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EJECUTIVE SUMMARY TEME: HYDROGRAPHS

1. Generalities
CURSE: Hydrology.

Master: Arbul Ramos, Jos. Hydrograph stream is a graphical


representation of flow variations with time,
GRUPE N 5: arranged in chronological order in a given place
of the current. In Figs. 1.1 and 1.2 are shown
Alarcn Alarcn, Stalin. hydrographs corresponding to an isolated storm
De la Cruz Azula, Luis. and a succession of them respectively. In the
Peralta Peralta, Franklin. hyetograph of the figure 1.1 it differs the
Saavedra Salazar, Luis. precipitation that produces infiltration, of that
produces direct runoff, the latter is called
DATE: 15/09/14 precipitation in excess, net or effective
precipitation.
INDEX

1. Generalities ........................................ 1
2. Analysis of Hydrograph ...................... 2
2.1. Separation of Streamflow
components ........................................... 2
2.2. Hydrograph Separation .............. 3
3. Hidrograma Unitario .......................... 4
3.1. Derivacin de los hidrogramas
unitarios. ................................................ 4
3.2. Elementos del hidrograma
unitario ................................................... 4
3.3. Propuestas del hidrograma
unitario ................................................... 5
3.4. Construccion of the unit
hydrograph ............................................. 5
4. Curve Method in S .............................. 6
4.1. Steps to follow to get the S curve .. 6
5. Hydrograph Synthetic Unit: ................ 6
A. TRIANGULAR UNIT HYDROGRAPH ....... 7
B. DIMENSIONLESS UH (SCS). .................. 8
C. CALCULATION OF EXCESS LENGTH (de): .... 8

Bibliography and webgraphy ........9


2. Analysis of Hydrograph

The various components of a natural


hydrograph are shown in Fig. 2.1. At the
beginning, there is only base flow (i.e., the
ground water contribution to the stream)
gradually depleting in an exponential form.
After the storm commences, the initial losses
like interception and infiltration are met and
then the surface flow begins. The hydrograph
gradually rises and reaches its peak value after a
time tp (called lag time or basin lag) measured
from the controid of the hyetograph of net rain.
Thereafter it declines and there is a change of Thus, in actual streams gauged, the hydrograph
slope at the inflection point, i.e., there has been,
may have a single peak or multiple peaks
inflow of the rain up to this point and after this
there is gradual withdrawal of catchment according to the complexity of storms. For flood
storage. By this time the ground water table has analysis and derivation of unit hydrograph, a
been built up by the infiltrating and percolating single peaked hydrograph is preferred. A
water, and now the ground water contributes complex hydrograph, however, can be resolved
more into the stream flow than at the beginning into simple hydrographs by drawing
of storm, but thereafter the GWT declines and
hypothetical recession lines as shown in Fig.
the hydrograph again goes on depleting in the
exponential form called the ground water 2.2. It has been found from many hydrographs
depletion curve or the recession curve. If a that the ground water depletion curves for a
second storm occurs now, again the hydrograph given drainage basin are nearly the same and
starts rising till it reaches the new peak and then hence it is termed as the normal ground water
falls and the ground water recession begins, Fig. depletion curve.
2.2.

2.1. Separation of Streamflow


components

Barnes (1940) proposed that the stream


flow components may be separated by plotting
the hydrograph on a semi-log paper (Fig. 2.1.1).
The tail end of the hydrograph plots as a straight
line, i.e., ground water recession (CD). If this
straight line plot is extended backwards up to
the point E directly under the inflection point I
and line BE drawn, the area under BEC
represents the ground water contribution to the
stream flow. If the ordinates of this area are
deducted from the ordinates of the total
hydrograph and replotted, the hydrograph of
surface runoff and interflow (subsurface flow) is
obtained, which plots as a straight line (HG) at
the tail end. By extending this line backwards
up to the point L directly under I and drawing
the line FL, the area under FLG gives the
interflow component. By deducting the
ordinates of this from the ordinates of the
hydrograph of surface runoff and interflow, the
hydrograph of surface runoff is replotted whose
tail end again, may plot as a straight line
representing the surface recession or channel Where: A = Area of the drainage basin, km2
storage. The slopes of the straight line plots at and the size of the areas of the drainage basin as
the tail ends of the separated hydrographs give a guide for the values of N are given below:
the respective recession constants.

