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Animal Physiology

1. Which of the following is true about the posterior pituitary?

a. It is controlled by the hypothalamic releasing factors
b. It contains the cell bodies of vasopressin neurosecretory cells
c. It releases its hormones into the hypo neurosecretory cells
d. It contains the cell bodies of vasopressin neurosecretory cells
e. It contains the cell bodies of oxytocin neurosecretory cells

2. The traditional understanding of steroid hormones is that they exert their effects by
a. Entering the cell and affecting gene expression
b. the composition of the myelin sheath
c. Binding to receptors in cell membrane
d. Altering at the cell membrane
e. Producing second messengers

3. For a target cell to respond to a specific steroid hormone ,it must have
a. access to blood supply
b. receptors to the hormone
c. DNA
d. carrier protein to transport hormone in the blood
e. all the above

4. A person had surgery to remove the adrenal glands. If no other treatment was given, what is the
best guess as to how measurable hormone levels would change?
a. CHR would decrease
b. ACTH would increase
c. Cortisol would increase
d. ACTH would decrease
e. No change In level of CHR/high

5. Neural and hormonal communication both involve

a. All-or-none impulse
b. Specialized receptors molecules
c. The transport of materials through the vascular system
d. The same chemical transmitters
e. Paracrine and long-range signaling

6. With the exception of olfaction, all sensory pathways first travel to the __________. Which acts
as a relay and processing station
a. Thalamus
b. Cerebrum
c. Cerebellum
d. Medulla oblongata
e. Hypothalamus

7. The Na+/K+ pump contributes to the resting membrane potential by

a. Maintaining the ion gradients of sodium and potassium
b. Actively transporting Na+ into the cell
c. Regulating membrane permeability to Na+ and K+
d. Transporting an equal number of Na+ and K+ ions with each cycle of the pump
e. Maintaining a high concentration of K+ within the cell

8. Cells and extracellular fluids both maintain homeostasis, but are not identical in composition.
Their stable condition is
a. A dynamic steady state
b. A state of disequilibrium
c. A state of equilibrium
d. A state of integration
e. A state of osmotic equilibrium

9. Which of following statement about homeostasis is true?

a. Homeostasis is maintained by turning effectors on or off.
b. The internal environment is maintain absolutely
c. Negatively feedback acts to correct to nay deviations in the internal environment
d. Positive feedback reinforces the stimulus until some intervention stops the response
e. All the above is true

10. Cystic fibrosis is caused by a defect in the CFTR channel protein which regulates the transport of
Cl into and out of epithelial cells. Why would failure to transport NaCl into the airways cause
secreted mucus to become thick?
a. Because solute concentration of the airways fluid increases and water moves into
compartment with higher osmolarity to thin the mucus.
b. Because solute concentration of the airway fluid decreases and water moves into
compartment with lower osmolarity to thicken the mucus.
c. No osmotic gradient is created so no fluid movement occurs into the airways to thin the
d. Because CFTR channels, a chemically-gated channel, open when ATP binds.
e. Because CFTR channels are defective and NaCl is not transported into airways.

11. The act of breathing raises blood oxygen level, lower blood carbon dioxide concentration, and
raises blood pH. According to principles of negative feedback, sensors that regulate breathing
should respond to
a. a rise in blood oxygen
b. a rise in blood pH
c. a rise in blood carbon dioxide concentration
d. a drop in blood oxygen
e. all of the above
12. Negative feedback loops usually influence
a. The integration center
b. The output signal
c. Any deviations from the regulated level
d. The input portion of the control pathway
e. Reflexes which allow the body to predict the change thats about to occur
13. Glucose homeostasis is maintained by insulin and glucagon. The disease diabetes mellitus is an
indication that glucose homeostasis has been disrupted. People with type 1 diabetes lack insulin;
people with