Anda di halaman 1dari 23

GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Sht.
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Rev. No.
Date No.
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 2 of 19 A

REVISION CONTROL SHEET

REV.NO DATE SECTION NO. SUMMARY OF CHANGES


GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Sht.
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Rev. No.
Date No.
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 3 of 19 A

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................. 4


General ......................................................................................... 4
Scope ............................................................................................ 4
2.0 UNITS AND ABBREVIATIONS ....................................................... 5
System of Units ............................................................................. 5
Abbreviations ................................................................................ 5
3.0 SUMMARY OF RESULTS & RECOMMENDATIONS ...................... 6
Results Summary .......................................................................... 6
Recommendations ........................................................................ 8
4.0 DESIGN DATA ................................................................................ 9
Pipeline Data ................................................................................. 9
Environmental Data ....................................................................... 9
Anode Data ................................................................................. 10
5.0 DESIGN METHODOLOGY ............................................................ 11
General ....................................................................................... 11
Current Demand Calculation ....................................................... 11
Anode Mass Calculation .............................................................. 13
Calculation of Number of Anodes ................................................ 13
Design Assumptions .................................................................... 15
6.0 RESULTS ...................................................................................... 16
Anode Properties......................................................................... 16
Cathodic Protection Requirement ................................................ 16
7.0 REFERENCES ............................................................................... 18
APPENDIX A SAMPLE OF CATHODIC PROTECTION CALCULATION .... 19
GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Sht.
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Rev. No.
Date No.
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 4 of 19 A

1.0 INTRODUCTION

General

Shell Gabon is operating and producing oils from numerous fields located in the western
part of Gabon. Crude is treated and exported from the Gamba Terminal to tankers through
a 30 inch offshore export line connected to a SBM via a PLEM and 2 x 16 inch floating
hose strings (risers).

The total length of the existing export line is about 10.7km from the export pump in Gamba
terminal to a PLEM (1.3km located onshore and 9.4km located offshore).

Figure 1-1 Project Location

Shell Gabon intends to replace the existing export pipeline. Zeetech B.V. has been
awarded by Shell to perform a concept replacement study and Front End Engineering
Design (FEED) for the selected concept.

Scope

This report presents cathodic protection design of new dual 22 inch Gamba export line for
onshore and offshore sections including its expansion spools in accordance with
Company Design Engineering Practices (Ref. 1 and Ref. 2).
GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Sht.
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Rev. No.
Date No.
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 5 of 19 A

2.0 UNITS AND ABBREVIATIONS

System of Units

In accordance with Shell DEP 00.00.20.10, the International System (SI) of units is
adopted as the main system of units unless noted otherwise.

Abbreviations

CP Cathodic Protection

DEP Design Engineering Practices

DNV Det Norsk Veritas

FEED Front End Engineering Design

KP Kilometer Post

ISO International Standard Organisation

PLEM Pipeline End Manifold

w.r.t. With relation to


GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Sht.
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Rev. No.
Date No.
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 6 of 19 A

3.0 SUMMARY OF RESULTS & RECOMMENDATIONS

Results Summary

The required cathodic protection of the dual 22 inch Gamba export line from onshore
Gamba terminal to offshore PLEM/SBM has been designed in accordance with Ref. 1
and Ref. 2 for onshore and offshore pipelines respectively.

The onshore pipeline will be buried from KP 0.0 to KP 1.1 outside Gamba Terminal area.
Based on the On-bottom Stability report (Ref. 7), for the onshore pipeline which is buried
underneath the water table will have a concrete coating of 50mm. Therefore, a bracelet
sacrificial anode is used in-line with the offshore pipeline cathodic protection system. The
offshore pipeline will be buried from KP 1.1 to KP 1.3 and the remaining section up to KP
10.6 will be laid on the seabed.

Anode quantities have been selected to satisfy the following criteria:


Total anode net mass shall meet the current demand over the design life of the
pipeline;
Anode current output shall meet the current demand at the end of design life;
Anode spacing shall not exceed the maximum value of 300m as specified by Sec.
7.1 of Ref. 4.

