Anda di halaman 1dari 58

j!

_] _r)r)i--l
fpvfurw
by TOM KOLB

ISBN U-h3q-01,8??-1

ITJ HAL.LeoruARD.
lr-coFlpoRA-rIoN
7777 W, BLUEUOUND RD. PO.BOX 13819 MTLWAUKEE. Wt 53213

C o p y r i g hOt 2 0 0 1b y H A L L E O N A R DC O R P O R A T I O N
InternationalCopyrightSecured All RightsReserved
Aleorrt the Arrthor
om Kolbhas beenan instructorat MusiciansInstitute sincegraduating
(G.l.T.) withvocational
honorsand the "student award
of theYear" in 1989. He teaches such corecurriculumclasses
RhythmGuitar,and RhythmSection
lmprovisation,
as Single-String Workshop, as wellas pop-
likeMelodicSoloingand ClassicRockLivePlayingWorkshop.
ularelectives Tomis Associate Editor
for
and featuredcolumnist One
Guitar and
magazine, is the featuredartiston overa dozenStar Licks
videos.
and Hal Leonardinstructional

A veteranof over4,000gigs,Tomhastouredthe U.S.and Europe,servingas a sidemanand/ormusi-


cal directorfor majorartistsas wellas playingwithhis own band,the Gurus.Currently a
maintaining
busyscheduleof livedatesand recording sessions,he juggling
enjoys his playing/teaching/songwriting
careerin the LosAngelesarea.

Acknourrledgrrrents
wouldliketo thankmy wifeHedyand daughterFlynniefor theirunconditional loveand support;my
momand dad for encouraging me in my musiccareer;everyone at Hal LeonardCorporation.
GuitarOne. and Star Musicians
Licks; and
Institute; last but not my students,withoutwhom I
least,
wouldprobablylackthe perennialdriveto keep growing as a muslclan.

W-wrwsw$SR.w
ffiW W.wwNwwwRNwww
Kolb
Guitars,bass,and keyboards:Tom
Engineering DaleTurner
and drumprogramming:
Recorded at Audio
Intimate
tEontents
CD TRACKS PAGE
lntroduction 4
About the Recordincr
'
1 Trrning Notes

2-4 The Theory of the Modes 5


5.15 lonian 1()
16-24 Dorian 16
25.?2 Phrygian 7,
33.4(D Lydian 25
41-5o^ Mixolydian 3(D
51-59 Aeolian 36
6,0,-67 Locrian 42
68-83 Other Modes 46

Guitar Notation Legend


lntrodrrction
he modesof the majorscalehavelongbeena fascinating subjectfor guitarists'But at the
I The purposeof this
I sametime,theycan be a greatsourceof confusion and misunderstanding.
you throughthe worldof theirappli-
I il"', ,. i" lnravelthe mysteriesof the modesand to guide
situations' as a
we'll takean in-depthlookat how modescan be usedin varioussoloing
cations.
progressions'
sourcefor creatingriffs,and as toolsfor writinguniquechord
examples,as well as
Eachchaptercontainssuggestedfretboardpatterns,lrcks,and musical
Eachexampleis demonstrated on the accompa-
valuableinsightsintoeachmode'suniqueapplication.
for each mode,so you can
progression"
nyingcD. Thereis alsoa jam trackfeaturinga "play-along we'll
setting. bonus,
As a special in the finalchapter,
practice applyingthe modesin an improvisitional
exploresomeof the modesof otherpopularscales'
Althoughit,shighlyrecommended thatyou startat the beginningof thisbookand workyour
familiar
way throughto the it-yo, prefer,you can jump in anywhere,especiallyif you'realready
"nJ, "Theory of the Modesi' if you find
with a modeor two.you can alwaysreferbackto the firstchapter,
yourselfgettingconfused'
Dig in and havefun!

