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SREE RAMA GOVT.

POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE
THRIPRAYAR

2016-2017
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT ON
110KV CHERPU SUBSTATION
&
110KV PUDUKAD SUBSTATION
Submitted by

Sruthy .K .S

1
Reg.
no: 14030495
Department of electrical and
electronics engineering
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I express my sincere gratitude to Mrs. PATHUMMA, Assistant Engineer
of Pudukad Sub-Station and to Mr. VIJOY.T.J, Assistant Engineer of
Cherpu Sub-Station for their co-operation, encouragement and their
valuable advice.
I thank The Head of Department of Electrical and Electronics
Engineering Mrs. JAYA P.S and also I would like thank Mr.
ANILKUMAR.G.S the lecture of our branch, for the immense support
and encouragement and express my heartfelt gratitude for their support
and guidance.
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to everyone who assisted
me in making this industrial training successful.

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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
2016-2017
GROUP MEMBERS
ANJALI.K.R

ARUL MANU

BIBIN.V.BIJOY

DHIRESH KUMAR.O.K

SRUTHY.K.S

3
REPORT
Education cannot be contained to the four wall of the class room. Field
training is very essential for studying, understanding and appreciating.
The subject with this aim industrial visiting was conducted in all
polytechnic colleges suggested by the board of technical education.
That is why the principal of SRGPTC, Thriprayar arrange an industrial
training for duration of two weeks at 110KV Sub-Station, Cherpu and
Pudukad running under Kerala State Electricity Board. We the five
students of Sree Rama Govt. Poly Technic College, Thriprayar
[Sruthy.K.S, Arul Manu, Anjali.T.R, Dhiresh Kumar.O.K, and Bibin
Bijoy] had reported to the Cherpu Sub-Station on 9th May 2016 and the
Pudukad Sub-Station on 17th May 2016.

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CONTENTS...
110KV CHERPU SUBSTATION
1. INTRODUCTION..7
2. SITE SELECTION OF 110KV SUBSTATION9
3. LAYOUT OF 110KV SUBSTATION...10
4. COMPONENTS OF 110KV SUBSTATION....11
i. TRANSFORMER
ii. ISOLATOR
iii. INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
iv. LIGHTENING ARRESTOR
v. CIRCUIT BREAKER
vi. METERING AND INDICATING
INSTRUMENTS
vii. CAPACITOR BANK
viii. SUBSTATION EARTHLING
ix. RELAY
5. COMMUNICATION SYSTEM43
6. FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM.......45
7. FUNCTIONING OF THE SUBSTATION46
110KV PUDUKAD SUBSTATION
1. INTRODUCTION..56
2. LAYOUT OF THE SUBSTATION...57
3. NAME PLATE DETAILS OF EQUIPMENT...58
4. FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM...69
5. OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS....71
CONCLUSION..83

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110 KV CHERPU SUB STATION

INTRODUCTION
6
A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and
distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or
the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions.
Substations generally have switching, protection and control
equipments, and transformers. Substations are of different types. A
transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines and a
distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to
the distribution system of an area. In Kerala, the major substations
include one 400 KV sub-station, and seventeen 220 KV substations.
The department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering of Sree Rama
Govt. Polytechnic College, Thriprayar gives a chance to their students to
spend two weeks in industrial companies. This training gives the student
the opportunity to see what they have studied and how to deal with
practical life. My training program was in the period from 9thMay 2016
at 110kV Cherpu substation for one week. The present day electrical
power system is AC i.e.; electrical power is generated, transmitted and
distributed in the form of alternating current. The electric power is
produced at the power station, which are located at favorable places,
generally quite away from the consumers. It is delivered to the consumer
through a large network of transmission and distribution. At many places
in the line of power system, it may be desirable and necessary to change
some characteristics (e.g. Voltage, AC to DC frequency, power factor
etc) of electric supply. This is accomplished by suitable apparatus called
substation for example, generation voltage (11kV/6.6kV) at the power
station is stepped up to high voltage of transmission of electric power.
Similarly near the consumers localities, the voltage may have to step
down to utilization level. This job is again accomplished by suitable
apparatus called substation.

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The 110KV substation Cherpu is situated at Perumbillisseri village. At
present 110KV substation, Cherpu has two 110KV feeders, normally
1IRJK and 1MADKT feeders. The substation is normally fed from
400KV substation Madakkathara directly which is entering 1st bay in the
yard. There is also an alternate feeding from Madakkathara through
Irinjalakuda which is entering 2nd bay in the yard. Both feeders may be
tied at this substation, according to the power demand at the both
ends.The 110KV substation, Cherpu is equipped with 2 nos. of
12.5MVA 110/11KV TELK made transformers and 1 no. of 16MVA
110/33KV TELK made transformer. Substation supplies seven 11KV
feeders including station auxiliary.the11KV feeders feeds to the nearby
places such as Chenam, Ammadam, Chevoor, Cherpu, Urakam and
Karuvanoor.Apart from 110KV bays, there is also a 33KV yard which
feeds the 33KV feeders to the Chirakkal and Palakkal substation.

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SITE SELECTION OF 110kV
SUBSTATION
110kV substation forms an important link between Transmission
network and Distribution network. It has a vital influence of reliability
of surface. Apart from ensuring efficient transmission and distribution of
power, the substation configuration should be such that it enables easy
maintenance of equipment and minimum interruptions in power supply.
Substation is constructed as near as possible as the load centre. The
voltage level of power transmission is decided on the quantum of power
to be transmitted to the load centre.
Main points to be considered while selecting the site for grid substation
are as follows:
The site chosen should be as near to the load centre as possible.
It should be easily approachable by road or rail for transportation of
equipments.
Land should be fairly leveled to minimize development cost.
Source of water should be as near to the site as possible. This is
because water is required for various construction activities (especially
civil works), earthing and for drinking purposes etc.
The substation site should be as near to the town/city but should be
clear of public spaces, aerodromes and military/police installations.
The land should have sufficient ground area to accommodate
substation equipments, buildings, staff quarters, space for storage of
material, such as store yards and store sheds etc. with roads and space
for future expansion.
Set back distances from various roads such as National highways,
state highways should be observed as per regulations in force.
While selecting the land for the substation, preference is to be given to
Government and over private land.
The land should not have water logging problem.
Far away from obstructions, to permit easy and safe approach
termination of high voltage overhead transmission lines.

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LAYOUT OF THE SUBSTATION

10
COMPONENTS OF THE SUBSTATION

A: Primary power line's side


B: Secondary power line's side
1. Primary power lines
2. Ground wire
3. Overhead lines
4. Potential or Voltage transformer
5. Disconnect switch
6. Circuit breaker
7. Current transformer
8. Lightning arrestor
9. Main transformer
10. Control building
11. Security fence
12. Secondary power lines

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TRANSFORMER

POWER TRANSFORMER
GENERAL
The transformer is oil filled equipment conforming to IS: 2026 with
ONAN/ONAF. The transformer is provided with fan, pumps, cooler etc.
CORE
The magnetic circuits is a three limb type. Each limb being mitred with
top and bottom yokes. The core is built up with high grade non ageing
cold rod grain oriented silicon steel laminations having high
permeability and hysterious loss.
WINDING
Windings are arranged in concentric formation with lowest voltage
winding next to core. In case, teritiary winding is arranged then this
winding is placed next to the core over LV winding, HV tapping and HV
main winding are depending up on requirement of impedence between
various winding.
TANK
The tank is welded mild steel plate construction and is designed to
withstand a vaccum in line with stand a vaccum in line with the CBIP
recommendation. The tank is coated inside with two coat of yellow oil
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proof enamel. On the outside it is applied with anticorrosive primer
paint and final coat of synthetic enamel to shade No: 631 or 632 of IS-5.
COOLING EQUIPMENT
The transformer is having either single or mixed cooling of ONAF,
ONAN and ONAF by means of heat exchangers, fan and pumps. Fan are
provided with wire mesh guards. Fans are mounted either below the
radiators and are ground supported or supported on frames at a sides.
ONAF-Oil Natural Air Forced Cooling

ONAN Oil Natural Air Natural Cooling


CONSERVATOR
As the temperature increases or decreases during operation there is a
corresponding rise or fall in volume. To account for this as expansion
vessel is connected to the transformer tank. The conservator has got a
capacity between the minimum to maximum oil level equal to 7.5% of
toatal oil in the transformer.
DEHYDRATING BREATHER
The conservator is connected to outside atmosphere through a
dehydrating (silica gel filled)breather to make sure the air in conservator
is dry.
BUCHHOLZ RELAY
The gas and oil actuated (Buchholz) relay is designed to detect faults as
well to minimize the propagation of any damage which might occur
within oil-filled transformers, capacitors and reactors supplied with oil
conservator.
The relay is therefore particularly effective in case of:

13
Short- circuited core laminations
Broken-down core bolt insulation
Overheating of some part of the windings
Bad contacts
Short circuit between phases
Earth faults puncture of bushing insulators inside the tank
Furthermore the relay can prevent the development of conditions leading
to a fault in the transformer, such as the falling of the oil level owing to
leaks, or the ingress of air as a result of defects in the oil circulating
system.
Operation of buchholz relay
Slight faults: When a slight fault occurs in the transformer, the small
bubbles of gas, which pass upwards to the conservator, are trapped in the
relay housing, thus causing its oil level to fall. As a result, the upper float
rotates on its hub and operates the alarm switch, thus operating an
external alarm device.
Serious faults: When a serious fault occurs in the transformer, the gas
generation is violent and causes the oil to rush through the connecting
pipe to the conservator. In the relay this oil surge hits the flap fitted on
the lower float (located in front of the hole for the oil passage) and
causes the rotation of the float itself, thus operating the tripping switch
and disconnecting the transformer. The float remains in the trip position
even if the oil flow comes to a stop (the reset is done by means of the
push-button). The tripping device is regulated in such a way that in
transformers having forced oil cooling, the surges resulting from the
starting of the oil circulating pump will not cause mal-operation of the
relay. An oil leak in the transformer causes the oil level in the relay to
fall, thus operating first the alarm (upper) float and then the tripping
(lower) float. The ingress of air into the transformer, arising from
defects in the oil circulating system or from other causes, operates the
alarm float.

