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7/17/2017 CBSE Class 12 Physics Chapter Notes on Communication System

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CBSE Class 12th Physics Notes: Communication


Systems (Part II)
Feb 3, 2017 12:18 IST MAYANK UTTAM

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CBSE Class 12th Physics Chapter wise Notes based on the chapter Communication Systems
(Chapter 15 of Class 12 Physics NCERT textbook) are available here. These key notes are
important for coming CBSE Class 12 Physics board exam 2017.

These notes are continuation ofCBSE Class 12th Physics Notes: Communication Systems (Part
I).

Inpart I, we have studied about communication system, elements of communication system and
basic terminology used in electronic communication systems etc. Now in part II we will study
about the topics given below

Bandwidth of Signals
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The key notes of the chapter are given below CBSE Class 9 Science, Motion: Chapter
notes (Part-II)
Bandwidth of Signals

Bandwidth refers to the frequency range over which an equipment operates or the portion of the
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7/17/2017 CBSE Class 12 Physics Chapter Notes on Communication System

spectrum occupied by the signal. Di erent types of signals (music, picture or computer data)
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require di erent bandwidth.
General
Speech signal requires a bandwidth of 2800 Hz (3100 Hz 300 Hz) for telephonic conversation.

To transmit music signal an approximate bandwidth of 20 kHz is required because of the high
frequencies produced by the musical instruments. The audible range of frequencies extends from
20 Hz to 20 kHz.

Video signals for transmission of pictures require about 4.2 MHz of bandwidth.

A TV signal contains both voice and picture and is usually allocated 6 MHz of bandwidth for
transmission.

CBSE Class 12th Physics Notes: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Bandwidth of Transmission Medium

Di erent types of transmission media o er di erent bandwidths.

The commonly used transmission media are wire, free space and ber optic cable.

Coaxial cable o ers a bandwidth of approximately 750 MHz. Such cables are normally operated
below 18 GHz.
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Communication through free space using radio waves takes place over a very wide range of
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frequencies: from a few hundreds of kHz to a few GHz.
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Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves

Various propagation modes for em waves are shown in the gure given below

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7/17/2017 CBSE Class 12 Physics Chapter Notes on Communication System

Image Source: NCERT textbooks

Ground wave propagation

Radiowaves traveling through atmosphere and moving along the surface of the earth are termed
as ground waves.

Ground wave propagation is suitable for low frequencies (500 kHz to 1500kHz) or for radio
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Image Source: NCERT textbooks

The frequency range from a few MHz up to 30 to 40 MHz, long distance communication can be
achieved by ionospheric re ection of radio waves back towards the earth.

This mode of propagation is called sky wave propagation and is used by short wave broadcast
services.

The ionosphere is further subdivided into several layers as given below in table:

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7/17/2017 CBSE Class 12 Physics Chapter Notes on Communication System

Image Source: NCERT textbooks

The ionospheric layer acts as a re ector for a certain range of frequencies (3 to 30 MHz).
Electromagnetic waves of frequencies higher than 30 MHz penetrate the ionosphere and escape.

The phenomenon of bending of em waves so that they are diverted towards the earth is similar to
total internal re ection in optics.

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Space wave propagation

Television broadcast, microwave links and satellite communication are some examples of
communication systems that use space wave mode of propagation.

A space wave travels in a straight line from transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna.

Space waves are used for line-of-sight (LOS) communication as well as satellite communication.

At frequencies above 40 MHz, communication is essentially limited to line-of-sight paths.

Image Source: NCERT textbooks

If the transmitting antenna is at a height hT, then you can show that the distance to the horizon dT

is given as dT is given as, dT = (2RhT)1/2, where R is the radius of the earth (approx. 6400 km).

dT is also know as the radio horizon of the transmitting antenna.

From the gure given above, maximum line-of-sight distance dM between the two antennas

having heights hT and hR above the earth is given by

dM = (2RhT)1/2 + (2RhR)1/2

Here, hR is the height of receiving antenna.

Space waves are of very high frequency (30 MHz to 300 MHz). Space waves can travel through
atmosphere directly from one point to another. Height of the transmission antenna can be

calculated from the relation, d = (2hr)1/2

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Tags : # CBSE Class 12 # CBSE Class 12th Physics # CBSE Class 12th Physics Notes
# CBSE Class 12 Communication Systems

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