-Tom Kolb

Aleout the Recoreling


on the accompanying CD'Trackswitha full
verymusicalexamplein thisbookis demonstrated
again at halfspeed'Forthe
rhythmsectionare playedtwice-once at normalspeedand then
normal-speed examples, the featuredguitaris mixedhardright.Thisallowsyouto.playalong
eitherwiththe entiremix,or, by adjustingthe balanceto the left'withjustthe rhythmsection'
alam trackloreachmode,so you can practice applyingwhatyou'velust
Don'tforget-there,s
setting.you canworkon soloingall overthe neckwiththe variousfinger
learnedin an improvisational
patternsprovided, experimentwithihe musicalexamples presented in the text,and applythe concepts
oresented in the "oddsand Ends"sectionat the end of eachchapter'
UseTrackQ of the CD to tuneyourguitar'
The Theor1/ of the lUloeles
What Are Modes?
Modesaresimplyscales,or moreprecisely, "scaleswithinscales."
Theyarecreatedby shifting
the tonalcenterawayfromthe root-or tonic--ofa scale,to anothernoteof thatsamescale,thereby
creatinga newtonality.Forexample,whenyouplaythe C majorscalefromits root(C)to its octave,it
hasthefamiliar"do-re-mi..."
majorscalesounddueto theorderof intervals, or intervallic
lormula:
whole-whole-half-whole-whole-whole-half.
W = whole step
C majorscale(rool to root) H = half step

Now,if you play the C majorscale again but start on the secondnote (D) and play up to its
octave,you are playinga "mode"of the C majorscale.Youshouldnoticethat it doesn'tsoundlikeC
majorat all, eventhoughyou'replayingthe same notes.This is becauseyou've"shifted"the order ol
the intervalsby startingon the secondnote. Now the intervallicJormulais: whole-half-whole-whole-
whole-half-whole.Thus, a "scalewithina scalel'
C majorscale(D to D)

ww

Thisprocesscan be appliedto the othernotesoJthe C maiorscaleas well.Andsincethe C


majorscalehassevennotes(C-D-E-F-G-A-B),it containssevenmooes.

First mode(C Ionian) Secondmode(D Dorian) Third mode(E

1234567 (8) 2 3 4 5 61 (E) !vu!u!/! \,/!LJ!VLJ!


UU\"/ \,/ I I
C majorscal(two octaves)

Fourthmode(F Lydian) Fifth mode(c Mixolydian) Sixth mode(A Aeolian) Seventhmode(B Locrian)

\,/tJ!vz !L!!/!L_r\z! tJ!/trrJvr-iLJ vz!!!/!!!


The lUarnes of the lUlodes
You'llwant
The unusualnamesof the majorscalemodesare derivedfromthe Greeklanguage.
to memorizethem-and theirorder-as quicklyas possible:

1. lonian(modalnamefor the majorscale,pronounced "eye-own-ee-un")


"door-ee-un")
2. Dorian(pronounced
3. Phrygian(pronounced"fridge-ee-un")
"lid-ee-un")
4. Lydian(pronounced
5. Mixolydian(pronounced"mix-oh-lid-ee-un")
6. Aeolian(modalnamefor the naturalminorscale,pronounced"ay-oh-lee-un")
"low-kree-un")
7. Locrian(pronounced

Eventhoughtheymaycontainvarioussharpsor flats,allmaiorscalessharethe sameinterval-


lic formula.Therefore,the processfor constructing the sevenmodesof eachis exactlythe sameas
in the key of C. So,for example,if you wereto playan E majorscale(E-Ff-GI-A-B-C'-D|)
illustrated
startingfromthe seconddegree(Ff),you wouldbe playingFf Dorian(secondmode).Likewise, if you
wereto starton the fifthdegree(B) of E major,you wouldbe playingB (fifth
Mixolydian mode).

NOTE:Anydiatonic, seven-note,scalecontainswithinit sevenmodes(seethe "OtherModes"chapter


thischapterwillfocuson the modesof the majorscale-by
Butfor purposesof clarity,
for examples).
far,the mostcommon.

The Parent Scale


A termthatwillbe usedthroughout thisbookis parentscale.Simplyput,thisrefersto the
majorscalethata modeis derivedfrom.Forexample, C majoris the parentscaleof D Dorian.C major
is alsothe parentscaleof E Phrygian, F Lydian,G Mixolydian,and so on.The importance of knowing
the parent scaleof a mode will becomeclearas you work yourway through thisbook. For now, hereis
a three-step, processthatwillhelp
fill-in-the-blanks you to namethe parentscale of any mode:

To findthe parentscaleof A LYdian:


Example Step1) Lydianis the fourthmode.
Step2) A is the fourthscalestepof E major.
Step3) E majoris the parentscaleof A Lydian.

Usingthisprocess,spendsometimedrillingyourselfto findthe parentscalesto all of the


modes,in as manykeysas possible.Here'Sa blankformto helpyou get started.