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BUSHINGS
The bushings consist of a current carrying element in the form of a
conducting rod. Up to 33kV ordinary porcelain insulators can be used,
above this voltage ratings oil filled or capacitor type bushings are used.
Bushing is very important to the overall transformer because without it,
conduction would not be possible. The bushings are necessary to
complete the conductive energy of the walls that are transferred within
the transformer so that they can the move through the medium such as
air and gas, including the grounding barriers that each unit is designed
with.
TERMINALS

Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the
ends of the coils, and brought to the base of the unit for circuit
connection. Larger transformers may have heavy terminals, bus bars or
high insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. A large bushing
can be a complex structure since it must provide careful control of
electric field gradient without letting the transformer leak oil.
PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
In case of severe fault in the transformer, the internal pressure may build
upto a very high level which may built upto a very high level which may
result in an explosion of the tank. To avoid such contgency a pressure
relief valves is fitted on the transformer. It is a spring loaded and has
contact for tripping the transformer
ON LOAD TAP CHANGER
The on load tap changer consists of diverter switch installed into a
pressure tight oil compartment seperated from transformer oil at the tap
selector mounted below it.

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OLTC PANEL FOR TRANSFORMER
On load Tap Changer (OLTC) is used with higher capacity
transformers where HT side voltage variation is frequent and a nearly
constant LT is required. OLTC is fitted with the transformer itself.
Multiple tapings from HV windings are brought to the OLTC chamber
and contacted to fixed contacts. Moving contacts rotates with the help
of rotating mechanism having a spindle. This spindle can be rotated
manually as well as electrically with a motor. Motor is connected in
such a way that it can rotate in both the directions so as to rotate the
OLTC contacts in clockwise and anti clock- wise direction. Two push
buttons are fitted on the LCP (local control panel) to rotate the motor
and hence the OLTC contacts in clockwise and anti- clockwise
direction. This movement of contacts thus controls the output LV
voltage of the transformer. So rotating of OLTC contacts with spindle or
push buttons in this way is a manual process. In case this process of
rotating the OLTC contacts and hence controlling the LV side voltage
is to be done automatically then a RTCC (Remote Tap Changer
Controller) is installed with the transformer HT Panel. The RTCC sends
signals to LCP and LCP in turn rotates the motor as per the signals
received from the RTCC OLTC(on load tap changer)is a mechanism
used in transformer for changing the tapping position on primary
side(HV)of transformer 11kv/66kv the tap changer on the Primary/HV
side of the transformer is either raised or lowered to maintain constant
11kv input to transformer. Normally it is raised or lowered in steps of
2.5% of normal KV value.
GAS ANALYSIS ON TRANSFORMER OIL
Incipient faults in oil filled transformer are usually the result of electrical
or thermal excess stress of either transformer oil or insulating materials.

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It is known as that such excessive stress produced a mixture of gases
characteristics of which given an indication of the type of the faults and
materials associated with faults.
ANALYSIS METHOD
Gas Analysis (DGA)
1 Gases to be analysed normally O2
2 Gases to estimate abnormality H2,CH4,C2H2,C2H4,C2H
6
3 Gases to estimate deterioration CO, CO2, CH4
ASSESSING THE TEST RESULT
Sl Type of faults Decomposable gases in
No. transformer oil
1 Over heat oil CH4,C2H4,H2
2 Arcing of oil H2,C2H2, CH4, C2H4
3 Over heat of solid insulating CO,CO2,H2,C2H4
materials
4 Over heat of oil and paper CH4,C2H4,CO,CO2,H2
combination
5 Arcing of oil and paper combination H2,C2H2,CO,CO2,C2H4
SAMPLING OF OIL FROM TRANSFORMER
Oil in transformer can be sampled through drain or sampling valve near
bottom of the tank. The special care shall be taken not to introduce air,
foreign matter or dirty oil into sampling container. For this purpose, first
0.5 to 1 litre of oil from the transformer shall be overflow through the oil
container. The oil sampiling method shall be accordance with following
figure. The sampled oil shall not be exposed to air before analysis.

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SPECIFICATION
TRANSFORMER NO.1
WITH ON LOAD TAP CHANGER
Capacity 12.5MVA
Voltage ratio 110000/11000V
Current ratio 65.7/657A
Make TELK
Type of cooling ONAN/ONAF
Impedance voltage 9.82%
Vector group YNyn0
No. of taps 13
Total mass 29060kg
TRANSFORMER NO.2
WITH ON LOAD TAP CHANGER
Capacity 12.5MVA
Voltage ratio 110000/11000V
Current ratio 65.7/657A
Make TELK
Type of cooling ONAN/ONAF
Impedance voltage 10.52
Vector group YNyn0

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No. of taps 13
TRANSFORMER NO.3
WITH ON LOAD TAP CHANGER
Capacity 16MVA
Voltage ratio 110000/33000V
Current ratio 84/280A
Make TELK
Vector group YNyn0
Mass of core and winding 13100kg
Mass of oil 9600kg
Total mass 33000kg
Type of cooling ONAN/ONAF
Volume of oil 11160ltr
Impedance voltage 9.768%
STATION AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER

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Auxiliary transformer is used to deliver required AC voltage to the
substation. Here we use 1100/440V 160 KVA 3 PHASE transformer.
Here the 11KV on the primary sidestep down to 440V.And give to the
substation for its working and some general purposes. The supply to the
battery charger is taken from auxiliary transformer. A Low Tension panel
is provided on the control room. The low tension panel delivers the
supply for the control room.
SPECIFICATION
Capacity 160KVA
Voltage ratio 11000/433V
Current ratio 8.39/213.33A
Make KEL
Type of cooling ONAN
% impedance 4.32%

Total weight 829kg

Core & winding weight 209kg

Frequency 50Hz

No. of phases 3

Oil in litres 235l

Max. Temperature rise in oil 45C

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ISOLATOR

In order to disconnect a part of system for maintenance and repair,


isolators are used. It is a knife switch designed to open a circuit under no
load. If isolators are to be opened, the Circuit Breaker connected must be
opened first. Otherwise there is a possibility of occurrence of a spark at
the isolator contacts. After repair, first isolators are closed and then
Circuit Breaker. There are two types of isolators-
Line isolators and Bus isolators. For bus isolators, there is no earth
switch. During maintenance works the line isolator contacts are opened,
so that the three phases trip simultaneously. For the ease of earthing,
dead weights are provided at the end of earthing arm.

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SPECIFICATION
LINE ISOLATOR OF 110kV FEEDERS
Type DB
Voltage 110KV
Current 800A
Impulse 550 KV
Short time current for 3 seconds 31.5 KA
Frequency 50Hz
Constant voltage 110V DC
BUS ISOLATOR OF 110kV FEEDERS
Type DB
Voltage 110kV
Current 1250A
Impulse withstand 550kV
Short time current for 1 sec 2kA
Constant voltage 110V DC
BUS COUPLER ISOLATOR
Type DB
Voltage 110kV
Current 1250A
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Impulse withstand 550kV
Short time current for 1 sec 2kA
Constant voltage 110V DC

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS
Instrument transformers means current transformer & voltage
transformer are used in electrical power system for stepping down
currents and voltages of the system for metering and protection purpose.
Actually relays and meters used for protection and metering, are not
designed for high currents and voltages. High currents or voltages of
electrical power system cannot be directly fed to relays and meters. CT
steps down rated system current to 1 Amp or 5 Amp similarly voltage
transformer steps down system voltages to 110V. The relays and meters
are generally designed for 1 Amp, 5 Amp and 110V.
CURRENT TRANSFORMER

A CT is an instrument transformer in which the secondary current

is substantially proportional to primary current and differs in phase from


it by ideally zero degree. Current transformers are used for both metering
and protection purposes. Depending up on the type of the protections

23
adopted, number of secondary cores required will be decided. All 11kV
feeders requires 2 core CT for metering and protection. All 11kV banks,
66kV lines and 110kV lines and 110/33-11kV and 66/11kV power
transformers requires 3 core CTs for metering, primary protection
(distance protection for lines and differential protection for transformers)
and backup protection(over current and earth fault protection).220kV
class CTs are of 5 cores for metering, primary protection, backup
protection and 2 cores for bus bar protection (main and check
zones).Accuracy class of each secondary core differs of depending upon
the type of protection. If the type of protection is same then the class of
such cores will be same. While ordering the accuracy class, VA burden,
and instrument safety factor (ISF-for metering core), accuracy limiting
factor (ALF- for backup protection core), knee point voltage, excitation
current and Rct for primary protection cores will be specified.

