Anda di halaman 1dari 39

Diagram keseimbangan

Fe-Fe3C
Transformasi Fe murni
Larutan (padat) Fe-C
Octahedral/tetrahedral sites
Fe3C
There are twelve iron atoms and four carbon atoms per
unit cell, corresponding to the formula Fe3C.

It is 6.67 wt.% carbon and 93.3 wt.% iron


Fe-Fe3C equilibrium Diagrams
Critical temperatures (1)

Critical Temp. Change on Heating Change on Cooling


A1 Pearlite to Austenite Austenite to pearlite
A2 Loss of ferromagnetism Gain of ferromagnetism
A3 Last ferrite absorbed in austenite First ferrite nucleates from austenite
Acm Last cementite absorbed in austenite First cementite nucleates from austenite
A4 First d-iron forms from austenite Last d-iron dissolves in austenite

7
Critical temperatures (2)

c= chauffage = heating
r= refroidissement=cooling

8
Invariant reaction in Fe-Fe3C

1495
Peritectic reaction 0.5% + (0.1%) (0.18%C)

1147
Eutectic reaction 4.3% (2,1%C) +3 (6.7%)

723
Eutectoid reaction 0.8% + (0.02%) +3 (6.7%)
Exercise : Fe-Fe3C equilibrium Diagrams
Solution
Peritectic reaction Fe-C
Peritectic reaction Fe-C
Eutectic reaction

proeutectic

(Eutectic+Fe3C E)

(Fe3C)
We see a cut through an original austenite dendrite that
has turned to pearlite. It is embedded in whitish cementite.
In addition we have small flecks of pearlite because the
sample actually had a carbon content of 3.6 % carbon and
thus was hypoeutectic and needed to form some more
pearlite

Miguel Angel Yescas-Gonzalez and H. K. D. H.


Bhadeshia; from the PhD thesis work of Miguel
Angel Yescas-Gonzalez. 15
Primary austenite dendrites (dark) are
first to form from the liquid. At the
eutectic the remaining liquid
transforms to a mixture of austenite
and cementite (light) with further
transformation of the austenite to
ferrite and pearlite.

16
Hyper-eutectic white cast iron. Typical analysis 4.5% http://www.ssplprints.com/image/1296
carbon/0.5% silicon etched in picric acid in alcohol [4% 22/hyper-eutectic-white-cast-iron-
picral]. Structure consists of primary needles of iron typical-ana
carbide surrounded by ledeburite eutectic. Light
micrograph in bright field. Magnification 100x. 17
Eutectoid reaction (1)
2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

19
nickel
Diffusion of copper atoms
into nickel. Eventually, the

distributed throughout the


copper atoms are randomly
2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Diffusion mechanisms in material: (a) vacancy or substitutional atom diffusion and


(b) interstitial diffusion

20
21
Eutectoid mechanism and microstructure

Growth and structure of pearlite: (a) redistribution of carbon and


iron, and (b) photomicrograph of the pearlite lamellae (2000x).
(From ASM Handbook, Vol. 7, (1972), ASM International, Materials
Park, OH 44073.)
22
Eutectoid mechanism and microstructure

500x, 4% picral,light white =ferrite


Eutectoid mechanism and microstructure

a-Fe
Fe3C
a-Fe

Fe3C
Fe3C
Example : Phases and Composition of Pearlite

Calculate the amounts of ferrite and cementite present in pearlite.

SOLUTION
Since pearlite must contain 0.77% C, using the lever rule:

%a 6.67 0.77 100 88.7%


6.67 0.0218
%Fe3C 0.77 0.0218 100 11.3%
6.67 0.0218

25
Hypo- vs hyper- eutectoid

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

The evolution of the microstructure of hypoeutectoid and


hypoeutectoid steels during cooling. In relationship to the Fe-Fe3C 26
phase diagram.
Etchant=nital, white =ferrite
Example: Phases in Hypoeutectoid Plain Carbon Steel

Calculate the amounts and compositions of phases and


microconstituents in a Fe-0.60% C alloy at 726oC.

SOLUTION
The phases are ferrite and cementite. Using a tie line and working the
lever law at 726oC, we find:

6.67 0.60
a (0.0218%C )%a 100 91.3%
6.67 0.0218

Fe3C (6.67%C )% Fe3C


0.60

0.0218 100 8.7%
6.67 0.0218

29
Hypereutectoid steel
Picral, white Fe3C
Komposisi fasa terhadap sifat mekanik

32
Example application, pearlitic steel for wire and structural cable

The Humber Bridge, UK

34
Example application, pearlitic steel for wire and structural cable

Current technology (TATA STEEL) Nanostructured =6 Gpa


Tensile strength standard =1.7 Gpa

35
Latihan 1

A 1.05wt% hypereutectoid steel is slowly cooled from 900 C to the temperature just slightly
above the eutectoid temperature. Calculate:
(a) The wt% proeutectoid cementite present in the steel
(b) The wt% austenite in the steel.

36
x = 1.05 wt%
Wt% proeutectoid cementite =
Temp
1.05 0.77
(C) 100 4.72%
+Fe3C 6.7 0.77
a a

0.77
0.022
Wt% austenite =
a+Fe3C
6.7 1.05
100 95.28%
100%
Fe
Wt.% C 6.7
6.7 0.77

37
Exercise 2:

A hypoeutectoid steel which was slow-cooled from the austenite region to room
temperature contains 10.5 wt% eutectoid ferrite. Assuming no change in structure on
cooling from just below the A1 critical temperature to room temperature, what is the carbon
content?

38
Solution
x

Temp
(C)
a a +Fe3C

0.77
0.022 a+Fe3C

100% Wt.% C 6.7


Fe
Let x = wt% C of the hypoeutectoid steel. From our class discussion we have:

Eutectoid ferrite = Total ferrite - Proeutectoid ferrite. (1)

Wt% total ferrite = 6.7 x 1006.7 x . . (2)


100
6.7 0.022 6.678

Wt% proeutectoid ferrite = 0.77 x 1000.77 x (3)


100
0.77 0.022 0.748

Hence 10.5 = 1006.7 x 1000.77 x


6.678 0.748

Dividing through by 100 and re-arranging gives:

0.7486.7 x 6.6780.77 x
0.105 =
6.678 0.748

0.524 = 5.012 - 0.748x - 5.142 + 6.678x

5.93x = 0.654

0.654
x 0.110% C 39
5.93