To findthe parentscaleof - -:
Step1) _ is the - mode.
Step2) -is the scalestepof - major.
Step3) _ majoris the parentscaleof

Needless of majorscalesand theirkeysignatures


to say,yourknowledge how
willdetermine
rapidlyyouwillfindthe answers.(NOTE:Themusicnotationin thisbookusesthe keysignatureof the
parentscaleto represent eachmode.)
Houv lUlodes Are llseel
Nowthatyou knowwhatmodesare and wheretheycomefrom,the questionis,"Howarethey
used?"Froma "bigpicture"
pointof view,the answeris threefold:

1. As melodicdevicesfor soloingoverdiatonicchordprogressions
in majorand minorkeys.
2. As melodicdevicesfor soloingover"modal"progressions.
"altered"
3. As a sourcefor creatinq scales.

1. Modesand Diatoni"erogr""lion"

To understandhow modesare usedin diatonicchordprogressions, it'snecessary to havea


basicknowledge of majorscaleharmony (referto the "Aeolian" for
chapter a discussion on minorscale
harmony).The notesof the C majorscalecan be harmonized (stacked triad
in thirds)to builda diatonic
or seventhchordfromeachscaledeqree:

Sel'enth chords
Cn-ra7 DrniT EmiT FmaT Gi AmiT Bmi7b5

IIImi IV lnraT IlrniT IIInriT IVmaT V] V I m i T V I I n r i T bi

Thesechordsconstitute the harmonicpalettefor the keyof C major-the rangeof possible


har-
moniesyou'llfind in a diatonicprogression. Eachchordhas a quality(major,minor,etc.)and a function
(1,ll, lll, lV etc.)determinedby its position
withinthe scale.Althoughthe triadsomitthe seventh
degree,the basicchordqualities andfunctions remainthe same.Thisresultsin a chordorderformula
thatappliesto all majorkeys-and memorizing the aboveRomannumeralformula(s) makesit possible
to analyzeany majorkey progression.
Hereare some"guitar-friendly" voicingsof the seventhchordsfromabove.Playthemin order
up and downthe neck,
and you should hearthe underlyingsoundof the majorscale.

CmaT Fn-ra7 G] AmiT BmiTb-5 CmaT


X,^ X X.,^ X X X X X
t0fi l2 fi l4fr

| 1Z+ t3t2 r3r2 l -lt.t l3l,+ t3t2 | 321

Justas thereis a designated chordfor eachscalestep,thereis a corresponding modefor each


chord.Forexample, overthe ll chord(Dmior DmiT)in a C majorprogression, the ear wantsto "hear"
the corresponding mode-D Dorian-because it'sthe diatonicchoice(Dmi7is the ll chordin C, and D
Dorianis the secondmodeof C).Likewise, if theV chord(G7)comesalong,the fifthmode(G
Mixolydian)is the "prope/'choice.

C Ionian D Dorian E Phrygian F Lydian G Mixolydian A Aeolian B Locrian


h

$s IrnaT IVmaT VImiT VIIrniTb5


For a quick and easy,hands-ondemonstrationof how this conceptworks (withouthavingto
learna boatloadof patterns),havea friendplaythe chords,or listento the accompanying
CD,while
you playthe followingmusicalexercise:

o
CmaT

EPhrygian---I F Lydian G Mixolydian - 1 BLocrian---r C Ionian

G Mixolydian - l E Phrygian - - I

Stayingstrictlyto one patternof the C majorscale,this popular"groups-ol-four''


sequencenailsthe
firstfourscaledegreesof eachmodein the firstfourmeasures,whilethe lastfour measuresinvolve
the top halfof eachmodeplayedin a descending fashion.Everynoteof eachmodeis accountedfor
in this streamlinedexercise.Playthe exampleagainand listento how eachset of notesoutlinesthe
harmony.But keepin mindthat this exerciseis mainlyfor demonstration purposes.In reality,this
"modal"approachworksbestwhena chordlastslongenough(oneor moremeasures) for a melodyto
be fullydeveloped. Incidentally,
some referto this methodas treatingeachchangelikea temporary"l"
("one")chord.