Metering core: Accuracy class( 0.2,0.5), burden-VA and ISF


Backup protection core: Accuracy class (5P10,5P15,5P20), Burden
and ALF
Primary protection: Accuracy class (PS), knee point voltage,
magnetizing current Io and Rct.
5P10 means- when current is 10times the rated secondary current,
the accuracy should not exceed 5% at rated burden. Similarly 5P15
and 5P20. Here P stands for protection.
PS-protection for special purpose.
Knee point voltage (VK) - means the voltage at which the CT cor
saturates. It is defined as the voltage at which for an additional
increase in 10% voltage, there will be 50% increase in magnetizing
current.
CTs can be selected as single ratio or multi ratio CTs. For single ratio
CTs there are only two secondary terminals for each core (S1 and S2). If
multi ratio CTs are required, there will be required number of tapings in
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each secondary core and they will be marked as S1-S2-S3-S4 etc. To
identify the core, each secondary terminal will be marked as 1S1-1S2,
2S1-2S2, 3S1-3S2 etc.
SPECIFICATION
CURRENT TRANSFORMER ON 110kV FEEDERS
Highest system voltage 123kV
Current ratio 400-200-100/1-1-1-1A
Short time current 31.5KA for 1 sec
Frequency 50 Hz
Insulation level 230/550Kv
Total creepage distance 3075mm
Total weight 350kg
Quantity of oil 105ltrs
CURRENT TRANSFORMER OF TRANSFORMER NO.1
Highest system voltage 123kV
Current ratio 600-300/1-1
Frequency 50Hz
Oil weight 90kg
Total weight 590kg

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CURRENT TRANSFORMER OF TRANSFORMER NO.2
Highest system voltage 123kV
Current ratio 600-300/5-5
Frequency 50Hz
Oil weight 90kg
Total weight 590kg
Short time current 31.5KA for 1 sec
CURRENT TRANSFORMER OF TRANSFORMER NO.3
Highest system voltage 123kV
Current ratio 400/1-1-1-1
Frequency 50Hz
Oil weight 90kg
Total weight 590kg
Short time current 25kA for 1 sec
Insulation level 230/550kV
CURRENT TRANSFORMER OF 11kV INCOMER
Highest system voltage 15kV
Current ratio 350-175/5-5
Frequency 50Hz
Short time current 25kA for 1 sec
26
CURRENT TRANSFORMER OF 33kV INCOMER
Highest system voltage 36kV
Current ratio 400-200/1-1-1-1
Frequency 50Hz
Short time current 25kA for 1 sec
Total weight 125kg

POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER

A Voltage Transformer theory or Potential Transformer theory is just like


theory of general purpose step down transformer. Primary of this
transformer is connected across the phases or and ground depending
upon the requirement. Just like the transformer, used for stepping down
purpose, potential transformer i.e. PT has lowers turns winding at its
secondary. The system voltage is applied across the terminals of primary
winding of that transformer, and then proportionate secondary voltage
appears across the secondary terminals of the PT. The secondary voltage
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of the PT is generally 110V. In an ideal Potential Transformer or Voltage
Transformer when rated burden connected across the secondary the ratio
of primary and secondary voltages of transformer is equal to the turns
ratio and furthermore the two terminal voltages are in precise phase
opposite to each other. But in actual transformer there must be an error
in the voltage ratio as well as in the phase angle between primary and
secondary voltages.
SPECIFICATION
POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER OF 110kV FEEDERS
H.S.V 132KV
Insulation level 230/330KV
Frequency 50Hz
Oil quantity 180 ltr
Make BHMEL
Primary voltage 110kV/1.732
Secondary voltage 110V/1.732

LIGHTNING ARRESTER

Whenever an incoming comes to a substation, initially the line is


connected through a lightning arrester. This is for the protection of the
station. Generally a lightning arrester seems like a set of insulators
28
connected together with a ring in the top. This ring is called grading
ring. The purpose of grading rings is that in case of heavy voltage surges
the charge is distributed uniformly through the ring and then the
discharge occurs. An ammeter is connected with the maximum current
passed through it. The ammeter is reset. The ammeter in the arrester
carrying the topmost conductor will have maximum current passing
through it.
Metal Oxide Varistors
Metal Oxide Varistors have been used for power system protection since
the middle of 1970s. The typical lightning arrestors also known as surge
resistors have a high voltage terminal and a ground terminal. When a
lightning surge or switching surge travels down the power system to the
arrestor, the current from the surge is diverted around the protected
insulation in most cases to the earth.

SPECIFICATION
LIGHTENING ARRESTOR OF 110KV FEEDER
Rated voltage : 96 kV
Rated frequency : 50Hz
Discharge current : 10 kA
Maximum operating continuous voltage : 81Kv
Pressure relief current : 40 kA
Type : Meta over
Operating voltage 81KV

CIRCUIT BREAKER
Circuit breakers have an in built fixed electric current load capacity
which when breached causes automatic circuit shutdown. It basically
detects the fault condition like a short or over load in the circuit,
interrupts the continuity, and immediately stops the current flow. This
safety feature makes insulation of a circuit breaker and essential part in
an electric circuit. Overloading in an electrical circuit occurs when the
wires are forced to carry and conduct an electric charge more than their
capacity. This causes the wires to heat up and results in insulation
29
breakdown and an electric fire. Short circuit occurs when two points in
the circuit having different potential accidentally come in contact. This
causes unwanted current flow from one node to another which may
result in excessive heating, circuit damage, explosion or even fire.
Therefore, circuit breakers are used to protect the circuit from unwanted
consequences of wire overloading and accidental short-circuiting.
CIRCUIT BREAKING MECHANISM
Generally, a circuit breaker panel consists of a switch and a moving,
conductive contact plate which moves with the switch. When the switch
is on an ON position, the contact plate touches a stationary plate which
is connected to the circuit so that the electric current can flow. But when
the switch is in the OFF position, due to the overloading or short
circuit, the contact plate moves away from the stationary plate and the
circuit gets opened and the electric current ceases to flow. Though most
circuit breaker has common features in their operation, the mechanism
may vary substantially as per the voltage class, current rating and type.
In low voltage circuit breakers, when a fault condition is detected, it is
rectified within the breaker enclosure, whereas in those meant for large
currents or high voltages, special pilot devices like relays are arranged to
sense the fault current and rectify it by employing trip opening
mechanism.
SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER

110 kV circuit breakers of the substation are SF6 gases CB of make


Crompton greaves. The three phases have their own mechanism and air
reservoir interconnected pneumatically operated. The control panel is
mounted in the middle phase. The pneumatic operating mechanism is
30
operated by compressed air for opening and by spring force for closing.
Hence it is important to monitor the air pressure. The breaker can be
switched on or off by operating the control switch in control panel in
remote mode. Its closing is by spring action and tripping is in air. Each
CB has an air tank in which pressure is maintained at 15kg/cm2. If
pressure goes below this a rotary compressor is automatically activated.
Pressure of SF6 is continuously monitored. SF6 being costly, is filled
separately in each CB. The gas can be reconditioned after each
operation. Operation mechanism is through air, which is being stored in
a closed tank.
SPECIFICATION
Rated voltage : 145 kV
Normal current : 3150A
Frequency : 50 Hz
Lightning impulse withstand voltage : 650kV

Duration of short circuit : 3s

First pole to clear factor : 1.5

Short Circuit Breaker Current (Symmetrical) : 40 kA

Short Circuit Breaker Current (Asymmetrical) : 44.8kA

Short circuit making current : 100kAp

Operating Sequence : 0-0.3s-CO-3min-CO

SF6 gas pressure at 20C (abs) : 0.74mpa

Total mass of SF6 gas (Kg) : 12


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VACCUM CIRCUIT BREAKER

A vacuum circuit breaker is such kind of circuit breaker where the arc
quenching takes place in vacuum. The technology is suitable for mainly
medium voltage application. For higher voltage Vacuum technology has
been developed but not commercially viable. The operation of opening
and closing of current carrying contacts and associated arc interruption
take place in a vacuum chamber in the breaker which is called vacuum
interrupter. The vacuum interrupter consists of a steel arc chamber in the
centre symmetrically arranged ceramic insulators. The vacuum pressure
inside a vacuum interrupter is normally maintained at 10 6 bar. The
material used for current carrying contacts plays an important role in the
performance of the vacuum circuit breaker. CuCr is the most ideal
material to make VCB contacts. Vacuum interrupter technology was first
introduced in the year of 1960. But still it is a developing technology. As
time goes on, the size of the vacuum interrupter is being reducing from
its early 1960s size due to different technical developments in this field
of engineering. The contact geometry is also improving with time, from
butt contact of early days it gradually changes to spiral shape, cup shape
and axial magnetic field contact.
The vacuum circuit breaker is today recognized as most reliable current
interruption technology for medium voltage system. It requires
minimum maintenance compared to other circuit breaker technologies.

32
WORKING OF VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER
The main aim of any circuit breaker is to quench arc during current zero
crossing, by establishing high dielectric strength in between the contacts
so that reestablishment of arc after current zero becomes impossible. The
dielectric strength of vacuum is eight times greater than that of air and
four times greater than that of SF6 gas. This high dielectric strength
makes it possible to quench a vacuum arc within very small contact gap.
For short contact gap, low contact mass and no compression of medium
the drive energy required in vacuum circuit breaker is minimum. When
two face to face contact areas are just being separated to each other, they
do not be separated instantly, contact area on the contact face is being
reduced and ultimately comes to a point and then they are finally de-
touched. Although this happens in a fraction of micro second but it is the
fact. At this instant of de-touching of contacts in a vacuum, the current
through the contacts concentrated on that last contact point on the
contact surface and makes a hot spot. As it is vacuum, the metal on the
contact surface is easily vaporized due to that hot spot and create a
conducting media for arc path. Then the arc will be initiated and
continued until the next current zero. At current zero this vacuum arc is
extinguished and the conducting metal vapour is re-condensed on the
contact surface. At this point, the contacts are already separated hence
there is no question of re-vaporization of contact surface, for next cycle
of current. That means, the arc cannot be re-established again. In this
way vacuum circuit breaker prevents the reestablishment of arc by
producing high dielectric strength in the contact gap after current zero.
There are two types of arc shapes. For interrupting current up to 10kA,
the arc remains diffused and the form of vapour discharge and cover the
entire contact surface. Above 10kA the diffused arc is constricted
considerably by its own magnetic field and it contracts. The
phenomenon gives rise over heating of contact at its centre. In order to
prevent this, the design of the contacts should be such that the arc does
not remain stationary but keeps travelling by its own magnetic field.
Specially designed contact shape of vacuum circuit breaker make the
33
constricted stationary arc travel along the surface of the contacts, thereby
causing minimum and uniform contact erosion.
SPECIFICATION
Rated voltage : 11kV
Rated current : 400A
Breaking capacity : 26.24 kA
Making capacity : 65.6 kA
Short time current : 26.24A, 3 sec