(iii) Simply by drawing a straight line AE,


from the point of rise to the point E, on the
hydrograph, N days after the peak.

(iv) Construct a line AFG by projecting


backwards the ground water recession curve
after the storm, to a point F directly under the
2.2. Hydrograph Separation inflection point of the falling limb and sketch an
arbitrary rising line from the point of rise of the
hydrograph to connect with the projected base
For the derivation of unit hydrograph, the base flow recession. This type of separation is
flow has to be separated from the total runoff preferred where the ground water storage is
hydrograph (i.e., from the hydrograph of the relatively large and reaches the stream fairly
gauged stream flow). Some of the well-known rapidly, as in lime-stone terrains.
base flow separation procedures are given
below, Fig. 2.2.1 Many a time a straight line AE meets the
(i) Simply by drawing a line AC tangential requirements for practical purposes. Location of
to both the limbs at their lower portion. This the point E is where the slope of the recession
method is very simple but is approximate and curve changes abruptly, and as a rough guide E
can be used only for preliminary estimates. is N days after the peak. In all the above four
separation procedures, the area below the line
(ii) Extending the recession curve existing constructed represents the base flow, i.e., the
prior to the occurrence of the storm up to the ground water contribution to stream flow. Any
point D directly under the peak of the further refinement in the base flow separation
hydrograph and then drawing a straight line DE, procedure may not be needed, since the base
where E is a point on the hydrograph N days flow forms a very insignificant part of high
after the peak, and N (in days) is given by: floods. In fact, very often, a constant value of
base flow is assumed.
3. Hidrograma Unitario deduct the corresponding ordinates of base
flow, to obtain the ordinates of direct
runoff.
The unit hydrograph is defined as the (v) Divide the volume of direct runoff
hydrograph of storm runoff resulting from an by the area of the drainage basin to
isolated rainfall of some unit duration occurring obtain the net precipitation depth
uniformly over the entire area of the catchment, over the basin.
pro- duces a unit volume (i.e., 1 cm) of runoff. (vi) Divide each of the ordinates of
direct runoff by the net
3.1. Derivacin de los precipitation depth to obtain the
hidrogramas unitarios. ordinates of the unit hydrograph.
(vii) Plot the ordinates of the unit
hydrograph against time since the
The following steps are adopted to derive a
beginning of direct runoff. This
unit hydrogaph from an observed flood
will give the unit hydrograph for
hydrograph (Fig. 5.10).
the basin, for the duration of the
unit storm (producing the flood
hydrograph) selected in item (i)
above. In unit hydrograph
derivation, such storms should be
selected for which reliable rain-
fall and runoff data are available.
The net rain graph (hyetograph of
excess rain) should be determined
(i) Select from the records isolated (single- by deducting the storm loss and
peaked) intense storms, which occurring adjusting such that the total
uniformly over the catchment have volume of net storm rain is equal
produced flood hydrographs with to the total volume of direct
appreciable runoff (>1 cm, say, 8 to 16 surface runoff. The unit
cm). The unit period selected should be hydrograph derived, which, when
such that the excess rainfall (i.e., P net ) applied to the known net rain data,
occurs fairly uniformly over the entire should yield the known direct
drainage basin. Larger unit periods are runoff hydrograph.
required for larger basins. The unit periods
may be in the range of 15-30% of the
peak time period, i.e., the time from the 3.2. Elementos del hidrograma
beginning of surface runoff to the peak, unitario
and the typical unit periods may be 3, 6, 8,
12 hours. (The time of concentration may
be a little longer than the peak time). Base width (T)The period of direct surface
The unit storm is a storm of such duration runoff (due to a unit storm) of the unit
that the period of surface runoff is not hydrograph is called the time base or the base
much less for any other storm of shorter width.
duration.
Unit stormThe strom of unit duration (i.e.,
(ii) Select a flood hydrograph, which has
duration of the unit hydrograph) regard- less of
resulted from a unit storm chosen in item
its intensity is called unit storm.
(i) above.
(iii) Separate the base flow from the total Unit periodThe time duration of the unit
runoff (by the well-known base flow storm (i.e., the duration of the unit hydrograph)
separation procedures). is called unit period.
(iv) From the ordinates of the total runoff
hydrograph (at regular time intervals)
Lag time (t p )The time from the centre of a each storm obtained, and the ordinates added
unit storm to the peak discharge of the with the appropriate time lag to get the com-
corresponding unit hydrograph is called lag bined hydrograph (Fig. b).
time.