2. Modes and Modal Progressions

We'veseen howthe majorscalecan be harmonized to createchordsbuiltfromeachscale


degree.The same processcan be appliedto the modesto create"modalharmony."And when the
chordsfroma specificmodeare usedto createa chordprogression, it is calleda "modalprogressionJ'
(Thiswill be discussedin greaterdetailin eachof the followingchapters.) As an example,if you were
to harmonizeD Dorianin seventhchords,the order of chordswould be DmiT-Emi7-Fma7-G7-Ami7-
Bmi7b5-Cma7.
EmiT FmaT G1 AmiT Bmr7b5 CmaT

vrln/t) t v[ma/

Yes,thesechordsall belongto the keyof C major-the parentscaleoI D Dorian-buthere,


DmiTis thetonic,or I chord,so eachchordnowservesa different
function(reflected
bv theRoman
numeral analysis).
Now,if you wereto builda progression
aroundthe DmiTchord(l chord)usingsomeor all of
the otherchordsin thisharmonized mode,youwouldbe creatinga modalprogression-in thiscase,a
D Dorianprogression. In otherwords,D Dorianis the keycenter,and the D Dorianmodeis the ideal
choicefor improvising.

DmiT EmiT
(IV7) (lmi7) (IImi7)

D Drrriart

3. Modes as "Altered" Scales

Theoretically,thereare specificmodesthat the ear "wants"or "expects" to hearin a diatonic


progression. Butsometimes the elementof surpriseis desiredwhileimprovising, and it oftensurfaces
in the formof dissonance, or tension.The superimposing of modesandthe mixing-and-matching of
parallelmodes(differentmodessharingthe sameroot)can be handyimprovisational toolsfor achiev-
ingthistypeof effect.Forinstance, A Phrygianmightbe usedwhereA Aeolianis the morelikelycandi-
date;F Lydiancouldtakethe placeof F lonian;G Mixolydian and G Dorianmightbe juggledbackand
forthovera G7 chord{ora delightfully bluesyoutcome; etc.The listis endless,butthe resultsare all
the same-dissonance, tension,alteration.(Allof theseconceptswillbe discussed in depthin later
chapters.)
This styleof playingis particularly
effectivewhena chordlastsfor two or moremeasures,
allowing the playertimeto developmorecomplexities in the melody. In orderfor thismodalstyleof
playingto work,you needto followsometypeof system,or the resultswillbe chaotic. Whatmanyplay-
ers do is groupthe modesintospecificcategories. Hereis a simplesystemthatplacesall of the modes
intotwo basiccategories:

MajorModes M i n o rM o d e s
lonian Dorian
Lydian Phrygian
Mixolydian Aeolian
Locrian

The modesin the left-hand columnall containa major3rd degreeand can be usedovermajor-type
chords. The modeson the righthavea minor3rd and are for minorchords.Of course,thisis oversim-
plification-thereare manymorefactorsinvolved. But this givesthe playera "groundzero,"tairlyconso-
nantstartingpointfromwhichto launchextended, altered,and evenhighlydissonant melodies.
Remember this:Oncevou knowthe ruleswell,thenvou'llbe ableto breakthemwithauthoritv.
Ionian
-QUICKREFERENCE
GUIDE
Formula: 1-2-34-5-6-7
Construction: W-W-H-W-W.W-H
Category: Maior
Differentiating
scale degree: 7
Forchordtypes: major,ma6,ma6/9,ma7,mag,ma13,ma13add4
Harmony: lmaT-llmi7-lllmiT-lVma7-V7-VImi7*Vllmi7b5
Commonprogressions: l-lV-V; llmi-V-l; I-Vlmi-lV-V; l-ll lmi-lV-l ; l-lv-l ; l-V-l
Five patterns: C lonian
(circlednotes are the roots;notes in parenlheses
are the 7th degrees)
Pattem2 Pattem 3 Pattem4 Pattern5

EEfl-flzr' msr' ,F[Sl,7t


(a)a ro8r'
a(aJaaa |||al |ta(a) ttata I
tll(l)t | {a)aaa t{a} tt(a)rttt aa(a)aaa
?l tr2Jt Ail___.iLl9 t_tl?l_u t t i ,
rlr ar lt(r)t I tltttt t t it{lt
frTT6-+

Thelonianmodeoutlinesthe basicsttuctureof a majorseventhchord:root,3rd, Sth,


gth, 11th,and 1sth.
and 7th;and theseertensions:

