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hidrogramas resumen ejecutivo

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1. Generalities

CURSE: Hydrology.

representation of flow variations with time,

GRUPE N 5: arranged in chronological order in a given place

of the current. In Figs. 1.1 and 1.2 are shown

Alarcn Alarcn, Stalin. hydrographs corresponding to an isolated storm

De la Cruz Azula, Luis. and a succession of them respectively. In the

Peralta Peralta, Franklin. hyetograph of the figure 1.1 it differs the

Saavedra Salazar, Luis. precipitation that produces infiltration, of that

produces direct runoff, the latter is called

DATE: 15/09/14 precipitation in excess, net or effective

precipitation.

INDEX

1. Generalities ........................................ 1

2. Analysis of Hydrograph ...................... 2

2.1. Separation of Streamflow

components ........................................... 2

2.2. Hydrograph Separation .............. 3

3. Hidrograma Unitario .......................... 4

3.1. Derivacin de los hidrogramas

unitarios. ................................................ 4

3.2. Elementos del hidrograma

unitario ................................................... 4

3.3. Propuestas del hidrograma

unitario ................................................... 5

3.4. Construccion of the unit

hydrograph ............................................. 5

4. Curve Method in S .............................. 6

4.1. Steps to follow to get the S curve .. 6

5. Hydrograph Synthetic Unit: ................ 6

A. TRIANGULAR UNIT HYDROGRAPH ....... 7

B. DIMENSIONLESS UH (SCS). .................. 8

C. CALCULATION OF EXCESS LENGTH (de): .... 8

2. Analysis of Hydrograph

hydrograph are shown in Fig. 2.1. At the

beginning, there is only base flow (i.e., the

ground water contribution to the stream)

gradually depleting in an exponential form.

After the storm commences, the initial losses

like interception and infiltration are met and

then the surface flow begins. The hydrograph

gradually rises and reaches its peak value after a

time tp (called lag time or basin lag) measured

from the controid of the hyetograph of net rain.

Thereafter it declines and there is a change of Thus, in actual streams gauged, the hydrograph

slope at the inflection point, i.e., there has been,

may have a single peak or multiple peaks

inflow of the rain up to this point and after this

there is gradual withdrawal of catchment according to the complexity of storms. For flood

storage. By this time the ground water table has analysis and derivation of unit hydrograph, a

been built up by the infiltrating and percolating single peaked hydrograph is preferred. A

water, and now the ground water contributes complex hydrograph, however, can be resolved

more into the stream flow than at the beginning into simple hydrographs by drawing

of storm, but thereafter the GWT declines and

hypothetical recession lines as shown in Fig.

the hydrograph again goes on depleting in the

exponential form called the ground water 2.2. It has been found from many hydrographs

depletion curve or the recession curve. If a that the ground water depletion curves for a

second storm occurs now, again the hydrograph given drainage basin are nearly the same and

starts rising till it reaches the new peak and then hence it is termed as the normal ground water

falls and the ground water recession begins, Fig. depletion curve.

2.2.

components

flow components may be separated by plotting

the hydrograph on a semi-log paper (Fig. 2.1.1).

The tail end of the hydrograph plots as a straight

line, i.e., ground water recession (CD). If this

straight line plot is extended backwards up to

the point E directly under the inflection point I

and line BE drawn, the area under BEC

represents the ground water contribution to the

stream flow. If the ordinates of this area are

deducted from the ordinates of the total

hydrograph and replotted, the hydrograph of

surface runoff and interflow (subsurface flow) is

obtained, which plots as a straight line (HG) at

the tail end. By extending this line backwards

up to the point L directly under I and drawing

the line FL, the area under FLG gives the

interflow component. By deducting the

ordinates of this from the ordinates of the

hydrograph of surface runoff and interflow, the

hydrograph of surface runoff is replotted whose

tail end again, may plot as a straight line

representing the surface recession or channel Where: A = Area of the drainage basin, km2

storage. The slopes of the straight line plots at and the size of the areas of the drainage basin as

the tail ends of the separated hydrographs give a guide for the values of N are given below:

the respective recession constants.

from the point of rise to the point E, on the

hydrograph, N days after the peak.

backwards the ground water recession curve

after the storm, to a point F directly under the

2.2. Hydrograph Separation inflection point of the falling limb and sketch an

arbitrary rising line from the point of rise of the

hydrograph to connect with the projected base

For the derivation of unit hydrograph, the base flow recession. This type of separation is

flow has to be separated from the total runoff preferred where the ground water storage is

hydrograph (i.e., from the hydrograph of the relatively large and reaches the stream fairly

gauged stream flow). Some of the well-known rapidly, as in lime-stone terrains.

base flow separation procedures are given

below, Fig. 2.2.1 Many a time a straight line AE meets the

(i) Simply by drawing a line AC tangential requirements for practical purposes. Location of

to both the limbs at their lower portion. This the point E is where the slope of the recession

method is very simple but is approximate and curve changes abruptly, and as a rough guide E

can be used only for preliminary estimates. is N days after the peak. In all the above four

separation procedures, the area below the line

(ii) Extending the recession curve existing constructed represents the base flow, i.e., the

prior to the occurrence of the storm up to the ground water contribution to stream flow. Any

point D directly under the peak of the further refinement in the base flow separation

hydrograph and then drawing a straight line DE, procedure may not be needed, since the base

where E is a point on the hydrograph N days flow forms a very insignificant part of high

after the peak, and N (in days) is given by: floods. In fact, very often, a constant value of

base flow is assumed.

