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STEAM POWER PLANT [THERMAL POWER PLANT]

PRINCIPLE

Steam is used as a working fluid in this plant.

The water is converted into steam by absorbing heat energy from the fuel and, the steam drives the
steam turbine to produce electrical energy from an electrical generator which is coupled with the
turbine.

Continue from (The general layout of the thermal power plant consists of mainly 4 circuit. From page
no.254, and also replace the diagram of layout of steam power plant)

HYDEL POWER PLANT [HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER PLANT]

(Delete the first paragraph in the section 17.4 in page no.258. and continue with the principle given
below)

PRINCIPLE

Water is used as a working fluid in this plant.

Water is stored at a higher level and so potential energy is stored in the water. Water is allowed to flow
under pressure from the dam which is used to run the turbine and electrical power is generated.

CLASSIFICATION OF HYDEL PLANTS

1. High head Hydro power plants


The head of water is more than 100m in these types of plants. Pelton wheel turbine is used in
high head power plants.
2. Medium head Hydro power plants
The operating head of water lies between 30m to100m. Francis turbine is used in such plants.
3. Low head Hydro power plants
The operating head of water is less than 30m. Francis or Kaplan turbine is used in such plants.

(Continue from, the arrangement of different componentsin page no.258 and also replace the
diagram of layout of Hydro electric power plant)

DIESEL ENGINE POWER PLANT

(Include the principle below the two paragraphs i.e. since the invention of diesel engine. Page
no.262 Section 17.5)

PRINCIPLE

The air and fuel mixture act as a working medium in diesel engine power plant.
The principle in diesel engine is the thermal energy which is converted into mechanical energy and this
mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy to produce the power by using generator or
alternator.

(Continue from, components of Diesel Power Plant.. in page no.262)

GAS TURBINE POWER PLANTS

Gas turbine is one of the oldest power developing devices used in power plants. The gas turbine has
number advantages when compared with other type of power developing devices.

PRINCIPLE

Natural gas is used as fuel in the gas turbine power plant.

Air is compressed to a high pressure in the compressor and heated by means of the flue gases. Natural
gas burns in the stream of hot air in the combustion chamber and the gases coming out are used to run
the turbine, which produces electrical power.

Pressure Mechanical Electrical


Heat Energy
Energy Energy Energy

(Continue from components of Gas turbine power plants .. in page no.266.)

Place applications below disadvantage.

APPLICATIONS

The gas turbine power plant is used to supply peak loads in Steam or Hydel power plant.
It is also used in thermal process and petrochemical industries.
It is also used as a stand by unit.
This power plant is used in aircraft and ships.

IMPORTANT GAS TURBINE PLANT IN INDIA

Sl. No. Location/ Place Capacity MW


1. Namrup, Assam 70
2. Uran 4500

NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

The fastest increase in industries and living standards of the people advantage the pressure on
conventional sources of energy. It is obvious that the conventional sources like coal, oil and gas will not
able to meet the demands of power human world.

Against this background, the atom, at first regarded as a symbol of destruction offers and important
sources of prosperity. Very small mass of radioactive material can release large amount of energy.
Complete fission of 1kg of Uranium contains the energy equivalent of 3100 tons of coal or 1750 tons of
oil.

Nuclear Fission

The Nuclear energy is derived from splitting or fissioning of the nucleus of fissionable atom. The
isotopes of Uranium are U234, U238, U235 . U235 is the most unstable isotope, which is easily fissionable
hence it is used as a fuel in atomic reactor.

When unstable heavy nucleus is bombarded with high energy neutrons, it splits into two fragments
more or less of equal mass. This process is known as Nuclear Fission. During the fission process
enormous is released.

Chain reaction

(Place the reaction below the chain reaction 1st paragraph)

U235 + 0 n1 Ba 141 +Kr 92 + 2.5 0 n 1 + 200 MeV energy

(MeV Million electron volts)

(Place the reaction at the last of chain reaction paragraph)

U238 + 0 n1 U239 +

U239 Np239 (Unstable) Pu239

(Replace the diagram of components of nuclear reactor in page no.271)