.NOTE:ThisQuickReferenceGuideappearcbeloweachchaplerheadingof the sevenmodes.Fomula represenlsthe scalesiepsoi the


mode,relaiiveto lhe majorscale.Constructionperlainsto the orderof who e- and hall-slepintervals.Categorydeslgnateswhetherthe modeis
majofor minorin tonality(containinga major3rd or minor3rd scaledegrce).Dilfercntiatingscaledegreepoinlsout whichnole sels that mode
apartfromothersin its caIegory.For chordtypeslislssevera chordtypeslor whichthe moders commonlyused.HarmonyI sts lhe chordquali-
ties (in seventhchords)whenthe modeis harmonized. Comnonprogresslons oiiersa shortlist of popularprogressions
harmonized{romthe
mode.Five patlernsleatures fve suggesledpatternsof the mode(usirigthe lMusicians Insttutenumberingsystem)as ihey lie in orderalong
the fretboard.

The "Funelarnental" llllajor luloele


lonianis the modalnamefor the majorscale.Not only is it the fundamental mode,it is the fun-
damentalscalein music,and the scaleby whichall othersare compared. The melodiesand harmonies
of the lonianmodeare ubiquitous and thoroughlyingrainedon our musicalpsyche,havingbeena part
of our livessinceinfancywhenwe firstheardthem in nurseryrhymes.But for all of its familiarity, for
somestrangereasonthe lonianmodeis oftendifficultfor guitariststo use in soloing.The "awkward"
half-stepintervalsbetweenthe 3rd and 4th degrees,and the 7th and the root,are oftenat the heartof
the problem.That'swhy manyplayersrelyheavilyon the majorpentatonic scaleto soloovermajor
chordsand keys.lt omitsthosehaltstepintervalsby leavingout the 4th and the 7th degreesol the
scale(keyof C: C-D-E-G-A). Nevertheless, whilethe majorpentatonlc scaledoeshaveplentyto offer,
it doesn'tincludethe suspendedsoundof the 4th and the "leading-tone" pullof the 7th degree,two
essentialcomDonents of the lonianmode.

Ionian Licks anel the


Firre-Patterrr Systern
The followingfivefiguresare all one-barC lonianlicks.Designedto get you acquainted with
lvll's"five-patternsystem,"they also featurean array of half-stepmoves-7th to the root,3rd to the 4th
scaledegrees,and viceversa.
Fig. 1 is a simplemelodicstatementin C lonianpattern1. (NOTE:Pattern1, of any scale,is
basedaroundthe open-position C chordvoicing.And just as an open-positionchordcan be transposed
by transforming it to barre-chord
form, the patternis also "movable"
to any key.)Startingon the root, it
dropsto the 7th degree,risesto the sth and resolvesto the "melodic"major3rd.Althoughit omitsthe
2nd and 6th degreesof the mode,it is distinctivelylonianby naturedue to the emphasison the 3rd
and inclusionof the 7th and 4th degrees.Memorizeth;s lick,and playit in otheroctaveson different
oositionsof the neck.Thentransooseit to otherkevs.

I Fig. 1

100
C

C lonian (patteml)

Fig.2 is a classically pedal-point


influenced, figurein C lonianpattern2. (Pattern2 is based
on the barre-chord A chordvoicing.)Not only is the root(C) the pedalpoint,
formof an open-position
it is clearlythe "pitchaxis"uponwhichthe entiremelodyrevolves, thus providingthe undeniable
lonianf lavor.

Qo','
)=u
c

Half-stepbendsare the catalystsfor gettingat the juicynotesin the bluesyC lonianlickin


Fig.3. Usingthe upperhalfof pattern3 (basedon the barre-chord formof an open-position G chord
voicing),the bend/release movesdemonstrate how to rub someof the "sweetness" out of the "too-pret-
ty" effectthe 7th and 4th degreesof loniancan sometimescreate.

fl Ftg.3
v
). =62
N,C.
The orchestralC lonianlickin Fig.4 climbspattern4 (basedon the barre-chordformof an
E chordvoicing)in a "switchback"
open-position sequenceof hammer-ons and pull-offs.
Noticethat
eachresolvinghammeror pull resultsin a chordtone of Cma13.

