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1.Nouns support / supporter -supportive: giving help and encouragement

Adjectives supportive of - supportive of: showing agreement and giving encouragement
Verbs support
- have responsibility: to be in a position of authority over someone and to
2. Nouns responsibility have a duty to make certain that particular things are done
irresponsibility Who has responsibility here?
Jenny, you have responsibility for clearing up the room after the class.
Adjectives responsible
- have a responsibility to sb: to have a duty to work for or help someone
who is in a position of authority over you
Adverbs responsibly
The company says it cannot cut its prices any more because it has a
irresponsibly responsibility to its shareholders.
- be responsible for sb/sth/doing sth: to have control and authority over
something or someone and the duty of taking care of it or them
Paul is directly responsible for the efficient running of the office.
Her department is responsible for oversee ing the councils.
- be responsible to sb/sth : to be controlled by someone or something
In Australia, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet are responsible to the
House of Representatives.
- be responsible for sth/doing sth: to be the person who caused something
to happen, especially something bad
Who is responsible for this terrible mess?

Be a bit more confident in yourself!

3. Nouns confidence They don't sound confident about the future of the industry.
Adjectives confident I'm confident of his skills as a manager.
confidential Are you confident that enough people will attend the event?
Verbs confide It was a confident performance.
Adverbs confidently He confided ( to her) that his hair was not his own.
confidentially - confide in sb: to share your feelings and secrets with someone because you
trust them not to tell other people
She's nice, but I don't feel I can confide in her.

4. Nouns obedience disobedience

Adjectives obedient disobedient
He demands unquestioning obedience from his soldiers.
Verbs obey disobey Students are expected to be quiet and obedient in the classroom.
Adverbs obediently disobediently Falling objects obey the law of gravity.

Noun = confidence[ U ] the feeling of being confident in one's family (n) and relationships
Secure (adj) Most children need the security of a stable family life.
To secure - adj = CONFIDENT : not doubting or being worried about yourself and
your personal relationships
Children need to feel secure in order to do well at school.
= PROTECTED: (especially of objects, situations, etc.) able to avoid
being harmed by any risk, danger or threat
Car manufacturers ought to produce vehicles which are more secure
against theft./ Endangered species need to be kept secure from poachers
- verb = PROTECT: to make certain something is protected from danger or
The building has only one main entrance and would be easy to secure
(against/from intruders).
This form of investment is an excellent way of securing your children's
financial future.

6. Nouns care carer noun ATTENTION
You need to take a bit more care with your spelling.
Adjectives careful careless The roads are icy, so drive with care.
caring uncaring Take care on these busy roads (= Drive with attention so that you do
not have an accident) .
Verbs care [ + to infinitive ] Take care not to (= Make certain that you do not) spill your
Adverbs carefully [ + that ] Take care (= Make certain) that you don't fall.
carelessly The parcel had a label on it saying ' Handle with care'.
noun DEAL WITH: take care of sth: to deal with something
If you can sort out the drink for the party, I'll take care of the food.
take care (of yourself): used when saying goodbye to someone
"Bye, Melissa." "Goodbye Rozzie, take care."
Adjective: giving a lot of attention to what you are doing so that you do not
have an accident, make a mistake, or damage something
Be careful with the glasses.
Be careful wh ere you put that hot pan.
Be careful to look both ways when you cross the road.
Michael is a very careful worker.
He's in a really foul temper so be careful (about/of) what you say to him.
Verb [ I ] WORRY
She's never cared very much about her appearance.
[ + question word ] I really don't care wh ether we go out or not.
I don't care how much it costs, just buy it.
"Was Lorna happy about the arrangements?" "I don't know and I don't care."
Your parents are only doing this because they care about (= love) you.
7. reserved: adjective PERSON: describes people who do not often talk about or show their feelings or thoughts
a quiet, reserved woman / The English have a reputation for being reserved.
KEPT: Reserved tickets, seats, etc are ones which someone has arranged to be kept for them
May I sit here, or is this seat/table reserved?
Verb: I reserve Mondays for tidying my desk and answering letters.
These seats are reserved for the elderly and women with babies
I reserved a double room at the Lamb Hotel.
[ + two objects ] If you get there early, reserve me a seat/reserve a seat for me.
reservation: noun THING KEPT
1. when you arrange to have something such as a seat on an aircraft or a table at a restaurant kept for you
I'd like to make a table reservation for two people for 9 o'clock.
Please confirm your reservation in writing by Friday.
2. [ C ] an area of land made available for a particular group of people to live in
The family lives on a Native American reservation.
3. [ C ] ( ALSO reserve , US ALSO preserve ) an area of land in which wild animals are protected
He's the chief warden of a big-game reservation.