3. Hidrograma Unitario deduct the corresponding ordinates of base

flow, to obtain the ordinates of direct

runoff.

The unit hydrograph is defined as the (v) Divide the volume of direct runoff

hydrograph of storm runoff resulting from an by the area of the drainage basin to

isolated rainfall of some unit duration occurring obtain the net precipitation depth

uniformly over the entire area of the catchment, over the basin.

pro- duces a unit volume (i.e., 1 cm) of runoff. (vi) Divide each of the ordinates of

direct runoff by the net

3.1. Derivacin de los precipitation depth to obtain the

hidrogramas unitarios. ordinates of the unit hydrograph.

(vii) Plot the ordinates of the unit

hydrograph against time since the

The following steps are adopted to derive a

beginning of direct runoff. This

unit hydrogaph from an observed flood

will give the unit hydrograph for

hydrograph (Fig. 5.10).

the basin, for the duration of the

unit storm (producing the flood

hydrograph) selected in item (i)

above. In unit hydrograph

derivation, such storms should be

selected for which reliable rain-

fall and runoff data are available.

The net rain graph (hyetograph of

excess rain) should be determined

(i) Select from the records isolated (single- by deducting the storm loss and

peaked) intense storms, which occurring adjusting such that the total

uniformly over the catchment have volume of net storm rain is equal

produced flood hydrographs with to the total volume of direct

appreciable runoff (>1 cm, say, 8 to 16 surface runoff. The unit

cm). The unit period selected should be hydrograph derived, which, when

such that the excess rainfall (i.e., P net ) applied to the known net rain data,

occurs fairly uniformly over the entire should yield the known direct

drainage basin. Larger unit periods are runoff hydrograph.

required for larger basins. The unit periods

may be in the range of 15-30% of the

peak time period, i.e., the time from the 3.2. Elementos del hidrograma

beginning of surface runoff to the peak, unitario

and the typical unit periods may be 3, 6, 8,

12 hours. (The time of concentration may

be a little longer than the peak time). Base width (T)The period of direct surface

The unit storm is a storm of such duration runoff (due to a unit storm) of the unit

that the period of surface runoff is not hydrograph is called the time base or the base

much less for any other storm of shorter width.

duration.

Unit stormThe strom of unit duration (i.e.,

(ii) Select a flood hydrograph, which has

duration of the unit hydrograph) regard- less of

resulted from a unit storm chosen in item

its intensity is called unit storm.

(i) above.

(iii) Separate the base flow from the total Unit periodThe time duration of the unit

runoff (by the well-known base flow storm (i.e., the duration of the unit hydrograph)

separation procedures). is called unit period.

(iv) From the ordinates of the total runoff

hydrograph (at regular time intervals)

Lag time (t p )The time from the centre of a each storm obtained, and the ordinates added

unit storm to the peak discharge of the with the appropriate time lag to get the com-

corresponding unit hydrograph is called lag bined hydrograph (Fig. b).

time.

direct surface runoff after the end of the excess

or net rainfall, is called recession time in

hydrograph analysis.

unitario

unit hydrograph: Fig. (a) y (b) Propositions of the Unit

hydrograph

(i) Same runoff duration. For all unit storms

of different intensities, the period of sur- 3.4. Construccion of the unit

face runoff (i.e., time base, base width or hydrograph

base period) is approximately the same,

although they produce different runoff

volumes (Fig. a). Taking as data records rainfall and runoff

can be calculated corresponding to an

(ii) Proportional ordinates. For unit storms of

isolated unit hydrograph rainfall from this

different intensities, the ordinates of the

hydrograph at any given time, are in the storm hydrograph caused by using the

same proportion as the rainfall intensities following procedure:

(Fig. a).

1 Get direct runoff volume (Ve) of the

storm hydrograph, for which, converted to

(iii) Principle of superposition. If there is a direct runoff volume and accumulate.

continuous storm and/or isolated storms of

uniform intensity net rain, they may be divided

into unit storms and hydrographs of runoff for

2 Get the height of precipitation excess tr /tr . This tech- nique may be used to

(h_pe) by dividing the volume of direct alter the duration of the given unit

runoff between basin area (A), ie hydrograph to a shorter or longer duration.

h_pe=Ve/A The longer duration need not necessarily

be a multiple of short.

3 Get the ordinates of the unit hydrograph

by dividing the ordinates of the direct

runoff between the height of excess

rainfall. The duration in excess (de),

corresponding to the unit hydrograph is

obtained from the storm hyetograph and

the average infiltration rate.