Pns+
Cma13

C Ionian(pattern4)

The speedyC lonianlickin Fig.5 scootsdownthe upperregionsof pattern5 (an extended


patternlooselybasedon the barre-chord
three-notes-per-string formof an open-position D chord
voicing),whereit then leapsback-and{orth
overa few wide intervalsand resolvesto the rooton the
sixthstrino.

o Fio 5
'J,'J,

llsing lonian -n l(ey Genter Playing


We'veseenhowthe lonianmodecan be usedoversolitarymajorchords,and how the 7th and
4th scaledegreeshelpto bringout the distinctive "sound"of the mode.Now let'stake a lookat how
thosenotescomeintoplayin a major-keychordprogression.
Fig.6 is a l-V-Vlmi-l-lllmi-lV triadprogression
in the key of E major,makingit an excellent
vehiclefor the E lonianmode.The transcribed solotakesa simpleyet etlectiveapproachtowardthe
use of the mode.Strippingthingsdownto a "guitar-friendiy" E majorpentatonic framework,it holdsoff
includingthe omittednotes(4thand 7th) untilthe arrivalof certainchords.The 7th (Dfi)makesits first
appearance on the V chord(B) and thenagainon the lllmi (G#mi)change.The 4th degreeis thrown
intothe mix at the lastsecondon the A (lV) chord.Noticethat all of thesenotechoicesare slrongcom-
ponentnotesof the chordsbeingplayedat the time.
! =88
I
E

ta tatttaataaaaaaf

Fig. 7 usesthe sameapproachovera bluesyll-V-l in F major.The lineexploitsthe F major


scalefor the mostpart but hitsthe 7th degree(E) of F lonianon the downbeatof the V
pentatonic
chord(C7),nailingthe change.

o,!:,,,
N,C.

tet nng -

The aboveexamplesillustratethe potentialof Ihe differentiatingnote of lonian (the 7th


degree-or leadingtone)and its impactwhen usedstrategically. The secretto usingit successfully
lies
in knowingwhichchordscontainthat notein theirbasicmakeup.Uponanalysis,you'llfind thatthe
lllmi,V, and Vll" chordsall containthe 7th, or leadingtone.You'dbe hardpressedto find manyVll"or
VllmiTlschordsin majorprogressions, but therecertainlyis an abundanceof V and lllmi chords.So
whenyou comeacrossthem,don'tforgetto deploythe "secretweapon"-the7th degreeof lonian.And
don'toverlookthe resourcefulness of the 4th deoreeeither:use it overllmi and lV chords-
Illlore lonian Phrases
fromthe C lonianmode
The legatolickin Fig. 8 pairstwo arpeggios(C and EmiT)harmonized
for a decidedlvCmagoutcome.

0
raaa/tt ^ ^A at a

( C m a j o tr i a d - - - ) ( E m i 7a r y e g g i o ---------) (c majortriad) rFmiri,.l--- --)

The EricJohnson-inspiredD lonianpedaltonelickin Fig. I featuressomefancystring-


skippingmovesand a coupleof cool half-stepslides.

9,i:,;

Fig.10 otfersan example of melodic


oJthe"fiery'loniansensibilities rockmasters suchasTom
(Boston)
Scholz andNealSchon (Journey).Constructedfrompatterns 1 and 2 of G thephrase
lonian,
jumblesa multitude
of inleresting
rhythms.Noticethoughthatthesusiained notesareallstrategically
placed,alwayson a strongchordtoneof eachnewchange.

9T," N.C.
(Ddels anel Ends
Here'sa listof additionaltipsfor creatingyourown C lonianlicks.Whenyou havethem oown,
transposethemto otherkeys.Be awarethal whenapplyingthem,you needto establishthe rootof
lonianas the oitchaxis.

1. PlayC and G majorpentatoniclicks.Combined,they representeverynoteof C lonian


(NOTE:C loniancan also be viewedas A and E minorpentatonicscalescombined).
2. Combinethe l, lV and V majortriads(C, F,and G).
3. Borrowlicksfromthe relativemjnorscale(A minor),maintaining
"C" as the pitchaxis.
4. Playa CmaTarpeggioand add the 4th (F).

Play-Alomg Progress-orr
Usethe fivepatlernsof lonian,locatedat thetop of thischapter,to jam overthisC lonianpro-
gression.Youcanuseanyof thetipsin the"OddsandEnds"seclionas theyareall in C lonian. Also,try
to applysomeof thelicksin thischapter,
changing the rhythms andtransposing themwherenecessary.

