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The refrigeration system was known to the man since the middle of nineteenth century. With the
advent of efficient compressors and turbines, the sciences of refrigeration reached the present height.
The refrigeration has its own wide application in many fields.

Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a substance in order to maintain the substance in a
predetermined condition. Refrigeration can also be defined as a process in which heat is continuously
extracted from a body to keep it at a temperature which is below the temperature of the surroundings.
It is clear that supply of power is required to drive a refrigerator. The working substance which is used
in the refrigerator to absorb and liberate heat is called as a refrigerant.


In todays modern world the concept of refrigeration is used everywhere. Some of the areas in which
refrigeration is widely used are listed below.

To preserve food.
To cool water.
Manufacture of ice and dry ice (solid carbon-di-oxide).
Used in dairy and form products.
To preserve drugs, blood and eyes etc. In the field of medical sciences.
To preserve highly perishable goods.
Computer functioning.
Processing of certain chemicals.
Processing of textiles, printing work and photographic materials.
In air conditioning applications.
In cryogenic applications.



Refrigeration is defined as an art of production and maintaining the temperature in a space below
atmospheric temperature.


A refrigerator is equipment used to remove the heat continuously from the space and maintain the
temperature below atmospheric temperature and reject heat to atmosphere by increasing the
temperature potential of the heat to be rejected with the help of mechanical work input (compressor).

The working substance which is used in the refrigerator to absorb and liberate heat is called as a


The unit used in the field of refrigeration is Tonne of refrigeration. A tone of refrigeration is defined as
the amount of heat removed (refrigeration) from 1000 kg of water from 0oC to make 1000 kg of ice at
0oC in 24 hours. Alternately one tone of refrigeration is the amount of heat extracted to produce
1000kg of ice from and at 0oC in 24 hours.

In order to form ice from water at 0oC, we have to remove latent heat w.k.t. for water latent
heat=335kJ/kg. Hence, one tone of refrigeration

= 1000335 kJ in 24 hours
1000 335
= 24
= 13,958.3 kJ/hr

1000 335
= 24 60
= 232.6 kJ/min

But usually, one tone of refrigeration is taken as 210 kJ/min (or) 3.5 kJ/sec. Hence one tone of
refrigeration is equivalent to 210 kJ/min or 3.5 kJ/sec of heat. In short, tone of refrigeration can be
written as TR.


Coefficient of performance (or) COP is defined as the ratio of heat extracted in the refrigerator to the
work done on the refrigerant. Since the heat extracted in the refrigerator is the refrigerating effect, COP
can be written as

Refrigerating effect Heat removed in the refrigerator

COP = Work done on refrigerant = Work done on refrigerant


Other topics can be taken from old book from page 318 to326 (Section 22.5 to 22.6)