMPUTATION
McCorduck writes, AI began with "an ancient wish to
forge the gods." The human brain is made up of a web of billions of
cells called neurons, and understanding its
The seeds of modern AI were plant by classical
philosophers who attempted to describe the process complexities is seen as one of the last frontiers in
of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of scientific research. It is the aim of AI researchers
symbols. This work culminated in the invention of who prefer this bottom-up approach to construct
the programmable digital computer in the 1940s, a electronic circuits that act as neurons do in the human
machine based on the abstract essence of brain. Although much of the working of the brain
mathematical reasoning. This device and the ideas
remains unknown, the complex network of neurons is
behind it inspired a handful of scientists to begin
seriously discussing the possibility of building an what gives humans intelligent characteristics. By
electronic brain. itself, a neuron is not intelligent, but when grouped
together, neurons are able to pass electrical signals
The field of artificial intelligence research has through networks. Research has shown that a signal
founded at a conference on the campus of Dartmouth received by a neuron travels through the dendrite
College in the summer of 1956. Those who attended region, and down the axon. Separating nerve cells is a
would become the leaders of AI research for decades.
gap called the synapse. In order for the signal to be
Many of them predicted that a machine as intelligent
as a human being would exist in no more than a transferred to the next neuron, the signal must be
generation and they given millions of dollars to make converted from electrical to chemical energy. The
this vision come true. signal can then be received by the next neuron and
processed.
Eventually it became obvious that they had grossly
underestimated the difficulty of the project. In 1973, Warren McCulloch after completing medical school
in response to the criticism of Sir James Light at Yale, along with Walter Pitts a mathematician
hill and ongoing pressure from congress, proposed a hypothesis to explain the fundamentals of
the U.S. and British Governments stopped funding
undirected research into artificial intelligence. Seven how neural networks made the brain work. Based on
years later, a visionary initiative by the Japanese experiments with neurons, McCulloch and Pitts
Government inspired governments and industry to showed that neurons might be considered devices for
provide AI with billions of dollars, but by the late 80s processing binary numbers. An important back of
the investors became disillusioned and withdrew mathematic logic, binary numbers (represented as 1's
funding again. This cycle of boom and bust, of "AI and 0's or true and false) were also the basis of the
winters" and summers, continues to haunt the field.
electronic computer.
Undaunted, there are those who make extraordinary
predictions even now.

Progress in AI has continued, despite the rise and fall


of its reputation in the eyes of government
bureaucrats and venture capitalists. Problems that had
begun to seem impossible in 1970 have been solved
and the solutions are now used in successful
commercial products. However, no machine has been
built with a human level of intelligence, contrary to
the optimistic predictions of the first generation of AI
researchers. "We can only see a short distance Fig 1:The neuron "firing", passing a signal to the next
ahead," admitted Alan Turing, in a famous 1950 in the chain.
paper that catalyzed the modern search for machines
that think. "But," he added, "we can see much that TOP DOWN APPROACHES:
must be done."
Because of the large storage capacity of computers,
expert systems had the potential to interpret statistics,

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in order to formulate rules. An expert system works can occur at any stage of software development.
much like a detective solves a mystery. Using the Errors due to coding may occur because of faulty
information, and logic or rules, an expert system can design. Such errors are usually expensive to correct.
solve the problem. For example it the expert system
was designed to distinguish birds it may have the A basic problem of software engineering is the long
following as shown in Fig 2. delay between the requirements specification and the
delivery of a product. This long development cycle
causes requirements to change before product arrival.
In addition, there is the problem of phase one level
becomes fixed for the next level. Thus, the coding
team is forced to recode whenever there is change in
design. Expert system use knowledge rather than data
to control the solution process. Knowledge engineers
build systems by eliciting knowledge from experts,
coding, that knowledge in an appropriate form,
validating the knowledge, and ultimately constructing
Fig 2: Charts like these represent the logic of expert a system using a variety of building tools. The main
systems. Using a similar set of rules, experts can have phases the expert system development processes are:-
a variety of applications. With improved interfacing
• Planning
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES • Knowledge acquisition and analysis
IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (AITSE):
• Knowledge design
Software Engineering is a knowledge-intensive
activity, requiring extensive knowledge of the • Code
application domain and of the target software itself.
Many Software products costs can be attributed to the • Knowledge verification
ineffectiveness of current techniques for managing
• System evaluation
this knowledge, and Artificial Intelligence techniques
can help alleviate this situation.