BATTERY AND BATTERY CHARGER


The station DC source is facilitated through battery of 400 Ah capacities
and 200 Ah capacities. The 400 Ah battery bank no 1 is fed through the
battery charger from the main control room. This is of 110kV, 50 A
capacities. The second 400Ah battery bank has the same capacity. 200
Ah bank is fed through the battery charger located in the old control
room. This is of 110kV, 15 A capacities. This feeds only 11kV cubicles
located in the old control room. 110 volt supply is always provided as a
standby as there is possibility of power failure in station. At this time
also the tripping in case of fault should continue; for this the 80V DC
Supply is very essential. 55 batteries each of 2 volt are provided giving a
total of 110 V. In some area the required voltage is less; in such cases the
batteries used also should be less. The batteries are lead acid cells and
have sulphuric acid as its electrolyte with lead electrode along with
spongy lead in between. They have 400Ah capacity i.e. they can supply
a current of 400A for a time of 1 hour. So it can be used to supply 200A
at intervals of 2 hours. This voltage always provided in parallel with the
AC supply. It can be used in case the AC fails. The batteries can be
charged in 2 modes, float charging and boost charging. Float charging is
used when AC is present and Boost charging is used when the battery is
in the back up mode. Battery is regularly checked in the substation to

34
check the acidity of Electrolyte. A hydrometer is used to measure the
same. To measure the voltage there is the centre zero voltmeter.

METERING AND INDICATING


INSTRUMENTS
There are several metering and indicating instruments installed in the
substation such as ammeters, voltmeters, energymeters, power factor
meter etc. to maintain watch over the circuit quatities. The instrument
transformers are invariably used with them for satisfactory operation.

CAPACITOR BANK
A capacitor bank is a grouping of several identical capacitors
interconnected in parallel or in series with one another. These groups of
capacitors are typically used to correct or counteract undesirable
characteristics, such as power factor lag or phase shifts inherent in
alternating current (AC) electrical power supplies. The energy storing
characteristic of capacitors is known as capacitance and is expressed
or measured by the unit farads. This is usually a known, fixed value for
each individual capacitor which allows for considerable flexibility in a
wide range of uses such as restricting DC current while allowing AC
current to pass, output smoothing in DC power supplies, and in the
construction of resonant circuits used in radio tuning. These
characteristics also allow capacitors to be used in a group or capacitor
bank to absorb and correct AC power supply faults. The use of a
capacitor bank to correct AC power supply anomalies is typically found
in heavy industrial environments that feature working loads made up of
electric motors and transformers. This type of working load is
problematic from a power supply perspective as electric motors and
transformers represent inductive loads, which cause a phenomenon
known as phase shift or power factor lag in the power supply. The
presence of this undesirable phenomenon can cause serious losses in
terms of overall system efficiency with an associated increase in the cost
of supplying the power. The use of a capacitor bank in the power supply
35
system effectively cancels out or counteracts these phase shift issues,
making the power supply far more efficient and cost effective. The
installation of a capacitor bank is also one of the cheapest methods
of correcting power lag problems and maintaining a power factor
capacitor bank is simple and cost effective. In Cherpu Substation,
capacitor bank is rated for 123kV, 25 MVR consisting of 42 units of
10.14kV, 596.23 kVAR internal fuse capacitor units arranged in double
star configuration.

SUBSTATION EARTHLING
The earthling system of this substation has buried horizontal mesh of
steel rods and vertical electrodes or spikes welded to the mesh. Further,
the vertical risers and the galvanized steel grounding strips or copper
bare act are connected between the grounding mesh and the points to be
grounded.
The conventional criterion of low resistance and low current earth
resistance measurement continues to be in practice for substations up to
220 kV.
Earthling connections are galvanized steel strips or electrolytic copper
flats or strips/ stranded wires or cables/ flexible. These are employed for
final connection between earthling riser and the points to be grounded.
For transformer neutral/ high current discharge paths copper strips or
stranded wires are preffered.

DIFFERENT EQUIPMENTS AND GROUND CONNECTIONS


Apparatus Parts to be earthed Method of connection
36
Power Transformer tank Connect the earthing bolt on
transformer transformer tank to the station
earth.

High voltage Operating Connect the earthing bolt on the


circuit breaker mechanism, frame and the operating
frame mechanism of Circuit breaker to
earthing system

Potential Potential Connect the transformer


transformer Transformer earthing bolt to earthing
tank, LV neutral system. Connect LV
neutral of phase lead to
case with flexible copper
conductor

Current Secondary winding Weld the isolator base


transformer and frame, connect it to the
metal case bolt on the operating
mechanism, base plate and
station earth

Isolator Isolator frame, Weld the isolator base


operating frame, connect it to the
mechanism, bed bolt on the operating
plate mechanism, base plate and
station earth.

RELAYS

37
Relay functions as a sensing device, it senses the fault, and then
determines its location and finally it sense tripping command to the
circuit breaker. The circuit breaker after getting the command from the
protective relay disconnects the faulted element. From this, we can say
that the protective relays are the brain of the scheme. The function of a
relay is mainly incorporated in the control panel section of the
substation. A protective relay is mainly incorporated in the control panel
section of the substation. The relay detects the abnormal condition such
as voltage, current, frequency, phase angle and temperature. The
substation has control panels for its incoming as well as outgoing feeders
and each control panel has various relays.

The different types of relays which are used here are


Over current relay
Earth fault relay
Restricted earth fault relay
Differential relay
Distance relay

OVER CURRENT/ OVER VOLTAGE /OVER POWER RELAY

The relay activates when current exceeds the permissible limits. It will
be connected to the circuit breaker in case of any fault due to over
current. The relay acts and activates the circuit to the breaker hence

38
tripping the breaker. DC supply is always given to the relay as it should
trip even if there is an interruption in the power supply.
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

The relay is activated at difference in current flowing through the relay.


In case of equipments like CT the relay is connected in between the
equipments. In normal conditions the current through the relay
is the same as the equipment current but when any fault occurs in the
line enclosed ten there is a rise in current through the relay at the
fault side above that which is on the other side. This activates the relay,
tripping occurs.
DISTANCE RELAY

It is a special type of relay used to know at which place the line has
failed. The lines are divided into zones. The relay will indicate the rough

39
distance between the station and the point at which the breaking has
occurred. The connection to the main relay is made
through an auxiliary relay. This relay is very helpful in remote areas.
RELAY COORDINATION
To provide proper backup protection following points are to be
considered.
Current transformer ratio used.
Fault level of the station at each voltage class.
Current setting adopted.
Time delay to be adopted as a coordination part.
Type of relay characteristics used- 3 seconds curve or 1.3 seconds
curve. Normally 3 seconds curve is used.
The relay operating time depends upon the current setting, time
setting and the magnitude of the fault current.
Relay will operate in time which is multiple of time delay setting
and the Time Setting Multiplier (TSM) required for a particular
magnitude of fault current from 3 seconds curve.
If the fault secondary current is 5 Amps, then the time multiplier
from the curve will be 4.3.
For a time delay of 0.1 seconds and for a secondary fault current of
5 Amps, the relay operating time will be 4.3*0.1 seconds
(0.43seconds)

Table shows the approximate Time Setting Multiplier(TSM) to be


considered for K(PSM) Times Is (secondary fault current) as per 3
seconds curve,
K(PSM) TSM K(PSM) TSM K(PSM) TSM
Upto 2 10.0 4.30-4.50 4.40 10.01-11.00 2.90
40
2.01-2.30 8.30 4.51-5.00 4.30 11.01-12.00 2.80
2.31-2.50 7.60 5.01-5.30 4.20 12.01-13.00 2.70
2.51-2.80 6.70 5.31-5.50 4.00 13.01-14.00 2.60
2.81-3.00 6.20 5.51-5.80 3.90 14.01-15.00
3.01-3.30 5.70 5.81-6.00 3.80 15.01-16.00
3.31-3.50 5.50 6.01-7.00 3.60 16.01-17.00
3.51-3.80 5.30 7.01-8.00 3.30 17.01-20.00
3.81-4.00 5.00 8.01-9.00 3.20 20.01-30.00
4.01-4.30 4.70 9.01-10.00 3.00 30.01-50.00

RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT RELAY

The main earth fault protection is provided by the restricted earth fault
current stage 10, operates instantaneously, when the differential
current exceeds the set start value of the restricted earth fault stage. The
restricted earth fault stage operates exclusively on earth faults inside the
area of protection. The area of protection is limited by the phase current
transformers and the current transformer of the neutral earthing circuit.
The operation of the restricted earth fault stage on faults outside the area
of protection is prevented by a stabilizing resistor, which is connected in
series with the matching transformer of the relay.
The operation of the restricted earth fault stage exclusively on
faults inside the area of protection is based on the fact, that the
impedance of a transformer decreases as the transformer is saturated.
The reactance of the excitation circuit of a fully saturated transformer is
41
zero and in these cases the impedance is composed purely of the
resistance of the coil. Under the influence of the stabilizing resistor in
the differential current circuit the secondary current of the non saturated
transformer is forced to flow through the secondary circuit of the
saturated transformer.
NON DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT EARTH-FAULT RELAY

The non directional over current earth fault relay is a secondary relay
device to be connected to the current transformers of the feeder to be
protected. The three phase over current unit and the non directional earth
fault unit continuously measure the phase current and the neutral current
of the protected feeder. In fault situations, these units initiate external
auto reclose functions or trip the circuit breaker depending on the
selected protective scheme.
When a phase current exceeds the starting value of the low set over
current unit, the unit starts, simultaneously starting the corresponding
timing circuit. When the set operating time has elapsed, a circuit breaker
tripping command is delivered. Correspondingly the high set stage of the
over current unit starts when its starting value is exceeded, starting its
timing circuit and performing a tripping when the set time has elapsed.