0J =roo
c
Dorian
QUICKREFERENCE GUIDE
Formula: 1-2-b3-4-54-b7
Construction: W-H-W-W-W-H-W
Category: Minor
Differentiating
scaledegree: 6
For chordtypes: minor,mi6,mi6/9,mi7,mig, mi13
Harmony: Imi7-l Imi7-bIIIma7-lV7-Vmi7-Vlmi7bs*rYllmaT
Commonprogressions: lmi-tV;lmi-llmi;lmi-Llll-lV;lmi-Vmi-lv-lmi;lmi-llmi+lll-llmi
Five patterns: A Dorian
(circlednotes are the roots;notes in parentheses
are the 61hdegrees)
Pattem 3 Panem4 Pattem5 PatterarI Paltem 2
!!FFE
rTfn -FEfI+r' ffi sr'. m 8r' lontTl r2r,
(a)l ao) t(t) o)at aa(a) tlitlt t(a)aatl I tlal
{-fff-l T |TTT-T aT6.f(Tn sTlTdl ,Jutr|Zs-fa'
ti(t)ttl atc)a(a)a titlaa lt(a)t I aat aa
Ol-l-t-I9 t-L-Lrij [?ltJ-l-] LO!-l tiJ | ,{' i I
| | | t(?i

The Dorian mode outlines the basic structure ol a minor seventh chord: root,b3rd, Sth.
and bTth;and highlights these ertensions: gth, 1lth, and 1sth.

The "l(ineler, Gentler" IUIinor lUloele


Dorianis the secondmodeof the majorscale.(A Dorianis constructed by startingfromthe
secondnole of the G majorscale:A-B-C-D-E-F#-G.) lt is a mmormode-that is to say,it is more
closelyrelatedto the naturalminorscale(or Aeolian,its modalname)than it is to the majorscale.ll
you comparethe two (Aeolian:1-2-b3-4-5-b6-b7;Dorian:1-2-b34-5-6-b7), you'llfindthat the only
diflerenceis that Dorianhas a raised-or "natural"-6thdegree.The natural6th givesDoriana "lighte/'
or "softed'sound thanthe dramatic,often"heavy"soundingAeolianmode.The Dorianmodecan be
heardextensively in jazz,blues,and rockmusic,and is featuredprominently tn the blues-rocksolosof
guitaristssuchas Jimi Hendrix,CarlosSantana,StevieRayVaughan,JimmyPage,and RobbyKrieger.
To get the soundof Dorianin yourears,go throughthe five patternsof A Dorianjust as you
wouldwith any scale-runningthem up and down,playingsequences, etc.Someor all of the patterns
mayfeel"familiaf'toyourfingersas beingpatternsof G major.Thisof coursemakessense,as G is lhe
parentscaleof A Dorian,but be awarethat the tonic-or rootnote-in theseoatternsis A. Maxea
habitof startingand stoppingon the root untilyou havethe Doriansoundin your head.Paystrictatten-
tionto wherethe 6th degree(Ff) is locatedin eachof the patterns,as it is the differentiating
noteof
Dorian-the notethat distinguishes it f romthe otherminormodes.

Dorian Licks
Nowthat you havethe A Dorianpatternsunderyourfingers,it'stimeto createsome licks.A
greatplaceto startis by givingpattern4 a bit of a facelift.lf you removethe 2nd (B) and 6th (Fi)
degreesof the pattern,you'llfindthatthe A minorpentatonic scaleliesbeneathit.

A minor pentatonic
Reversingthis processrevealsthat the Dorianmode can be consideredthe
minor pentatonic
scalewithan added2nd (9th)and 6th.Indeed,manyfine ptayers(especially
in rockand blues)tendto
use it this way.This systemallowsyou to use all of your 'tried-and-true"mintr-pentatonic
phraseswhile
only havingto "shift"yourthinkingprocessa little-by locatingand including gth
the missing and 6th
degrees.Fig. 1 offersan exampleof this process,stayingwithinthe confines
ol A Dorian,pattern4 .
{G} Fig.1_ -,_
v )=rr2()).).1\
Ami

. - - -Fis' 2 is an easy-going
A Dorianrickin pattern2. Noticethatit beginswithan Amigarpeggro
(A-B-o-E-G).Thisis a goodstringot notes(1-2-bg-s-b7)to use(in
anyorderor sequence) to sug_
gestthe Dorian"color."The restof the lickcompletes
the Dorianstatement as ir highligi.lts
the 6th
degree(Ff).

l,l'1,,'
Ami9

A Dorian(patem 2)

TheA Dorianrickin Fig.3 superimposes a pairof arpeggios


(Ffmi7b5
andcmaT)to herpnavF
.
gatethe sometimes difficult
terrainof pattern1.Themethodbehindthismadness is thatihe Fhi7b5
(Ff-A-c-E) is theharmony of thevt chordin A Dorian,andthecmaT(O-E-G-B)is the!lll. string
themtogether,andeverynotein A Dorianis represented.