noun ANSWER : the answer to a problem

8. Nouns solution There's no easy solution to this problem.
an unsolved mystery
Adjectives unsolved
to solve a problem
to solve a mystery/puzzle
Verbs solve
Just calm down - shouting won't solve anything!

9. mischief noun: behaviour, especially a child's, which is slightly bad but is not intended to cause serious harm or
He needs a hobby to keep him busy and stop him from getting into mischief.
Perhaps a new bike would keep him out of mischief.
mischievous adjective
She has a mischievous sense of humour. / I think these rumours are mischievous. / to grin mischievously
- She shows a willingness to work on her own initiative.
10. Nouns willingness - be willing (to do sth ): to be happy to do something if it is needed
unwillingness If you're willing to fly at night, you can get a much cheaper ticket.
- describes someone who does their work energetically and enthusiastically
Adjectives willing unwilling
a willing helper
Will verb MAKE HAPPEN: If you will something to happen, you try to
Adverbs willingly unwillingly
make it happen by the power of your thoughts
She willed herself to remember his name.
FORMAL to want something: Stay or go, as you will.

11. attempt: verb [ T ]:to try to do something, especially something difficult

He attempted to escape through a window.
He attempted a joke, but no one laughed.
Attempted: adjective [ before noun ]
LEGAL A man is being questioned in relation to the attempted murder/robbery last night.
Attempt: noun [ C ]: when you try to do something, especially something difficult
She made a few half-hearted attempts to join in their conversation.
He made no attempt to be sociable.
This is my second attempt at the exam.
None of our attempts at contact ing Dr James was successful.
They closed the road in an attempt (= to try to) to reduce traffic in the city.

12. fly: verb flew , flown TRAVEL :to travel by aircraft, or to go somewhere or cross something in an aircraft
We flew to Paris.
We fly from/out from/out of Heathrow, but fly back (in)to Gatwick.
We are flying at a height of 9 000 metres
Flight:noun JOURNEY -1. [ C ] a journey in an aircraft
I'll never forget my first flight. /My flight was cancelled.
Flight: noun AIRCRAFT-2. [ C ] an aircraft that is making a particular journey
Flight 474 to Buenos Aires is now boarding at gate 9.

-Basic: adjective: providing the base or starting point from which something
13. can develop; simple and not complicated
Nouns base the basics basis I really need to get some basic financial advice.
He only has a basic command of English (= He only knows the most
Adjectives baseless basic important and simple words and expressions) .
The basic (= most important) problem is that they don't talk to each
Verbs base
other enough.
Adverbs basically Baseless: adjective FORMAL: not based on facts
baseless accusations/allegations/rumours
She assured me that my fears were baseless.
- basically: adverb: used when referring to the main or most important
characteristic or feature of something
Basically, (= The most important thing is that) they want a lot more
information about the project before they'll put any money into it.
The car's basically sound (= in good condition), but the paintwork
needs a bit of attention.
The village has remained basically unchanged for over 300 years.
base sth on sth phrasal verb: If you base something on facts or ideas, you
use those facts or ideas to develop it
The film is based on a short story by Thomas Mann.