Fig 4: Expert System development.

Fig 3: Traditional software development process. The Risk Management process is a method of
identifying risks in advance and establishing methods
The traditional view of software development process of avoiding those risks and /or reducing the impact of
begins at the requirements specification and ends at those risks should they occur. The process of risk
testing the software. At each of these stages, different management begins during the analysis phase of
kinds of knowledge (design knowledge at design software development life cycle. However, the actual
stage and programming and domain knowledge at the process of managing risks continues throughout the
coding stage) are required. At each of the two stages: product development phase. The given Figure
design and coding, exist a cycle: error recognition displays the steps of the risk management process.
and error correction. Experience shows that errors

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By using AI based systems with the help of that is not just a set of two-dimensional views. At
automated tool or automated programming tool we present there are only limited ways of representing
can eliminate risk assessment phase saving our time three-dimensional information directly, and they are
not as good as what humans evidently use.
in software development. Because of AITSE we can
reduce the development time in software Expert systems
development. Coding phase in software development A ``knowledge engineer'' interviews experts in a
process can be changed into Genetic Code. certain domain and tries to embody their knowledge
in a computer program for carrying out some task.
APPLICATION How well this works depends on whether the
intellectual mechanisms required for the task are
Computer Games
You've most likely noticed the constant references to within the present state of AI. When this turned out
the computer games industry, and obviously this not to be so, there were many disappointing results.
technology applies will to them. Realism and One of the first expert systems was MYCIN in 1974,
modularity are two of the main benefits, and as more which diagnosed bacterial infections of the blood and
power can be sacrificed to the AI, accurate simulation suggested treatments. It did better than medical
of virtual bodies will become a necessity. students or practicing doctors, provided its limitations
were observed. Namely, its ontology included
Robotics Experiments
When the animats are fully constrained with respect bacteria, symptoms, and treatments and did not
to their virtual world, and if this environment is an include patients, doctors, hospitals, death, recovery,
accurate model of real-life, techniques applied with and events occurring in time. Its interactions
generally transfer to physical robots. It's a subject of depended on a single patient being considered. Since
debate among robotics researchers, but general the experts consulted by the knowledge engineers
consensus is that ``Simulators are doomed to knew about patients, doctors, death, recovery, etc., it
succeed.'' -- in the words of Rodney Brooks. Realism
is clear that the knowledge engineers forced what the
is increasing drastically along with computational
experts told them into a predetermined framework. In
Speech recognition the present state of AI, this has to be true. The
In the 1990s, computer speech recognition reached a usefulness of current expert systems depends on their
practical level for limited purposes. Thus United users having common sense.
Airlines has replaced its keyboard tree for flight
information by a system using speech recognition of ADVANTAGES
flight numbers and city names. It is quite convenient.
While we already deal with some virtual AI --
On the the other hand, while it is possible to instruct
notably in action games against computer-controlled
some computers using speech, most users have gone "bots" or challenging a computer opponent to chess --
back to the keyboard and the mouse as still more the work of Novamente, Electric Sheep Company
convenient. and other firms has the potential to initiate a new age
of virtual AI, one where, for better or worse, humans
Understanding natural language and artificial intelligences could potentially be
Just getting a sequence of words into a computer is indistinguishable. If you think about it, we take in
not enough. Parsing sentences is not enough either. numerous pieces of information just walking down
The computer has to be provided with an the street, much of it unconsciously. You might be
understanding of the domain the text is about, and thinking about the weather, the pace of your steps,
this is presently possible only for very limited where to step next, the movement of other people,
domains. smells, sounds, the distance to the destination, the
effect of the environment around you and so forth.
Computer vision An artificial intelligence in a virtual world has fewer
The world is composed of three-dimensional objects, of these variables to deal with because as of yet, no
but the inputs to the human eye and computers' TV virtual world approaches the complexity of the real
cameras are two dimensional. Some useful programs world. It may be that by simplifying the world in
can work solely in two dimensions, but full computer which the artificial intelligence operates (and by
vision requires partial three-dimensional information working in a self-contained world), some