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
WAVE TRAP

42
Wave trap is also known as line trap. It is an instrument used for tripping
of the wave. The function of this trap is that it traps the unwanted waves.
Its shape is like that of a drum. It is connected to the main incoming
feeder so that it can trap the waves which may be dangerous to the
instruments in the substation. The wave trap traps the high frequency
communication signals sent on the line from the remote substation and
diverting them to the telecom / tele protection panel in substation control
room through the coupling capacitor and LMU. This is relevant in Power
Line Carrier Communication (PLCC) systems for the communication
among various substations without dependence on the telecom company
network. The signals are primarily tele protection
signals and in addition, voice and data communication signals. Line
signals sent on the line from the remote substation and diverting them to
the telecom / teleprotection panel in the substation control room.
The wave trap offers high impedance to the high frequency
communication signals thus obstructs the flow of the signals to the
substation bus bars. If they were not to be there, then signal loss is more
and communication will be ineffective or probably impossible.

COUPLING CAPACITOR
Serves as the interlink element between high voltage line and low
voltage RF carrier equipments. It essentially offers very high impedance

43
the LMU. If CVT is provided instead of PT, it serves the purpose of
coupling capacitor.

LINE MATCHING UNIT


The LMU consists essentially of an impedance transformer, the primary
and secondary winding of which are insulated from each other to
withstand a voltage of 10kV. It serves to match characteristics
impedance of coaxial cable (125ohm) to that of HV line(600ohm)

DRAINAGE COIL
Serves to the ground 50Hz leakage current through CC to earth, thus
preventing accumulation of charge on the LV side of capacitor which
would result in setting of LA. The coil offers high impedance to the RF
signals. The protective devices serves to protect PLCC equipments and
personnel from danger through leakage of HV i.e, short circuits or flash
over occurring on the coupling capacitor. Earth switch is kept open for
normal operating conditions and closed if any work to be done on the
communication equipment. It is to be ensured that the drainage coil is
properly earthed.

COAXIAL CABLE
Serves as an interconnecting cable between the LMU& PLCC set.

FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM

44
Fire is started or begins at a hot spot and spread along the combustible
materials to neighboring area subject to the availability of three
essentials.
1. Combustible materials
2. Air and oxygen
3. Heat and local temperature rise
Fire extinguishing techniques aim at rapidly removing one or two
or all the three essentials mentioned above.

FIRE EXTINGUISHING METHODS


1. Cooling- removal of heat
2. Smoothening-removal of oxygen supply
3. Starving- removal of combustible material supply
4. Breaking or interrupting chain reaction- separating
combustible material from ongoing fire.
The 110kV substation Cherpu is equipped with the following types of
fire fighting equipments.
1. Fire bucket filled with sand 7 Nos
2. Carbon dioxide 6.8*2kg 4 Nos
3. Carbon dioxide 4.5kg 5 Nos
4. DCP 5kg 5 Nos
5. Form type91 6 Nos

OPERATION OF FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTS


Carbon dioxide Fire Extinguisher
1. Keep the extinguisher upright and hold firmly in hand.
2. Remove safety pin and turn the wheel anti clockwise
3. Direct discharge at the base of flame in a sweeping motion
Dry Chemical Powder Fire Extinguishers (catridge type)
1. Hold upright and remove safety clip.
45
2. Strike knocks with palm of hand.
3. Direct jet to the base of fire.
Dry Chemical Powder Fire Extinguisher
1. Hold upright and remove safety clip.
2. Hold nozzle in hand and strike knob.
3. Direct discharge to the base of the fire.

Chemical Form (9 Liters) (Inverted type of fire extinguisher)


1. Take the extinguisher to the scene of fire.
2. Pull the T handle forcedly and turn right hand side.
3. Shake well, turn upside down and direct jet to the base of
flames.

FUNCTIONING OF THE SUBSTATION


RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES
1. Operating crew of substation comprises of one Assistant Engineer as
operator and one Overseer as Shift Assistant. Operator on duty shall
carry out all the operations required for normal functioning of the
substation as per the directions followed.

2. Sub Engineer (Electrical/Maintenance) attends to all maintenance


work connected with lines and equipments of substation including
routine and breakdown maintenance. He will assist the AE in the
preparation of monthly returns and allied Db works.
3. Station Engineer holds overall charge of the substation.
OTHER DUTIES OF AN OPERATOR

46
1. Ensure that the control room, switch yard and premises are kept
neat and tidy.
2. Keep a constant watch over the equipments and report any
abnormalities to the station engineer/ assistant engineer when they
are unable to handle the problem themselves.
3. Check all the equipments for any change from normal before
taking charge.
4. Go through the operators diary, message book and P.W register
and keep him post up to date about operational position before
starting each shift.
5. Make entries in the tripping register, PW register, interruption
register and register of phone calls promptly.
6. Check availability of DC supply in the control panels on taking
charge.
7. Take hourly/ half hourly readings and post in log.
8. Arrange watering of earth pits daily.
9. Be familiar with the areas fed by the outgoing 11kV feeders and
also possible inter connections between feeders and substations
and back feeding possibilities.
10. Maintain voltage within prescribed limit:
11kV (between 10.8 and 11.0)
33kV (between 31 and 33)
11. Take the battery charger charging current and station DC voltage
between positive and negative terminals, between positive and
earth terminals and between negative and earth terminals during
each shift.
12. When a feeder trips out, first recharging should be done after 5
minutes, second recharging after another 5 minutes (it is optional).
If the feeder still does not stand, it should be declared as faulty. In
case of obviously serve fault, second trial charging can be
dispensed with.

47
13. Whenever the feeder declared as faulty, intimate the officer in
charge of the feeder. In case the officer in immediate charge could
not be contacted, inform the next higher officer available. Inform
also the station engineer/ assistant executive engineer.
14. After every auto trip alarm, cancel audible alarm first, note down
the indications and then reset the relays.
15. Whenever the feeder is charged, check the voltage and current in
all phase.
16. In case of doubt in any operation, request for instructions from
the station engineer.
17. Operator will be responsible for maintaining station water supply,
arranging switching of switch yard and station lights.
18. Operator will be responsible for tools kept in the control room as
well as the wiring drawings and instruction books.
19. They should familiar with the emergency hand operation of the
circuit breakers, tap changers etc. produce to be adopted in case of
fire accidents, first aid, artificial respiration, safety procedures.
20. The operator should have a detailed knowledge of 110kV feeding
arrangement and an alternate source of supply in case of normal
feeding is failed.

OPERATIONS IN GENERAL

The following operating instructions may be strictly followed for the


smooth operation of the substation:

1. The operator, taking over the shift charge shall record the time of
taking over the duty with name and signature. He / She shall also
record the name of shift assistant in the diary and log book.

48
2. Handover the charge with clear explanation in brief regarding the
substation and feeders such as PW/IC/NBC in force, trouble noted
in any of the equipments etc. Handing over time and dated
signature with the name of the relieving operator should invariably
be recorded.

3. An operator should primarily check protective and alarm circuits


of the individual feeders and also the control supply system
including the battery system. Then the overall inspection of the
control room and yard equipments should be conducted. Check and
confirm the reliability of emergency lights and accessibility of fire
fighting equipments.

4. Read carefully previous operations and make a thorough picture


regarding the substation feeder positions. Record all entries with
time and sequence of operations performed. The tripping and any
major events requiring special attentions should be recorded in red
ink and scheduled interruptions like switch off and permit to work
should be recorded in green ink.

5. Message book and phone call register are to be maintained by the


operator on duty. Phone message received and transmitted shall be
recorded with date and time and confirm the authenticity of the
person at the other end. Confirm that the messages are
communicated to the right person to whom it is intended and act
according to the seriousness of the matter contained therein.
6. Visit the yard frequently and watch the various equipments and
their functions carefully.

7. Promptly record hourly and half hourly readings with utmost care.

49
8. The operator on duty shall see that the substation equipments and
panels in the control room are kept clean.

9. Station clock timings should be checked and corrected if


necessary at 3pm on every day, with 220kV substation
Madacathara.
10. Check the specific gravity and the cell voltage of the pilot cells of
the station battery and record them in the log sheet by the 1st shift
assistant operator every day.

11. Take suitable steps to avoid overloading of equipments and


feeders.
12. Maintain the system voltage within the statutory limits with
appropriate tab selections as far as possible.

13. Checking of battery conditions and battery circuits.

14. Ensure that the compressed air system and SF6 gas system are in
healthy condition and air tank pressure and pressure of SF6 system
within are limits.

15. Carry out various routine operations symmetrically as scheduled


below separately.

OPERATIONS TO BE CARRIED OUT

FAULTS ON TRANSFORMERS
If the circuit breaker of a transformer has tripped, the alarms may be
accepted, the relay indications carefully checked and noted. If the
tripping is an Overload, switch off all the outgoing feeders from the
transformers. Reset the relays and test charge the transformer on no load.
50
Then charge the outgoing` feeders one by one and ensure that the load is
not more than the capacity of the transformer. If the tripping is for any
other reason other than the over current, the transformer may be charge
only after consulting the higher officials.

INCOMING FEEDERS
If the incoming feeders are tripped on over current relay, reduce the load
on the transformer by switching off outgoing feeders from the
transformer. Reset the relay and charge the incoming feeder. Then
charge the incoming feeder one by one. If the incomer is again tripped,
the outgoing feeder last charged may be kept open and other feeders
charged suspecting fault on the particular feeder. The load on the
transformer may closely be watched and if found exceeding the
admissible limit, the distribution authorities may be directed to limit the
current.