1. Nouns marriage They had a long and happy marriage.
Adjectives married unmarried She went to live abroad after the break-up of her marriage.
Verbs marry remarry married: adjective: having a wife or husband
a married couple
We've been happily married for five years.
Please state whether you are single, cohabiting, married, separated,
divorced or widowed.
So how are you enjoying married life?
She had an affair with a married man.
The survey reveals that two-thirds of married women earn less than
their husbands.
So how long have you been married to Nicky?
- get married: to begin a legal relationship with someone as their husband or
When are you getting married?
Chris and Debbie got married last summer.
Jamie's getting married to Laura.
marry: verb MAN AND WOMAN: to become the legally accepted
husband or wife of someone in an official or religious ceremony
Men tend to marry later than women.
Paul married Lucy four years ago.
They don't have any plans to marry at present.
After a lengthy and painful divorce, she vowed never to remarry.
Her mother died in childbirth, and her father remarried when she was a baby.
2. Nouns romance He loves the romance of travelling on a steam train.
a historical romance
Adjectives romantic She loves reading romances.
unromantic romanticized a romantic novel/comedy
romanticize: verb to talk about something in a way that makes it sound
Verbs romance romanticize
better than it really is, or to believe that something is better than it really is
Adverbs romantically Stop romanticizing! Nothing's that perfect.

3. Nouns appearance Appearance: noun BEING PRESENT 1. [ C ] an occasion when someone

disappearance appears in public
reappearance It was his first appearance on television/television/appearance as president.
She will be making a public appearance, signing copies of her latest novel.
Verbs appear 2. [ C ] a public performance by an entertainer
disappear He made his first stage/TV appearance at the age of six.
Appear:verb BE PRESENT: to become noticeable or to be present
He suddenly appeared in the doorway.
If she hasn't appeared (= arrived) by ten o'clock I'm going without her.
The film, currently in the States, will be appearing on our screens (=
we will be able to see it) later this year.
I've noticed that smaller cars are starting to appear (= be produced or sold)
Appear: verb SEEM
You've got to appear ( to be ) calm in an interview even if you're terrified
To people who don't know him he probably appears ( to be ) rather unfriendly.
Things aren't always what they appear to be .
She appears to actually like the man, which I find incredible.
There appears to be some mistake.
It appears (that) she left the party alone.
It appears to me (that) (= I think that) we need to make some changes.
FORMAL It would appear (that) (= It seems that) nobody on board the aircraft
actually had a licence to fly it.
It appears as if/as though I was wrong.
Appear:verb PERFORM [ I usually + adverb or preposition ] to perform
publicly in a play, film or dance
Dave Gilmore is currently appearing as Widow Twanky in the Arts
Theatre's production of "Puss in Boots".
She appears briefly in the new Bond film.
4. Nouns comparison Comparison: noun [ C or U ] EXAMINING DIFFERENCES
Adjectives comparable 1. when two or more people or things are compared
incomparable comparative
Verbs compare
They made a comparison of different countries' eating habits.
Adverbs comparatively By/In comparison with the French, the British eat far less fish.
2. when something is considered similar or of equal quality to
something else
She drew a comparison between life in the army and life in prison.
To my mind there's no comparison between the two restaurants (= one
is much better than the other).
He's a good writer but he doesn't bear/stand comparison with
Shakespeare (= he is not nearly as good as Shakespeare).
Comparative: adjective EXAMINING DIFFERENCES
She's carrying out a comparative study of health in inner cities and
rural areas.
Comparatively: adverb as compared to something else
We couldn't afford it and yet we're comparatively well-off (= we are
richer than most people) .
Comparatively speaking , this machine is easy to use.
Comparable: adjective similar in size, amount or quality to something else
The girls are of comparable ages.
Our prices are comparable to/with those in other shops.
The two experiences aren't comparable.
Compare some recent work with your older stuff and you'll see how much
you've improved.
This road is quite busy compared to/with ours.
Children seem to learn more interesting things compared to/with when we
were at school.
People have compared me to Elizabeth Taylor.
Instant coffee just doesn't compare with freshly ground coffee.
5. Nouns attraction attractiveness attraction noun something which makes people want to go to a place or do a
Adjectives attractive unattractive particular thing
Verbs attract
Life in London has so many attractions - nightclubs, good restaurants
Adverbs attractively
and so on.
tourist attractions
The opportunity to travel is one of the main attractions of this job.
Skiing holds no attraction for me.
attractive adjective very pleasing in appearance or sound, or causing
interest or pleasure
a very attractive young woman
I find him very attractive