Recession time (T r )The duration of the


direct surface runoff after the end of the excess
or net rainfall, is called recession time in
hydrograph analysis.

3.3. Propuestas del hidrograma


unitario

The following are the basic propositions of the


unit hydrograph: Fig. (a) y (b) Propositions of the Unit
hydrograph
(i) Same runoff duration. For all unit storms
of different intensities, the period of sur- 3.4. Construccion of the unit
face runoff (i.e., time base, base width or hydrograph
base period) is approximately the same,
although they produce different runoff
volumes (Fig. a). Taking as data records rainfall and runoff
can be calculated corresponding to an
(ii) Proportional ordinates. For unit storms of
isolated unit hydrograph rainfall from this
different intensities, the ordinates of the
hydrograph at any given time, are in the storm hydrograph caused by using the
same proportion as the rainfall intensities following procedure:
(Fig. a).
1 Get direct runoff volume (Ve) of the
storm hydrograph, for which, converted to
(iii) Principle of superposition. If there is a direct runoff volume and accumulate.
continuous storm and/or isolated storms of
uniform intensity net rain, they may be divided
into unit storms and hydrographs of runoff for
2 Get the height of precipitation excess tr /tr . This tech- nique may be used to
(h_pe) by dividing the volume of direct alter the duration of the given unit
runoff between basin area (A), ie hydrograph to a shorter or longer duration.
h_pe=Ve/A The longer duration need not necessarily
be a multiple of short.
3 Get the ordinates of the unit hydrograph
by dividing the ordinates of the direct
runoff between the height of excess
rainfall. The duration in excess (de),
corresponding to the unit hydrograph is
obtained from the storm hyetograph and
the average infiltration rate.

4. Curve Method in S

S-curve or the summation curve is the


hydrograph of direct surface discharge that 4.1. Steps to follow to get the S
would result from a continuous succession curve
of unit storms producing 1 cm in t r hr
(Fig. 5.18). If the time base of the unit
hydrograph is T hr, it reaches constant a) The unit hydrograph with a
outflow (Q e ) at T hr, since 1 cm of net rain corresponding excess length is selected.
on the catchment is being supplied and
b) In data logging, the ordinates of this HU
removed every t r hour and only T/t r unit
a time interval equal to its length in excess
graphs are necessary to produce an S-curve
move.
and develop constant outflow given by,
c) Once you have made the last trip, we
where Q e = constant outflow (cumec)
proceed to obtain the ordinates of the S
Q_e=2.78A/t_r
curve; displaced by adding corresponding
tr = duration of the unit graph (hr) amounts for each of the times considered
in the registry.
A = area of the basin (km 2 )