Table 3-1 below show the required anode quantities from the analysis to meet the design
criteria stated above.
GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Date PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht. No. Rev. No.
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 7 of 19 A

Table 3-1 Summary of Cathodic Protection Design for a 22in Gamba Export Pipeline

Total Required Required Required


Actual Required Required total
anode net Final number of anode
Mass of Individual Recommended number of anode weight
Pipeline mass to Individual anode to spacing to
Pipe Exposure one Final Spacing of anode based based on
KP Range Length meet Anode meet total meet total (1)
Section Condition anode Current anode on recommended
(m) current Current anode net anode net
(kg) Output (joints) recommended spacing
demand Output mass mass
(A) spacing (ea) (kg)
(kg) (A) (ea) (m)

Onshore 0.20 1.07 1100 Buried 21 93 0.059 0.09 5 248 7 13 273

1.07 1.24 200 Buried 28 6 0.063 0.18 1 1050 24 1 28


Offshore
1.24 10.6 9300 Un-buried 28 674 0.212 1.37 24 390 24 32 896

Spool - 25 Un-buried 28 4 0.485 1.37 1 164 1 1 28

Notes:
1. Anode spacing of 300m (24 joints) for offshore pipeline has been recommended in accordance with the requirements of Ref. 2.
2. Dual 22 in Gamba export pipeline will be routed parallel from Gamba terminal to the PLEM/SBM, hence the anode required above shall be applicable
to both pipelines.
GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Sht.
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Rev. No.
Date No.
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 8 of 19 A

Recommendations

The following recommendations shall be addressed in the next design stage.


The individual anode mass is selected based on minimum required number of
anodes to meet total anode net mass. Anode dimension of the anode may be
adjusted during detailed design based on the anodes supplier data.
Onshore soil resistivity considered for the design is based on assumptions. It is
recommended to update the value once the actual survey data becomes
available.
To protect the un-buried onshore pipeline/piping section inside the Gamba
Terminal from the offshore cathodic protection system to interfere, an isolation
joint shall be introduced to separate these two systems.
GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Sht.
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Rev. No.
Date No.
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 9 of 19 A

4.0 DESIGN DATA

The following subsections presents design data used in the cathodic protection design.

Pipeline Data

The pipeline properties used in the design are presented in Table 4-1 below. This data
is applicable to both pipelines.

Table 4-1 Gamba 22in Pipeline Data

22in Gamba
Descriptions Units
Export Lines

Pipeline Design Life years 25

Onshore m 1100

Pipeline Length Offshore m 9500

Spool m 25

Outside Diameter mm 558.8

Selected Pipeline Wall thickness mm 10

Onshore mm 50
Selected Concrete
Offshore mm 65
Coating thickness
Spool mm 0

Anti-Corrosion Coating Material - 3LPE

Anti-Corrosion Coating Thickness mm 3.2

Environmental Data

The seawater resistivity of 0.22m has been taken from Figure A.1 of Ref. 4. A salinity
of 3% and seawater temperature of 25oC has been assumed in the analysis.

A resistivity of the seabed sediments is considered as 1.5m in accordance with Sec.


A.9 of Ref. 2.

For onshore section, a soil resistivity of 3.4m has been assumed.


GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Sht.
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Rev. No.
Date No.
10 of
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 A
19

Anode Data

Refer to Ref. 2, aluminum alloy anodes has been used for sacrificial anodes material. A
flush mounted bracelet anode has been selected.

Design values of the galvanic anode has been extracted from Table B of Ref. 2 and
shown in Table 4-2.

Table 4-2 Anode material properties

Immersed in Seawater Buried in Seawater Sediments


Anode
Surface Potential Electrochemical Potential Electrochemical
Temperature Ag/AgCl/Seawater Capacity, Ag/AgCl/Seawater Capacity,
o
( C)
(mV) (A.h/kg) (mV) (A.h/kg)

30 -1050 2000 -1025 1600

60 -1050 1600 -1025 680

80 -1000 720 -1000 320

For non-buried pipeline, the anodes surface temperature has been taken as the external
pipeline temperature, not the internal fluid temperature.

As per Sec. 7.4 of Ref. 2 a utilization factor of 0.85 has been used for the bracelet and
flush mounted anode.

Anode alloy density is assumed to be 2700kg/m3.


GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Sht.
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Rev. No.
Date No.
11 of
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 A
19

5.0 DESIGN METHODOLOGY

General

Cathodic protection design for new dual 22in Gamba export line is in accordance with
the Shell DEP 30.10.73.31 (Ref. 1) and Shell DEP 30.10.73.32 (Ref. 2) for onshore and
offshore pipeline respectively.

Anode quantities are selected to satisfy the following criteria:


Total anode net mass shall meet the current demand over the design life of the
pipeline;
Anode current output shall meet the current demand at end of the design life;
For offshore section, anode spacing shall not exceed the maximum value of
300m as specified by Sec. 7.1 of Ref. 4.

Current Demand Calculation

The mean current demand, Icm, and final demand is calculated from:
=

Where:
current demand for specific pipeline section (A)
total surface area for specific pipeline section (m2)
coating breakdown factor, calculated for mean and final conditions
current density, selected for mean and final conditions (A)

The coating breakdown factor is calculated based on equation (1) and (2) of Ref. 4. For
mean coating breakdown factor is,
= (1.75 ) + (0.5 )
For final coating breakdown factor is,
= (1.75 ) + ( )
GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Sht.
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Rev. No.
Date No.
12 of
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 A
19

Where:
initial coating breakdown factor at start of pipeline operation;
To account for coating damage during fabrication and installation or workmanship
damage, factor of 1.75 is used as recommended by Ref. 2 Sec. 6.5.
average yearly increase in the coating breakdown factor;
design life of the pipeline (years).

For offshore pipeline, the initial coating breakdown factor are extracted from Table 3 of
Ref. 4.

Table 5-1 Coating breakdown factor Offshore Section

Coating Type Factor

Multilayer (incl. FBE primer) polyethylene


0.005 0.0002
(PE) and polypropylene (PP) anti-corrosion

Multilayer (incl. FBE primer) PE/PP


0.002 0.0001
corrosion + concrete

The coating breakdown factors given refer to both pipelines exposed to


seawater and pipelines buried in the seabed.

Recommended mean current density has been extracted from Figure 2 of Ref. 4 using
the upper conservative curve. Mean current density of 0.068 A/m2 for 25oC of seawater
temperature is used in the analysis.

For pipeline fully buried in sediments or artificially covered (e.g. rock dumping), a design
current density (mean and final) of 0.02 A/m2 is used.

For onshore pipelines, the current densities which has been multiplied by coating
breakdown factor is extracted from Table-1 of Ref. 3.
GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Sht.
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Rev. No.
Date No.
13 of
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 A
19

Table 5-2 Design current density & coating breakdown factor for Onshore Pipeline ( * )

Design current density(1)

Pipeline coating 10-yr design 20-yr design 30-yr design


life life life

3-layer epoxy-polyethylene
0.08 0.1 0.4
3-layer epoxy polypropylene

(1) Refer to Ref. 3, for pipelines operating at elevated temperatures, the current density value shall be
increased by 25% for each 10oC rise in temperature above 30oC.

Based on Table 5-2 above, for fluid temperature of 55oC, design current density which
has been multiplied by coating breakdown factor is taken to be 0.000375 A/m2.

Anode Mass Calculation

The total net anode mass required to maintain cathodic protection throughout the design
life is calculated based on equation below.

8760
=

Where:
total net anode mass (kg)
mean current (Ampere)
design life (years)
electrochemical capacity of the anode material (A.h/kg)
utilization factor (0.85 for bracelet flush mounted anodes Sec. 7.4 of Ref. 4)

Calculation of Number of Anodes

The number of the anodes required can be derived from the following equation,

=

Where:
number of anode
GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Sht.
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Rev. No.
Date No.
14 of
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 A
19

total net mass anodes (kg)


individual mass anode (kg)

A boundary on the number of anodes is given by the maximum allowable spacing. The
maximum spacing based on Ref. 4 is 300m.

To provide the required current, the actual anode current output shall be greater than or
equal to the required current output as given below,

Where:


= required end of life individual anode current output (Ampere)


=
actual individual anode current output at the end of life (Ampere)

final current demand at the end of life (Ampere)


number of anodes to be installed
design closed-circuit potential of the anode from Table 4-2 of Sec. 4.3 (Volts)
design protection potential, minimum negative potential (-0.80 Volts, Table 1 of Ref.
4)
total circuit resistance (Ohms)

The anode resistance to be applied for pipeline bracelet, , is calculated based on


equation below.