attractive countryside
Spending 12 hours on a plane isn't a very attractive (= pleasant)
an attractive offer (= an offer with benefits for me)
We need to make the club attractive to a wider range of people.
She always dresses very attractively.
Their house is attractively decorated.
her attractiveness to men
High mortgage rates have decreased the attractiveness of house-owning.
These flowers are brightly coloured in order to attract butterflies.
The circus is attracting huge crowds/audiences .
Magnets attract iron filings.
The government is trying to attract industry to the area (= to persuade
people to place their industry there) .
Her ideas have attracted a lot of attention/criticism in the scientific
6. particular adjective SPECIAL 1. [ before noun ] special, or this and not any other
She wanted a particular type of cactus.
"Why did you ask?" "Oh, no particular reason, just making conversation."
2. in particular especially
What in particular did you like about the last apartment that we saw?
Are you looking for anything in particular?
particularly adverb especially, or more than usual
We're particularly interested to hear from people who speak two or more European languages.
I didn't particularly want to go, but I had to.
7. Nouns significance Significance noun [ U ] IMPORTANCE
insignificance The discovery of the new drug is of great significance for/to people
Adjectives significant insignificant suffering from heart problems.
Verbs signify Do you think that look he gave you had any significance?
adjective 1. important or noticeable
Adverbs significantly
There has been a significant increase in the number of women students
in recent years.
The talks between the USA and the USSR were very significant for the
relationship between the two countries.
2. having a special meaning
She looked at him across the table and gave him a significant smile.
Do you think it 's significant that he hasn't replied to my letter yet?
My piano playing has improved significantly since I've had a new teacher.
signify verb FORMAL MEAN 1. [ T ] to be a sign of something; to mean
Nobody really knows what the marks on the ancient stones signify.
[ + that ] The number 30 on a road sign signifies that the speed limit is
30 miles an hour.
2. [ T ] to make something known; to show
She signified her agreement by nodding her head.
[ + ( that ) ] She signified (that) she was in agreement by nodding her head.
3. [ I ] to have importance or to matter
Don't worry about being late - it doesn't signify.
8.Nouns tradition traditionalist
Adjectives traditional Switzerland has a long tradition of neutrality.
Adverbs traditionally [ + that ] There's a tradition in our office that when it's somebody's
birthday, they bring in a cake for us all to share.
We decided to break with tradition (= not behave as usual) this year
and go away for Christmas.
According to tradition, a headless ghost walks through the corridors of
the house at night.
The villagers retain a strong attachment to their traditional
The school uses a combination of modern and traditional methods for teaching
Traditionally, the company's main markets have been Britain and the US.
9.partner noun [ C ] a person or organization you are closely involved with in some way
He gave up his job as a police officer after his partner was killed.
The two companies are partners in a contract to build a new power station.
2. one of the owners of a company
He's a partner in an insurance company/a law firm.
3. the person you are married to or living with as if you were married to them, or the person you are having a
sexual relationship with
partnership noun
1. [ C or U ] the state of being a partner
2. [ C ] a company which is owned by two or more people
the John Lewis Partnership
determination noun TRYING HARD 1. [ U ] the ability to continue
10. Nouns determination
trying to do something, although it is very difficult
Adjectives determined a man of fierce/ruthless determination
[ + to infinitive ] She has a great determination to succeed.
Verbs determine noun DECISION 2. [ U ] FORMAL the process of controlling, influencing or
deciding something
Adverbs determinedly
The determination of policy is not your business - your job is to
implement it.
determine verb DECIDE
1. [ T often passive ] to control or influence something directly, or to
decide what will happen
The number of staff we can take on will be determined by how much
money we're allowed to spend.
Your health is determined in part by what you eat.
Eye colour is genetically determined.
People should be allowed to determine their own future.
2. [ T ] FORMAL to make a strong decision
[ + that ] She determined that one day she would be an actor.
[ + to infinitive ] On leaving jail, Joe determined to reform.
determined adjective wanting to do something very much and not allowing
anyone or any difficulties to stop you
[ + to infinitive ] I'm determined to get this piece of work finished
She's sure to get the job she wants - she's a very determined person.