Given a tr -hour unit graph, to derive a tr - 5. Hydrograph


hour unit graph (tr t r )Shift the S-
Synthetic Unit:
curve by the required duration tr along
the time axis. The graphical difference
between the ordinates of the two S-curves, This is usually based on empirical
i.e., the shaded area in Fig. 5.18 represents functions, which uses the basic
the runoff due to tr hours rain at an
morphological data such as area, slope,
intensity of 1/tr cm/hr, i.e., runoff of tr /t r
cm in tr hours. To obtain a runoff of 1 cm coverage. In this paper three methods are
in tr hours (i.e., tr -hour UG), multiply the Method Synder, HU and HU triangular
ordinates of the S-curve difference by
dimensionless and duration calculation is
considered excessive.
= +
In these types of hydrographs have as
= + . ( )
representative Synder who was the first to
To help draw the unit hydrograph,
develop a synthetic unit hydrograph,
calculate the width of the unit
where I consider three parameters: hydrograph at 50% and 75% of Qp.

i. Time base width T. .


= . ( )
ii. Q. maximum discharge.
iii. Delay time, that is, delay time

=
basin. .

Where proposed three equations for A. TRIANGULAR UNIT


these three parameters HYDROGRAPH
Lag times
= ( ).
This method was developed by Mockus

=+ () (1957). Consider fig.1.2. The Next

triangular unit hydrograph gives
As this formula is given for large basins,
and small watershed basis would
volume , i.e.
eventually be between 3-5 3-5( )
and an average value of 4.
= ( + )

= ( + ) ()


=
+
= . ( )

Where is in m3 /s, A is in km3, in


the study varies from 0.56 to 0.69
Synder. Others gave the value of 0.4 to
0.8.

Standard duration hours


= =
. According to the EU SCS
If an HU is required for any other
duration, we have:
=

And the time of concentration C. CALCULATION OF EXCESS
LENGTH (de):
Thus, we have Lag time

= .
= . One way to calculate the index is finding
infiltration because all precipitation
Where,
infiltrates part and the rest is excess
.
= = rainfall or effective.
.

When the area A in km2 To obtain the index is based on


assumptions that recharge in the basin
.
= ( /) remains constant. The leak rate has units

of L / time (mm / h).
B. DIMENSIONLESS UH (SCS).
For the application of this method of
solution is required to have the storm
This method has been developed by the
hyetograph and corresponding
USSCS and tells us that the dimensionless
hydrograph.
discharge is given by
The steps are:

= 1. Calculate the volume of direct

runoff .
Where is the download at any time, 2. known area, the height of excess
is the maximum flow, and rainfall is calculated:


=

=

In the method the USSCS Mockus gave
3. Infiltration index () is
values HUA. Given in Table 1.
assumed, and is located in
Graphing HUA is obtained.
the storm hyetograph.
This USSCS as given by:
4. The height of precipitation
. excess ( corresponding
=
to the assumed value for in

Where A is in km2, Qp is in m3 / s is in the previous step by adding

hours. increments of hyetograph


ordinates (. ) that are
above this assumed value
(Figure 2) is calculated.
Bibliography and webgraphy
5. The level of excess
precipitation compares
(step 4) with that obtained DEODHAR, M.J., Elementary
Engineering Hydrology, Asia-
from the hydrograph (step 2),
Kindersley (INDIA), EDITORIA
should be equal to the assumed
PEARSON, pg. 125-169, 2009.
value be correct:
Mohan Das, Madan and Mimi
das saika. Hydrology, PHI
If = is correct
Learning Private Limited, Pg.
Where:
95-124, 2009.
=
HYDROLOGY PRINCIPLES,
= excess rain in the time H.M. Raghunath, Manipal
interval ti ,less the range of the Karnataka, EDITORIAL NEW
storm AGE, pag 130 -162, 2006.
HYDROLOGY DESING,
6. But if , , another Fattorelli S. and Fernndez P.,
value of is assumed and steps Italia, Associazione Italianadi
3, 4 and 5 are repeated until you Idronomia, SEGUNDA
find a value of for equality and EDICIN, 602 Pgs 602, 2011.
and (step 5).
7. Once found the and is located in
the hyetograph, which is
observed in excess of the
length, which causes excess
rainfall (Figure 5.31).
8. To calculate the volume of
actual infiltration equation is
applied, which is written:
= ( )