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Experiment Number 11

Flash and Fire point by Cleveland Open Cup

Authors: Date Performed: February 27, 2017


Arrieta, Qneil Date Submitted: March , 2017
Ragasajo, Ryan Christian

I. Introduction

The flash point is the lowest temperature at which vapours of a volatile material will

ignite, when given an ignition source. The flash point may sometimes be confused with the

autoignition temperature, which is the temperature at which the vapor ignites spontaneously

without an ignition source. The fire point is the lowest temperature at which the vapor will keep

burning after being ignited and the ignition source removed. The fire point is higher than the

flash point, because at the flash point the vapor may be reliably expected to cease burning when

the ignition source is removed. Neither flash point nor fire point depends directly on the ignition

source temperature, but it may be understood that ignition source temperature will be

considerably higher than either the flash or fire point.

The fire point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which the vapour of that fuel will

continue to burn for at least 5 seconds after ignition by an open flame. At the flash point, a lower

temperature, a substance will ignite briefly, but vapor might not be produced at a rate to sustain

the fire. Most tables of material properties will only list material flash points. Although in

general the fire points can be assumed to be about 10 C higher than the flash points this is no

substitute for testing if the fire point is safety critical.


The Cleveland open-cup method is one of three main methods in chemistry for

determining the flash point of a petroleum product using a Cleveland open-cup apparatus, also

known as a Cleveland open-cup tester. First, the test cup of the apparatus is filled to a certain

level with a portion of the product. Then, the temperature of this chemical is increased rapidly

and then at a slow, constant rate as it approaches the theoretical flash point. The increase in

temperature will cause the chemical to begin to produce flammable vapor in increasing quantities

and density. The lowest temperature at which a small test flame passing over the surface of the

liquid causes the vapor to ignite is considered the chemical's flash point. This apparatus may also

be used to determine the chemical's fire point which is considered to have been reached when the

application of the test flame produces at least five continuous seconds of ignition.

Fig 1 Experimental Setup


II. Materials/ Equipments

Fig 2 Cleveland Open cup tester Fig 3 Test Cup

Fig. 4 Thermometer
Fig. 5 Beaker
III. Methodology

1. The test cup was properly washed and after washing, the sample mixture of 70-30% coco
oil and diesel was filled inside the cup up to the level equal to the filling line of the cup.

Fig. 6 The sample was filled inside the test cup

2. The test cup was placed in the Cleveland Open Cup Tester and the thermometer was
suspended in a vertical position using the mounting stand.

Fig. 6 Placement and mounting of test cup and thermometer

IV. Data and Results


Table 4.1. Data and Results of Flash and Fire Point Test
Sample tested: 70-30 Coco diesel Barometer Reading: 14.7psi = 760.21mmHg
Trial Flash Point (C) Fire Point (C) Corrected
Flash Point (C) Fire Point (C)
1 116 134 115.99 133.99
2 116 132 115.99 131.99
AVE 116 133 115.99 132.49

Calculations:

Formulas
Corrected Flash and Fire Point = oF + 0.06(760-P)
= oC + 0.03(760-P)

Where:
P= barometric pressure in mmHg

Trial 1
Corrected Flash Point = 116 oC + 0.03(760-760.12) = 115.99 oC
Corrected Fire Point = 125 oC + 0.03(760-760.12) = 133.99 oC

Trial 2
Corrected Flash Point = 116 oC + 0.03(760-760.12) = 115.99 oC
Corrected Fire Point = 132 oC + 0.03(760-760.12) = 131.99 oC

V. Discussion
The flash point of the mixture of 70-30% coco oil and diesel was recorded at 116 oC and

its corresponding flash point was at 134 oC for the first trial. The flashpoint recorded for the

mixture of coco oil and disel was relatively higher than that of diesel alone. Same can be said

with its fire point having a value of 134 oC compared to diesels 96 oC.

VI. Conclusion

As mentioned, the flash point of the 70-30% mixture of cocodiesel was relatively higher

than that of diesel alone. This might be due to some impurities present in the coco oil making it

ignite much longer and at a much higher temperature. Since the mixture was also 70% coco oil,

it can be expected that its fire point would be at a much higher temperature compared to mixtures

having less coco oil content and more diesel.

VII. Recommendation

It is highly recommended that future proponents who wish to continue the study would

decrease the starting temperature of the Cleveland Open Cup tester. This is for more accurate

readings of the temperature. Lower temperature gives a much lesser sensitivity in the change of

temperature resulting to more accurate temperature readings especially when the sample is

nearing its flash and fire point.

VIII. References
"Standard Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester",
ASTM.org

Buda-Ortins, Krystyna. "Auto-Ignition of Cooking Oils" Retrieved March 19, 2017

Flash Point and Fire Point". Retrieved March 19, 2017

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/fuels-ignition-temperatures-d_171.html Retrieved
March 19, 2017

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/flash-point-fuels-d_937.html Retrievend March 19,


2017

Wray, Harry A., ed. (September 1992). Manual on flash point standards and their use:
methods and regulations. Baltimore, MD: ASTM International. ISBN 0-8031-1410-9.