OUTGOING FEEDERS EXCEPT AUXILIARY


In case an outgoing feeder is tripped, accept the alarm, note the relay
indication, reset the relay and accept the alarm and test charge the feeder.
If the feeder trips instantly or any apparent fault or heavy fluctuations in
the supply system, flashing the cubicle are noted, the feeder may be
declared as faulty after confirming that the fault exists on the feeder
beyond the outdoor isolation point by isolating the AB switch and
charging the cable portion from the control room. Inform the distribution
section to rectify the fault. If a feeder trips on OC relay, only three test
charging may be attempted. Avoid further test charging until
confirmation from distribution authority is received that the load on the
feeder has been reduced.

AUXILIARY FEEDER
The method in the case of other outgoing feeder may be adopted in this
case also. But as the station supply is taken from the beach feeder, when
the feeder is faulty, open the AB switch in the 11kVoutdoor structure and
charge the breaker for taking the auxiliary supply, inform the matter to
distribution section.
51
SPECIFIC OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS-PANELWISE

A. 110kV feeder panel

1. Distance protection relay


i. Note that operated zones and phases by pressing the
read button(THR relay)
ii. Reset the relay by pressing read and reset buttons
simultaneously.
iii. Also reset the auto reclose relay if locked out.
iv. Reset the master trip relay.

2. Gas pressure low


i. Inform the station engineer.

3. O/C and E/F protection relay


i. Note down the indication and reset the relay.

4. VT fuse fail alarm


i. Check the soundness of the VT fuses in the relay panel
and in the terminal box of PT in the respective feeder.
ii. Replace the blown out fuse.

5. Auto reclose operated


i. Note the dist. Relay indications
ii. Reset the relay

6. Auto reclose lock out


This indication will always be coming with distance
protection trip. Those instructions given for dist. Relay
trip is also holding good for this.

B. 110kV panels

52
1. IDMT Relay- note fault indications, whether phase fault or
E/F or both and test charge as per instruction. If fault persists
declare the line faulty and inform the concerned Ele. Section
Office.

C. Transformer panels

1. OLTC Panels

i. Oil/ winding temperature alarm - check whether the


alarm is due to cooling fan failure. If so inform the
concerned engineer. Also check the valves of radiators
are open, LT supply to fan intact etc.
ii. Oil/winding temperature trip - check whether the
tripping is due to over loading of the transformer. then
acts as higher officials direction.
iii. OLTC out of step - please put OLTC OPERATION
SELECTOR in the independent position for all the
three transformers and check whether remote
independent operation is possible. If not, go to the
transformer yard and local electrical operation may be
tired, if failed do mechanical tap changing by handle
operation. And put all the three transformer on the same
tap position. If local electrical tap changing is also not
possible, check LT supply fuses to OLTC motor. for all
other conditions inform concerned engineer.
iv. Low oil level alarm - visually inspect oil level in the
conservator and inform to concerned engineer and acts
as per his direction.
v. Cooling fan trips - check for LT supply to the motor, if
a fuse are blown out, replaces them and reset.

2. Transformer panels

53
i. Diff. relay, transformer main tank and OLTC buchholz
relay and REF trip - accepts the alarm and inform
concerned engineer and acts as per their directions.
ii. Transformer oil/winding temp. alarm - inspect the
cooler valve, cooler fan, LT supply to fan motors. If fan
is not working, inform concerned engineer.
iii. Transformer OLTC alarm - identify the alarm indication
in OLTC panel and inform concerned engineer and acts
as per his direction.
iv. Transformer fault trip identify the trip indication in
the window annunciator in the OLTC panel. Then
inform concerned engineer and acts as per his direction.

54
110 KV PUDUKKAD SUB STATION

INTRODUCTION
The 110kV substation Pudukkad is situated at Thoravu& Amballur
villages. . At present 110KV substation, Pudukkad has two 110KV
feeders, normally 1IRJK and 1MADKT feeders. The substation is
normally fed from 400KV substation Madakkathara directly which is
entering 1st bay in the yard. There is also an alternate feeding from

55
Madakkathara through Irinjalakuda which is entering 2nd bay in the yard.
Both feeders may be tied at this substation, according to the power
demand at the both ends. The 110KV substation, Pudukkad is equipped
with 2 nos. of 12.5MVA 110/11KV TELK made transformers.
Substation supplies seven 11KV feeders including station
auxiliary.The11KV feeders feeds to the nearby places such as Alagappa,
Cheruval, Kallur, Chengaloor, Amballur, and Palapily. Its station
capacity is 25 MVA. The substation is extended in 4.665 Acrs. This
substation is commissioned on 22/05/2015.

LAYOUT OF THE SUBSTATION

56
57
NAME PLATE DETAILS OF
EQUIPMENTS
TRANSFORMER NO.1
WITH ON LOAD TAP CHANGER
No load voltage HV 110000 kV
LV 11000 kV
Impedance voltage 10.04%
Rating 12.5MVA
Type of cooling ONAN/ONAF
Current HV 52.5A / 65.7A
LV 525A / 657A
No. of phases 3
Frequency 50 Hz
Mass of core & winding 13100 Kg
Mass of oil 6960 Kg
Total mass 29060 Kg
Volume of oil 7820 L
Untanking mass 13100 Kg
Air circulation m^3/ min 6*90
Diagram of connection no. 3RD-2171la

58
Guaranteed maximum temperature rise of oil 45C, winding 55C
Winding Impulse test AC withstand test
Voltage kv peak Voltage kV rms
HV line 550 230
HV neutral 95 38
LV line 75 28
HV neutral 75 28

HV ON LOAD TAP CHANGER


Tap selector connection
Position Connections u v w HV line terminals
Tap selector Voltage current
1 13 112750 64.1
2 12 111375 64.9
3 11 110000 65.7
4 10 108625 66.5
5 9 107250 67.4
6 8 105875 68.2
7 7 104500 69.1
8 6 103125 70.1
9 5 101750 71.0
10 4 100375 72.0
11 3 99000 73.0
TRANSFORMER DRIVING MECHANISM
TRANSFORMERS AND ELECTRICAL KERALA LIMITED
MADE IN INDIA
Type D2
Control circuit voltage 1 phase 50Hz 110V
Time for one operation 5sec

59
No. of working taps 11
REF STD IEO 214
05HP 3 phase 415V 50Hz
1 Phase 415V/110V 500VA
TRANSFORMER NO.2
Transformer specification REF I.S 2026-1977
Basic insulation level
Impulse voltage
HV 550kvp
HVN 95kvp
LV & LVN 75kvp
P F Voltage
HV 230kvrms
HVN 38kvrms
LV & LVN 28kvrms
Type of cooling ONAN / ONAF
Rating in KVA 10000 / 12500
No load voltage
HV 110000V
LV 11000V
No. of phases 3
60
Impedance voltage 9.9%
Frequency Hz 50
Core and winding weight 11800kg
Weight of oil 87825kg
Oil quantity 9870ltrs
Total weight 31085kg
Transport weight 23000kg
Guaranteed maximum temperature rise for oil / winding 50C
Year of manufacture 2007
Diagram of connection no. 3RD-21617la

OLTC TAPPINGS HV VOLTS LV VOLTS


POSITION CONNECTED
1 13 112750
2 12 111375
3 11 110000
4 10 108625
5 9 107250 11000V
6 8 105875
7 7 104500
8 6 103125
9 5 101750
10 4 100375
11 3 99000

STATION AUXILARY TRANSFORMER

61
Capacity 160KVA
Voltage ratio 11000/433V
Current ratio 8.39/213.33A
Make KEL
Type of cooling ONAN
% impedance 4.32%

Total weight 829kg

Core & winding weight 209kg

Frequency 50Hz

No. of phases 3

Oil in litres 235 l

Max. Temperature rise in oil 45C

110kV SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER OF TRANSFORMER NO.1


Rated voltage 123 kV
Normal current 1250A
Frequency 50 Hz
Impulse level 550 kVp
Rated short circuiting braking current 25 KA
Rated making capacity 50 KA

62
Rate duration of short circuit current 1sec
Total braking time <100 ms
Total make time <200 ms
Rated supply voltage 110V DC
For auxiliary circuit AC 415V 3 phase 50 Hz
Rated SF6 gas pressure at 200c 6 Kg f/ cm^2
Rated air pressure 15 Kg f/cm^2
Mass of SF6 8 Kg
Total mass of circuit breaker 3000 Kg
Rated output of phase breaking current 6.25kA
First pole to clear factor 1.5
Year of manufacture 2005
110kV SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER OF TRANSFORMER NO.2
Rated voltage 123 kV
Normal current 1250A
Frequency 50 Hz
Impulse level 550 kVp
Rated short circuiting braking current 25 KA
Rated making capacity 50 KA
Rate duration of short circuit current 1sec
Total braking time <100 ms
63
Total make time <200 ms
Rated supply voltage 110V DC
For auxiliary circuit AC 415V 3 phase 50 Hz
Rated SF6 gas pressure at 200c 6 Kg f/ cm^2
Rated air pressure 15 Kg f/cm^2
Mass of SF6 8 Kg
Total mass of circuit breaker 3000 Kg
Rated output of phase breaking current 6.25kA
First pole to clear factor 1.5
Year of manufacture 2000
CURRENT TRANSFORMER OF TRANSFORMER NO.1
Highest rated voltage 123 kV
Rated standard time current for 1sec 31.5KA
Insulation level 230/550 kV
Rated frequency 50Hz
Current ratio 400-200-100/1-1-1-1A
Total weight 350 Kg
Total creepage distance 3075mm
Quantity of oil 105ltr