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breakthroughs can be achieved. Such a process would hard to make robots that can do these things and I
allow for a more linear development of artificial have no desire to belittle the scientific achievements
intelligence rather than an attempt to immediately that have already been made, but even if a robot
jump to lifelike robots capable of learning, reason succeeds in doing all these things as well as a human
and self-analysis. being it will still lack at least one essential human
ability, namely that of learning from other people by
LIMITATIONS accepting what they say and by believing what they
have written. The ultimate goal of AI cannot be
If robots start replacing human resources in every achieved until we have implemented in a computer
field, we will have to deal with serious issues like system the ability to acquire information from
unemployment in turn leading to mental depression, testimony.
poverty and crime in the society. Human beings
deprived of their work life may not find any means to A number of people, who should know better , make
channelize their energies and harness their expertise. predictions about when AI will achieve its ultimate
Human beings will be left with empty time. goal. There is no possibility of AI succeeding in the
foreseeable future. People who say otherwise are
Secondly, replacing human beings with robots in simply ignorant of the state of research into
every field may not be a right decision to make. testimony. AI cannot succeed until an android (or
There are many jobs that require the human touch. computer program) can evaluate testimony in a
Intelligent machines will surely not be able to similar way to that in which a human being can.
substitute for the caring behavior of hospital nurses
or the promising voice of a doctor. Intelligent CONCLUTION
machines may not be the right choice for customer
service. Technology is neither good nor bad. It never has
been. What man does with it is another story entirely.
One of the major disadvantages of intelligent Technological changes are certainly coming. They
machines is that they cannot be ‘human’. We might are already taking place. They are constant and
be able to make them think. But will we be able to ubiquitous. Many believe that they are accelerating.
make them feel? Intelligent machines will definitely They are probably also unstoppable. Just as with the
be able to work for long hours. But will they do it scientific knowledge that went into making the
with dedication? Will they work with devotion? How atomic bomb, once it is possible to do something,
will intelligent machines work wholeheartedly when someone will eventually do it.
they don’t have a heart? Apart from these concerns,
there are chances that intelligent machines overpower Artificial intelligence has successfully been used in a
human beings. Machines may enslave human beings wide range of fields including medical diagnosis,
and start ruling the world. Imagine artificial stock trading, robot control, law, scientific discovery
intelligence taking over human intellect! The picture and toys. Frequently, when a technique reaches
is definitely not rosy. mainstream use it is no longer considered artificial
intelligence.
Some thinkers consider it ethically wrong to create
artificial intelligent machines. According to them, These rivaling theories have lead researchers in one
intelligence is God’s gift to mankind. It is not correct of two basic approaches; bottom-up and top-down.
to even try to recreate intelligence. It is against ethics Bottom-up theorists believe the best way to achieve
to create replicas of human beings. Don’t you also artificial intelligence is to build electronic replicas of
think so. the human brain's complex network of problems, or
making generalizations and relationships.
The ultimate goal of research in AI and Robotics is to
produce an android which can interact meaningfully One of the most challenging approaches facing
with human beings. A huge amount of research effort experts is building systems that mimic the behavior
is being exerted in order to achieve this aim and a lot of the human brain, made up of billions of neurons.
of progress has already been made. Researchers have Artificial intelligence has successfully been used in a
manufactured androids that can walk on two legs, wide range of fields including medical diagnosis,
that can climb stairs, that can grasp objects without stock trading, robot control, law, scientific discovery
breaking or dropping them, that can recognise faces and toys. Frequently, when a technique reaches
and a variety of physical objects, that can imitate mainstream use it is no longer considered artificial
what they see human beings doing and so on. It is intelligence.

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In the quest to create intelligent machines, the field of
Artificial Intelligence has split into several different
approaches based on the opinions about the most
promising methods and theories neurons, while the
top-down approach attempts to mimic the brain's
behavior with computer programs.

The more use we get out of the machines the less


work is required by us. In turn less injuries and stress
to human beings. Human beings are a species that
learn by trying, and we must be prepared to give AI a
chance seeing AI as a blessing, not an inhibition.

In conclusion, in some fields such as forecasting


weather or finding bugs in computer software, expert
systems are sometimes more accurate than humans.
But for other fields, such as medicine, computers
aiding doctors will be beneficial, but the human
doctor should not be replaced. Expert systems have
the power and range to aid to benefit, and in some
cases replace humans, and computer experts, if used
with discretion, will benefit human kind.

REFERENCES

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_artificial
_intelligence
 http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/artificial-
intelligence-second-life1.htm
 Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach: By
Stuart Jonathan Russell, Peter Norvig - Computers
- 2003 - 1132 pages.
 http://www.scribd.com/doc/29171971/Artificial-
Intelligence
 Luger, George & Stubblefield, William (2004),
Artificial Intelligence: Structures and Strategies
for Complex Problem Solving (5th ed.), The
Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.,
pp.

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