4. Curve Method in S

hydrograph of direct surface discharge that 4.1. Steps to follow to get the S

would result from a continuous succession curve

of unit storms producing 1 cm in t r hr

(Fig. 5.18). If the time base of the unit

hydrograph is T hr, it reaches constant a) The unit hydrograph with a

outflow (Q e ) at T hr, since 1 cm of net rain corresponding excess length is selected.

on the catchment is being supplied and

b) In data logging, the ordinates of this HU

removed every t r hour and only T/t r unit

a time interval equal to its length in excess

graphs are necessary to produce an S-curve

move.

and develop constant outflow given by,

c) Once you have made the last trip, we

where Q e = constant outflow (cumec)

proceed to obtain the ordinates of the S

Q_e=2.78A/t_r

curve; displaced by adding corresponding

tr = duration of the unit graph (hr) amounts for each of the times considered

in the registry.

A = area of the basin (km 2 )

hour unit graph (tr t r )Shift the S-

Synthetic Unit:

curve by the required duration tr along

the time axis. The graphical difference

between the ordinates of the two S-curves, This is usually based on empirical

i.e., the shaded area in Fig. 5.18 represents functions, which uses the basic

the runoff due to tr hours rain at an

morphological data such as area, slope,

intensity of 1/tr cm/hr, i.e., runoff of tr /t r

cm in tr hours. To obtain a runoff of 1 cm coverage. In this paper three methods are

in tr hours (i.e., tr -hour UG), multiply the Method Synder, HU and HU triangular

ordinates of the S-curve difference by

dimensionless and duration calculation is

considered excessive.

= +

In these types of hydrographs have as

= + . ( )

representative Synder who was the first to

To help draw the unit hydrograph,

develop a synthetic unit hydrograph,

calculate the width of the unit

where I consider three parameters: hydrograph at 50% and 75% of Qp.

= . ( )

ii. Q. maximum discharge.

iii. Delay time, that is, delay time

=

basin. .

these three parameters HYDROGRAPH

Lag times

= ( ).

This method was developed by Mockus

=+ () (1957). Consider fig.1.2. The Next

triangular unit hydrograph gives

As this formula is given for large basins,

and small watershed basis would

volume , i.e.

eventually be between 3-5 3-5( )

and an average value of 4.

= ( + )

= ( + ) ()

=

+

= . ( )

the study varies from 0.56 to 0.69

Synder. Others gave the value of 0.4 to

0.8.

= =

. According to the EU SCS

If an HU is required for any other

duration, we have:

=

And the time of concentration C. CALCULATION OF EXCESS

LENGTH (de):

Thus, we have Lag time

= .

= . One way to calculate the index is finding

infiltration because all precipitation

Where,

infiltrates part and the rest is excess

.

= = rainfall or effective.

.

assumptions that recharge in the basin

.

= ( /) remains constant. The leak rate has units

of L / time (mm / h).

B. DIMENSIONLESS UH (SCS).

For the application of this method of

solution is required to have the storm

This method has been developed by the

hyetograph and corresponding

USSCS and tells us that the dimensionless

hydrograph.

discharge is given by

The steps are:

= 1. Calculate the volume of direct

runoff .

Where is the download at any time, 2. known area, the height of excess

is the maximum flow, and rainfall is calculated:

=

=

In the method the USSCS Mockus gave

3. Infiltration index () is

values HUA. Given in Table 1.

assumed, and is located in

Graphing HUA is obtained.

the storm hyetograph.

This USSCS as given by:

4. The height of precipitation

. excess ( corresponding

=

to the assumed value for in

ordinates (. ) that are

above this assumed value

(Figure 2) is calculated.

Bibliography and webgraphy

5. The level of excess

precipitation compares

(step 4) with that obtained DEODHAR, M.J., Elementary

Engineering Hydrology, Asia-

from the hydrograph (step 2),

Kindersley (INDIA), EDITORIA

should be equal to the assumed

PEARSON, pg. 125-169, 2009.

value be correct:

Mohan Das, Madan and Mimi

das saika. Hydrology, PHI

If = is correct

Learning Private Limited, Pg.

Where:

95-124, 2009.

=

HYDROLOGY PRINCIPLES,

= excess rain in the time H.M. Raghunath, Manipal

interval ti ,less the range of the Karnataka, EDITORIAL NEW

storm AGE, pag 130 -162, 2006.

HYDROLOGY DESING,

6. But if , , another Fattorelli S. and Fernndez P.,

value of is assumed and steps Italia, Associazione Italianadi

3, 4 and 5 are repeated until you Idronomia, SEGUNDA

find a value of for equality and EDICIN, 602 Pgs 602, 2011.

and (step 5).

7. Once found the and is located in

the hyetograph, which is

observed in excess of the

length, which causes excess

rainfall (Figure 5.31).

8. To calculate the volume of

actual infiltration equation is

applied, which is written:

= ( )

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