CURRENT TRANSFORMER OF TRANSFORMER NO.2


64
Highest rated voltage 123 kV
Rated standard time current for 1sec 31.5KA
Insulation level 230/550 kV
Rated frequency 50Hz
Current ratio 400-200-100/1-1-1-1A
Total weight 350 Kg
Total creepage distance 3075mm
Quantity of oil 105ltr
ISOLATOR OF TRANSFORMER NO.1
10 KV 1250A 2KA 1 sec
Maximum design voltage 123 kV
Constant voltage 110V DC
Frequency 50 Hz
Impulse withstand 550 kV
ISOLATOR OF TRANSFORMER NO.2
10 KV 1250A 2KA 1 sec
Maximum design voltage 123 kV
Constant voltage 110V DC
Frequency 50 Hz
Impulse withstand 550 kV
LIGHTENING ARESSTOR OF TRANSFORMER NO.1
65
Rated voltage 96 kV
Discharge current 10 kA
Frequency 50 Hz
Long duration discharge class 3
Pressure relief class 40 kA rms
Type metaover
MCCV 76Kv
LIGHTENING ARESSTOR OF TRANSFORMER NO.2
Rated voltage 96 kV
Discharge current 10 kA
Frequency 50 Hz
Long duration discharge class 3
Pressure relief class 40 kA rms
Type metaover
MCCV 76Kv
11kV VACCUM CIRCUIT BREAKER
Rated voltage 12 kV
Rated current 630A
Frequency 50 Hz
Breaking capacity 26.8 kA
Rated making capacity 67 kA
66
Short time current 25 kA

CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER

A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) is a transformer used in power


systems to step down extra high voltage signals and provide low voltage
signals either for measurement or to operate a protective relay. In its
most basic form, the device consists of three parts: two capacitors across
which the voltage signal is split, and inductive element used to tune the
device to the supply frequency and a transformer to isolate and further
step down the voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay.
Capacitor voltage transformers are typically single phase devices used
for measuring voltages in excess of one hundred Kilo Volts where the
use of voltage transformers would be uneconomical. In practice, the first
capacitor C1 is often replaced by a stack of capacitors connected in
series. This results in a large voltage drop across the stack of capacitors
that replaced the first capacitor and a comparatively small voltage drop
across the second capacitor C2 and hence the secondary terminals.

SPECIFICATION
Line Voltage 132 kV
67
Max. System Voltage 145 kV
Rated Power Frequency 50 Hz
Rated system continuous circuit 630 A
Maximum thermal short circuit current for 1 Sec. 31.5 kA
Dynamic Limiting Current 38.5kA

CONTROL ROOM
Control room or operations center or operations control center (OCC) is
a room serving as a central space where a large physical facility or
physically dispersed service can be monitored and controlled. Without
control room we cant control the substation. Control room consists of
several measuring and indicating instruments, vacuum circuit breaker
for 11kV feeders, battery and its charger relays and control panel for
each feeder and transformer.

BATTERY
System details
System voltage 110V
Capacity 200AH
Cell type 2V
No. of cells 55
Charging requirements
Float voltage 122.65V
Boost voltage 126.5V
Max. Charging current 40A
VACCUM CIRCUIT BREAKER
Voltage 12000V
Current 630A
Breaker capacity 26.8kA
Making capacity 67kA
Short time current 25kA
FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM
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Fire is started or begins at a hot spot and spread along the combustible
materials to neighboring area subject to the availability of three
essentials.
1. Combustible materials
2. Air and oxygen
3. Heat and local temperature rise
Fire extinguishing techniques aim at rapidly removing one or two
or all the three essentials mentioned above.
FIRE EXTINGUISHING METHODS
1. Cooling- removal of heat
2. Smoothening-removal of oxygen supply
3. Starving- removal of combustible material supply
4. Breaking or interrupting chain reaction- separating
combustible material from ongoing fire.
CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES
Fire class Combustion material Fire extinguishing
involved medium
Class A Fire involving Water or solution with
ordinary solid high water content.
materials such as Cooling and melting
wood, coal, plastic, of material help in
cloth, paper and quenching the fire.
packing materials etc.
Class B Fire involving Water or solution with
flammable liquids, high water content.
vapours, solvents, Cooling and melting
transformer oil, diesel of material help in
oil, liquid chemicals, quenching the fire.
lubricating oil, paint
varnishes, thinner,
glasses etc.
69
Class C Fires involving live CO2 gas. Dry
electrical equipment in chemicals Water is not
energized state. If suitable.
equipment is dead the
class is A or B.
Class D Fires involving metals
Normal extinguishing
like magnesium, media not suitable.
Titanium etc. Special chemicals and
techniques are used.
The 110kV substation Pudukad is equipped with the following types of
fire fighting equipments.
1. Fire bucket filled with sand 8Nos
2. Carbon dioxide 6.8*2kg 4 Nos
3. Carbon dioxide 4.5kg 5 Nos
4. DCP 5kg 3 Nos
5. Form type91 6 Nos

OPERATION OF FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTS


Carbon dioxide Fire Extinguisher
1. Keep the extinguisher upright and hold firmly in hand.
2. Remove safety pin and turn the wheel anti clockwise
3. Direct discharge at the base of flame in a sweeping motion
Dry Chemical Powder Fire Extinguishers (catridge type)
1. Hold upright and remove safety clip.
2. Strike knocks with palm of hand.
3. Direct jet to the base of fire.

Dry Chemical Powder Fire Extinguisher


1. Hold upright and remove safety clip.
2. Hold nozzle in hand and strike knob.
3. Direct discharge to the base of the fire.
70
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
SHIFT CREW
The following will be the staff pattern during each shift.
One Assistant Engineer as Operator and One Overseer as Shift
Assistant.
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
Assistant Engineer (operator)
He will be in over all charge of the station during the shift. All
decisions regarding the operational aspects will be his
responsibility.
He will be personally supervising all operations in the substation.
All liaison work with feeding station and load dispatch will be his
responsibility.
During his shift he will be the contact officer for higher officers
like AEE, EE and DyCE as far as operating matters are concerned.
During first shift he should check whether the system statistics and
interruptions of the previous day are properly filled. He should also
verify the daily readings to ensure that the readings posted in the
registers are correct.
He will also attend to any duties specifically assigned to him by
station engineer and superior officers. He will be responsible to
record all operations carried out during the shift chronologically in
the operators diary.
He will issue permit to work on all equipments. He will be
responsible for receiving and transmitting all phone messages.

71
OPERATIONS UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS
Operation of the equipments in the station under their charge
efficiently and economically in accordance with the requirement of
power demand, regulation of voltage and frequency.
Maintenance of continuity of supply under both normal and
abnormal conditions of operation.
Reporting of the breakdown of equipments and lines, failure of
supply, accidents and other serious occurrences immediately to the
concerned AE, AEE and EE. Breakdowns of lines should be
reported to the concerned AE or AEE in charge of the line. Major
outages should be reported to the Dy. CE. The outages of 11KV
lines may be promptly intimated to the concerned Electrical
Section.
Checking the instruments after return of p/w for satisfying that the
equipments are clear of men, materials and ground before
energizing them for normal service.
Checking of battery conditions and battery circuits.
Checking up alarm and trip ckt. Of all lines and transformers. DC
leakage noted, if any, should be traced and rectified.
Ensure that visual and audible alarm systems are working properly.
Ensure that the compressed air system and SF6 gas system are in
healthy condition and air tank pressure and pressure of SF6 system
are within the limits.
Safe custody of keys of various isolators, switches etc.
The first shift operator should correct the station clock with that of
L/D station clock.
Maintaining good condition of rubber gloves, operating rods, and
discharge and grounding rods.
Preparation of reports for submission to the superior officers.
Receipts and transmission of phone message correctly and without
delay.

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OPERATIONS UNDER ABNORMAL CONDITIONS
The following instructions are intended to serve as guidelines for
carrying out operations in 110KV substation. The operations are required
to fully understand the situations before proceeding on with operations.
A. Tripping of 11KV feeders(at HT panel breakers)
Conductor used in 11KV feeders is RACOON. It has 197A capacity. CT
ratio of 11KV feeder CTs is 200/5. Over current setting is 200A. Earth
fault current setting is 20A.
1. Accept and reset the alarm, note down the name of feeder
tripped and time of tripping and note down the relay
indications.
2. Reset the relays and test charge the feeder after 3 minutes
if the operator feels that the fault is not heavy. In case of a
heavy fault dont test charge the feeder and declare the
feeder as faulty and pass the message to the concerned
electrical sections.
3. If the feeder trips again, accept the alarm and note down
the relay indications after accepting alarm. Reset the relays
and declare the feeder as faulty. Inform the matter to the
immediate custodian of the line.
4. If the feeder is found to be healthy on test charging please
check the phase currents to ensure balanced loading.
NOTE: operators are expected to judge the sound of tripping and the
voltage dip at the time of dripping. Heavy dip in voltage and loud
tripping sound indicate very high faults. Operators need not test charge
the feeder under such circumstances. The feeder can be declared faulty
straight away. Do not forget to note down the reason for not test
charging the feeder. Before declaring any feeder faulty, ascertain the

73
health of the substation equipments. First carry out a visual examination
of all the equipments. Open the AB switch of the line in DP structure.
Charge the feeder up to the structure. If ok, switch off the breaker and
declare the feeder faulty. If the breaker trips, do not charge it again.
Inform the matter to the station engineer and the assistant executive
engineer.
B. Tripping of 110KV feeders
Conductor used in 110KV feeders is WOLF. It has 343A capacity. CT
ratio of 110KV feeder CTs is 400/1. Over current setting is 400A. Earth
fault current setting is 80A.
1. Note down the name of the feeder and the time of tripping; accept
the alarm and note down the relay indications.
2. If distance relay is acted, note down the zone of fault and contact
the operator at the other end and note down the indications on the
other end.
3. If the zone of fault is other than zone 1 at this end. Test charging
may be attempted in consultation with station engineer.
4. If both feeders trip on the fault, Switch off all the outgoing 11 KV
feeders except the station auxiliary and follow the above steps.
C. Tripping of 110KV breaker of any one of the transformers
12.5MVA 110/11KV transformers have a primary CT ratio of 100/1 and
secondary CT ratio of 600/5. Their primary over current setting is 65A
and secondary over current setting is 600A. Their primary earth fault
setting is 20A and secondary earth fault setting is 120A.
1. Note down the time of tripping, accept and reset the relays after
noting down the indications
2. Switch off all outgoing feeders fed from that transformer.