Nouns sign signal signatory
sign /san/ noun [ C ] NOTICE
signature signing
Adjectives signed unsigned 1. a notice giving information, directions, a warning, etc.
Verbs sign signal a road sign
a shop sign
2. a movement of the body which gives information or an instruction
She pointed to her watch as a sign that it was getting late and she
wanted to leave.
She made/gave a sign to her husband to stop talking.
The priest made the sign of the cross (= made the shape of a cross by
moving his hand between four points on his chest) when he entered the church.

3. something showing that something else exists or might happen or
exist in the future
I've searched for my hat, but there's no sign of it anywhere (= I can't find it) .
There was no sign of life in the building (= there seemed to be no one
in it) .
Billy's work at school has shown signs of improvement this year.
There is every sign that/All the signs are that the worst is over.
4. a written or printed mark which has a standard meaning
+ and - are mathematical signs.
is the sign for the British pound.
signal / noun [ C ] ACTION
1. an action, movement or sound which gives information, a message, a
warning or an order
When she gave (them) the signal, they all cheered.
[ + that ] The firework was a signal that the festival had started.
[ + to infinitive ] The police officer gave us a signal to stop.

Nouns attention attentive adjective LISTENING

Adjectives attentive inattentive 1. listening carefully: an attentive audience
Verbs attend
Adverbs attentively HELPING
2. If someone is attentive, they are very helpful and take care of you
He was very attentive to her when she was ill.
A good teacher is always attentive to their students' needs .
attention noun [ U ] NOTICE
1. notice, thought or interest
Ladies and gentlemen, could I have your attention, please?
They're organizing a campaign to draw people's attention to the
environmentally harmful effects of using their cars.
Wait a moment and I'll give you my full/undivided attention (= I'll
listen to and think about only you) .
After an hour, my attention started to wander (= I stopped taking
notice) .
2. get/attract/catch sb's attention: to make someone notice you
I knocked on the window to get her attention.
3. pay attention (to sth/sb ): to watch, listen to, or think about something or
someone carefully or with interest
If you don't pay attention now, you'll get it all wrong later.
He wasn't paying attention to the safety instructions.
4. the centre of attention: the thing or person that a lot of people notice
He likes telling jokes and being the centre attention at parties.
5. turn your attention(s) to sth/sb; to start to think about or concentrate on a
particular thing or person
Many countries are starting to turn their attention to new forms of energy.
6. special care or treatment
The paintwork will need a little attention.
If symptoms persist seek medical attention.
7. (especially in the armed forces) a way of standing, with the feet together,
arms by your sides, head up and shoulders back and not moving
soldiers standing at/to attention

Nouns formality
formality /fml..ti/ /-ti/ noun ACTION
Adjectives formal informal
Verbs formalize 1. [ C ] something which has to be done but which has no real importance
Adverbs formally informally You'll have to sign the visitors' book, but it's just a formality.
2. formalities: something that the law or an official process says must be done
We'll have to observe the formalities (= do what is expected) .
3. [ U ] when something or someone is serious and correct
She found the formality of the occasion rather daunting./ A note of
formality in his voice alerted her to the fact that others were listening.
formal adjective OFFICIAL
1. public or official
formal procedures / a formal announcement
2. in appearance or by name only
I am the formal leader of the project but the everyday management is in
the hands of my assistant.
3. describes language, clothes and behaviour that are serious and correct
a formal dinner party
4. describes education or training received in a school or college
Tom had little in the way of a formal education .