= 0.315

Where:
environmental resistivity (ohm.m) see Sec. 4.2.
exposed surface area of the anode (m2).
GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Sht.
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Rev. No.
Date No.
15 of
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 A
19

Design Assumptions

The following assumptions have been considered in this cathodic protection analysis.
The coating breakdown factor, , and the electrochemical capacity, , used in
the CP design is assumed to be same over the life of the pipeline.
Attenuation of protection is considered not required to be performed as the
selected anode spacing does not exceed 300m in accordance with the Annex
A.10 of Ref. 4.
The coating breakdown factor on field joint coating is as per the requirements of
Shell DEP guideline.
As there is no data available, resistivity of the onshore soil is assumed to be
3.40m.
GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Sht.
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Rev. No.
Date No.
16 of
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 A
19

6.0 RESULTS

Results of the cathodic protection design are presented in the following subsections.

Anode Properties

The anode dimension and density of the alloy used in cathodic protection design is
presented in Table 6-1.

Table 6-1 Anode dimension

Property Value
Anode thickness Onshore 50
(mm)
Offshore 65
Anode length (mm) 90
Half shell gap (mm) 100
Anode density (kg/m 3) 2700

Cathodic Protection Requirement

Table 6-2 shows the minimum anode mass required to meet the required total anode
net mass.
GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht. No. Rev. No.
Date
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 17 of 19 A

Table 6-2 Summary of Cathodic Protection Design for a 22in Gamba Export Pipeline

Total Required Required Required


Actual Required Required total
anode net Final number of anode
Mass of Individual Recommended number of anode weight
Pipeline mass to Individual anode to spacing to
Pipe Exposure one Final Spacing of anode based based on
KP Range Length meet Anode meet total meet total
Section Condition anode Current anode(1) on recommended
(m) current Current anode net anode net
(kg) Output (joints) recommended spacing
demand Output mass mass
(A) spacing (ea) (kg)
(kg) (A) (ea) (m)

Onshore 0.20 1.07 1100 Buried 21 93 0.059 0.09 5 248 7 13 273

1.07 1.24 200 Buried 28 6 0.063 0.18 1 1050 24 1 28


Offshore
1.24 10.6 9300 Un-buried 28 674 0.212 1.37 24 390 24 32 896

Spool - 25 Un-buried 28 4 0.485 1.37 1 164 1 1 28

Notes:
1. Anode spacing of 300m (24 joints) for offshore pipeline has been recommended in accordance with requirements of Ref. 2.
2. Dual 22 in Gamba export pipeline will be routed parallel from Gamba terminal to the PLEM/SBM, hence the anode required above shall be applicable
to both pipelines.
GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Sht.
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Rev. No.
Date No.
18 of
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 A
19

7.0 REFERENCES

1. Shell DEP 30.10.73.31-Gen, Design of Cathodic Protection Systems for Onshore


Buried Pipelines and Plot Piping (Amendments/Supplements to ISO 15589-1:2003).
2. Shell DEP 30.10.73.31-Gen, Design of Cathodic Protection Systems for Onshore
Buried Pipelines and Plot Piping (Amendments/Supplements to ISO 15589-1:2003).
3. ISO 15589-1, Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries Cathodic Protection of
Pipeline Transportation System Part 1: On-land Pipelines.
4. ISO 15589-2, Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries Cathodic Protection of
Pipeline Transportation System Part 2: Offshore Pipelines.
5. Z.100.0, Design Basis Report.
6. Z.202.1, Wall Thickness Report.
7. Z.203.1, On-Bottom Stability Analysis.
GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)

Cathodic Protection Design


Issued Sht.
PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Rev. No.
Date No.
19 of
10/12/13 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.205.1 A
19

APPENDIX A Sample of Cathodic Protection Calculation


CP calculation Gamba Page 1 of 4
CP calculation Gamba Page 2 of 4
CP calculation Gamba Page 3 of 4
CP calculation Gamba Page 4 of 4