74
3. If the transformer has tripped on Buchholz or differential relay do
not reset charge it. Inform the station engineer and assistant
executive engineer.
4. In other cases, check the reason for tripping. Inspect the concerned
equipments, cables etc. if everything found normal, test charge the
transformer from 110KV side in consultation with station engineer.
If normal, load the transformer by closing the 11KV breaker.
Charge all outgoing feeders one by one.
N.B: If the transformer could not be charged for a long duration, the
outgoing feeder can be supplied from the other transformer (ensure
that the single transformer can cater the entire load)
In the case of 110/11KV transformer, rack in the bus coupler and
charge after switching off the incomer of the faulty transformer.
D. Tripping of both 110/11KV transformers simultaneously
1. Note down the time of tripping, accept the alarm and reset
the relays after noting down the indications.
2. If the transformer has tripped on Buchholz or differential
relay do not test charge it. Inform the station engineer and
the assistant executive engineer.
3. Switch off all the outgoing feeders fed by the transformer
and physically inspect the station equipments and cables
for any damages.
4. If everything is found ok, test charge the transformer. If
normal, load the transformer by charging the feeder one by
one. If the transformer trips when any one of the feeder is
charged, it may be the breaker of the feeder, which failed
to clear the fault. Isolate that feeder and charge the
transformer and feeders one by one. Inform the matter to
the station engineer and assistant executive engineer.

75
NOTE: When the 110KV breaker of the transformer trips on Buchholz
or differential relay then its 11KV breaker is also expected to trip.
E. Failure of 110KV supply(Breaker not tripped)
1. Switch off all the outgoing 11KV feeders except the station
auxiliary. Switch off battery charger input and output. Contact
O/D, of the certain incoming feeders substation and ascertain the
nature of the failure.
2. Confirm that no breaker of the substation had tripped
simultaneously. If a breaker had tripped, it may be the reason that
the 110KV line tripped because of the severity of the fault in this
circuit. Check distance relay to see indications.
3. If the supply is resumed, charge all feeders one by one after
ascertain the readiness of the system to accept the load and switch
on the battery charger input and output. If the supply fails again
(when breakers are being charged), it shows that this particular
breaker failed to clear a fault. Inform the station engineer and the
assistant executive engineer.
F. Issuing PW on 110/11KV transformer and incomer
Before issuing the PW ensures that the 11KV load on the station is
within the safe loading capacity of the other transformer.
1. Rack in and switch on the bus coupler to enable the sharing of load
by transformers and to ensure the interruption free supply to the
consumers.
2. Switch off the breakers of the 11KV incomer on which the PW is
required.
3. Switch off the 110KV breakers of the transformer on which this
incomer is connected.
4. Open the isolator on the 110KV side of the transformer and ensure
that all isolator blades are separated correctly.

76
5. Rack out the incomer 11KV breaker already in switched off
condition.
6. Earth both HV and LV side transformer on which the PW being
issued.
7. Mark safe operating area using tape and display necessary danger
boards both at yards and at the respective panel in the control
room.
8. Issue PW
Authority to take permit: Officer not below the rank of assistant
engineer
G. Cancelling PW on 110/11KV transformer and incomer
1. The PW can be cancelled only at the request of that person
who has taken permit.
2. Take out the danger boards and the tape for marking safe
operating are.
3. Disconnect the earthing provided on HV and LV sides of
the transformer.
4. Rack in 11KV breaker of the incomer.
5. Close the 110KV isolator at yard and ensure the
correctness of contact.
6. Switch on the 110KV breaker of the transformer after
ensuring that taps of the both transformers are in same
position. Before doing this ensure that all persons have
come out of yard.
7. Switch off 11KV breaker of the incomer.
8. Switch off and rack out the bus coupler.
H.Issuing switch off confirmation(soc) on 11KV lines
a. When SOC is requested over phone
1. Note down the time of call and phone number from which the
call is made. Ensure that it is from the person who is authorized
for taking permit on that particular line. Note down the work,

77
location of work for which permit is required and approximate
duration of work.
2. Switch off the breaker of the feeder on which SOC is required.
3. Rack out the breaker from the bus and display SOC board.
4. Issue SOC on the feeder with SOC No. date and time, reading
overall the operations done and exchange code words with the
instruction to provide local earthing.
b. When SOC is requested in person
1. Ensure the authority of the person came for taking permit.
Note down the work, location of the work for which permit is
required and approximate duration of work.
2. Switch off the breaker of the feeder on which the SOC is
required.
3. Rack out the breaker from the bus and display the SOC
board.
4. Issue SOC on the feeder with SOC No. date and time,
reading over all the operations done with the instruction to
provide local earthing and get sign in the SOC certificate.
Authority to take SOC: - Officer not below the rank of sub engineer,
110KV substation and officers not below the rank of the sub engineer of
custodian sections. SOC can be issued to officers not below the rank of
the sub engineer of concerned electrical sections after getting permission
from custodian.

I. Returning switch off confirmation (SOC) on 11kV lines


a. For SOC is requested over phone.
1. Note down the time of call and phone number from which
the call is made. PERMIT CAN ONLY BE RETURNED
ON THE REQUEST OF THE PERSON WHO HAS

78
TAKEN THE PERMIT. Verify the correctness of SOC No.
, date, time and the code words at the time of returning.
2. Take out the display board and rack in the breaker of the
feeder.
3. Charge the breaker of the feeder after one more
confirmation.
b. For SOC is requested over a person
1. PERMIT CAN ONLY BE RETURED ON THE
REQUEST OF THE PERSON WHO HAS TAKEN THE
PERMIT. Verify the correctness of SOC No. , date, time
and get signed in SOC cancellation.
2. Take out the display board and rack in the breaker of the
feeder.
3. Charge the breaker of the feeder after one more
confirmation.
N.B:- Ensure the load balance after charging the feeder. If there are more
than one permit issued on the 11 KV feeders, that much number of SOC
boards should be displayed and the feeder can be charged only after
returning all SOCs.
J. Issuing blink on 11KV lines.
1. Switch off the 11KV feeder on which blink is requested. Note
down the name of AB switch which is to be operated.
2. Charge the 11KV feeder on the returning the blink. Note down the
load of the feeder after charging. Ensure the load balance.
Authority to take the blink: officers not below the rank of the sub
engineers in concerned electrical sections.
K. Issuing PW on 110KV lines
a. When PW is requested over the phone
1. Note down the time of call and phone number from which the call
is made. Ensure that it is from the person who is authorized for

79
taking permit on that particular line. Note down the work, location
of the work for which permit is required and the approximate time
of work.
2. Switch off the breaker of the 110KV feeder from this end.
3. Issue phone message to operators at 110KV substation at the other
end to switch off and isolate the feeder at that end.
4. Open the isolator of 110KV feeder after getting confirmation
message from concerned 110KV substation at the other end.
5. Obtain the non back feeding from the O/D at the other end
substation on the same feeder.(operator at the other end has to
earth the other end)
6.Close the earth switch of 110KV feeder and display necessary
permit work boards both at yard and panel at the control room.
Mark safe operating area using tape if the work is on the yard
equipments.
7. Issue PW feeder with PW no. date and time, reading over all the
operations done and exchange code words.
b. When PW is requested in person
1. Ensure the authority of the person came for taking permit Note
down the work, location of the work for which permit is required
and approximate time of work.
2. Switch off the breaker of 110KV feeder from this end.
3. Issue phone message to operators at 110KV substation at the other
end to S/OFF and isolate the feeder at that end.
4. Open the isolator of 110KV feeder after getting confirmation
message from concerned 110KV substation at the other end.
5. Obtaining Non back feeding from O/D at the other end substation
on the same feeder(operator at the other end has to earth the other
end)
6. Close the earth switch of 110KV feeder and display necessary
permit work boards both at yard and panel at the control room.

80
Mark safe operating area using tape if the work is on the yard
equipments.
7. Issue PW feeder with PW no. date and time, reading over all the
operations done.
L. Cancelling PW is requested over phone
a. When PW is requested over phone.
1. Note down the time of call and phone number from which the call
is made, PERMIT CAN ONLY BE RETURNED ON THE
REQUEST OF THE PERSON WHO HAS TAKEN PERMIT.
Verify the correctness of PW No., date, time and the code words at
the time of returning.
2. Open the earth switch of the feeder.
3. Issue phone message to the operator at the other end to return the
NBC issued.
4.After receiving NBC cancellation message (the operator at the other
end has to remove earth switch and close the line isolator) close the
line isolator at this end.
5.Remove all the danger boards and charge the feeder by closing the
breaker at this end and inform the same at the other end.
b. When PW is requested directly
1. PERMIT CAN ONLY BE RETURNED ON THE REQUEST OF
THE PERSON WHO HAS TAKEN THE PERMIT. Verify the
correctness of PW No. , date and time and get signed in PW
cancellation.
2. Open the earth switch of the feeder.
3. Issue the phone message to operator at the other end to return
NBC issued.
4. After receiving the NBC cancellation message, close the line
isolator at this end.
5. Remove all the danger boards and charge the feeder by closing the
breaker at this end and inform the same at the other end.

81
CONCLUSION
Working at the 110kV substation as summer training was a very nice
experience. I learned a lot about electrical substation system and the
importance of substations in electrical generation, transmission and
distribution. This industrial visit provided an insight on how substations work
and thus helps in efficient transmission of electricity. We also studied about
different substation equipments in detail. It has given us useful information
related to our course which cannot be visualized in lecture classes such as
transformers which is as big as one-fourth of an average room, which we
learnt about but never saw in the college labs. In the beginning of this visit I
was not aware about the merits we were going to receive from the visit but at
the end I realized it was a very good experience which I would have regretted
if I missed. Also the training was an opportunity for me to increase my
personal relations both socially and professionally.

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83