Nouns acceptance acceptable

Adjectives acceptable 1. satisfactory and able to be agreed to or approved of
unacceptable accepted Clearly we need to come to an arrangement that is acceptable to both parties.
Verbs accept
Adverbs acceptably unacceptably
So what is an acceptable level of radiation?
This kind of attitude is simply not acceptable.
2. just good enough, but not very good
Her performance was acceptable, but not stunning.
Accepted: generally agreed to be satisfactory or right
'Speed bump' now seems to be the generally accepted term for those
ridges in the road that slow traffic down.

Nouns politeness polite

Adjectives polite impolite 1. behaving in a way that is socially correct and shows understanding of and
Adverbs politely impolitely
care for other people's feelings
I'm afraid I wasn't very polite to her.
She sent me a polite letter thanking me for my invitation.
He was too polite to point out my mistake.
2. socially correct rather than friendly
polite conversation

Nouns society sociologist social GOING OUT

sociology 1. relating to activities in which you meet and spend time with other people
Adjectives sociable unsociable
social anti-social unsocial
and which happen during the time when you are not working
Verbs socialize I'm a social drinker - I only drink when I'm with other people.
Adverbs socially Most British schools organize social events for the students.
I've just become a member of the company's sports and social club.
2. [ before noun ] relating to society and living together in an organized way
social classes/groups

Nouns education Education: the process of teaching or learning in a school or college, or the
Adjectives educated uneducated knowledge that you get from this

Verbs educate As a child he received most of his education at home.
Adverbs educationally It's a country which places great importance on education.
She lectures in education (= the study of education) at the teacher
training college.
It's important for children to get a good education.
Educational: providing education or relating to education
Reducing the size of classes may improve educational standards.
She seems to have spent all her life studying in educational establishments .
HUMOROUS My father has never been to a rock concert before - it'll be an
educational experience for him (= a new experience from which he can learn)

The government say they are trying to do more to educate the public
about the consequences of drug abuse.
Educated: having learned a lot at school or university and having a good
level of knowledge
She was probably the most highly educated prime minister of this

Nouns behaviour/US behavior Behave: to act in a particular way, or to be good by acting in a way which has
misbehaviour/US misbehavior society's approval
Adjectives behavioural/US
She always behaves well/badly when her aunts come to visit.
Verbs behave misbehave Whenever there was a full moon he would start behaving strangely.
[ R ] Did the children behave (themselves )?
I was always getting in trouble for misbehaving at school
She studied behavioural psychology at college.

Nouns consideration Considerate: kind and helpful

Adjectives considerable It wasn't very considerate of you to drink all the milk.
considerate inconsiderate
Considerable: large or of noticeable importance
Verbs consider reconsider The fire caused considerable damage to the church.
Adverbs considerably Considered: considered opinion/view/decision
considerately an opinion or decision that someone has reached after a lot of thought
[ + that ] It is my considered opinion that he should be promoted.
Considering: preposition , conjunction , adverb
used to mention a particular condition or fact about something, usually a
Considering the weather, we got here quite quickly.
She did well to find the way, considering she'd only been there once

Nouns option option

Adjectives optional 1. [ C or U ] one thing which can be chosen from a set of possibilities, or the
Verbs opt A freedom to make a choice
dverbs optionally
The best option would be to cancel the trip altogether.
There are various options open to someone who is willing to work hard.
They didn't leave him much option - either he paid or they'd beat him up.
2. [ C ] SPECIALIZED the right to buy something in the future
a share option
The publishers decided not to take up their option on the paperback version.
3. have no option (but to do something): to not have the possibility of doing
something else
After her appalling behaviour, we had no option but to dismiss her.
Opt: to make a choice, especially for one thing or possibility in preference to
any others
Mike opted for early retirement.
[ + to infinitive ] Most people opt to have the operation.
If something is optional, you can choose whether to do it, pay it, buy it, etc
English is compulsory for all students, but art and music are optional.