9:n'
A Dodan (pattem 1)
( F $ m i 7 ba5r p- -) (CmaTarp__,__-)

The haltstepbendsin Fig.4 helpto bringout the bluesyqualityof C Dorian.

9,:::,i
N.C. Cmi6
Dorian APP|-cations
The abovelicksdemonstrate that the Dorianmodeworkswell overminorchordtypesin a soli-
overminorchordsthat are part of a progression
tary situation.But to use it haphazardly can be a dan-
geiousbusiness.Hereare someguidelines the application
for determining of Dorianin chordprogres-
srons.

The ll Chord in Maior


,The Theory of the Modes,"each step of the majorscale can be representedby
As discussedin
a harmonized chordand a mode.This meansthat for everydiatonicchordin a majorkey,thereis a
corresponding modethatwill providethe "salest"notechoices.Therefore,musicallyspeaking,Dorian
(secondmod6)goeshand-in-hand w1h the ll chordin major-keychordprogressions (e.g',G Dorian
overa Gmi chordin F major;E Dorianoveran Emigchordin D major,etc.). Fig.5 providesa musical
example.The key is c maior-cma7 is the I chord,and DmiTis the llmi.A simplechord-tonestatement
providesthe melodyunderthe CmaTchord,whilethe DmiTmeasurehostsa classicD Dorianphrase'
As an experiment,playthe melodyunaccompanied to see if you can "heai'the chordchanges.

@"*'
a = ro4
Cma?
a^a'aa^A^^^'r

+3J

c h o r d t o n-e s
CmaT ------1
itflaa aaiaaa'ra$t

The lV Chord in Minor

Just as thereis a designatedmodefor eachchordin a major-keyprogression, there'sa modal


choicefor eachchordin a minorprogression. (Referto "MinorScaleHarmony"in the Aeolianchapter')
In minorkey progressions, Dorianbelongsto the lvmi chord(e.g.,A Dorianoveran AmiTchordin an E
minorprogiessio-n; C Dorianovera Cmi chordin the key of G minor,etc.).Fig.6 shedslighton this
scaleis
in B minor.In the firstmeasure,the B minorpentatonic
rulewith i typicallmi-lVmiprogression
(Emi)
usedto outlinethe I chord(Bmi),givingwayto a strongE Dorianphrasethat nailsthe lV chord
in the secondmeasure.

O"*'u

B minor pentatonic - - - - - - - - - - -l

ll
Dorian Progressions

In the "realworld"of music,thereare manyprogressions that fall outsidethe realmot majorand


minorscale harmony.That is to say,they neither'?evolve,, aroundthe I chord of a major scale nor the I
chord of naturalminor.Modalprogressionsfall into this alternativecategoryof key centers.
In simpleterms,a modalprogressionis a set of relatedchangei that revolvearoundthe I chord
of a specificmode.(Referto "Modesand Modal progressions,, in the iTheory" chapter.)These chords
all haveto belongto the same mode,and they usuallyinclude(in additionto the lj eitherthe ll, lV,or
Vl' or all three.Someof the mostcommonmodalprogressions are Dorianprogressions, and of these,
the_mosl commoncontainsonlytwo chords:the lmi and the lV.Fig. 7 is a clasiic exampleof rhistype
of Dorianprogression,teamedwith the Dorianmode, in the style of one of its greatestbenefacrors,
CarlosSantana-

@,,,,
-
)=rto
Gmi C Gmi

The"key"is G Dorian,andthe notesusedareclearlyderivedfromthe G Dorianmode.This


bringsto lightan importantpoint:when
'keycente/'approach-developing soloingovermodalprogressions, manyplayerstendto usea
melodiesfromthe modeits;[ as opposedio'tryingto tryrngto out-
linethechordtonesof eachchange.
Fig.8 is a jazzyA Dorianprogression (lmi-llmi-tlll)featuring
another
approachto ,'keycenrer
playing"
overa modalprogression, thistimeusingtheA Dorianmode.

o Fig. 8
-3 -
=rndl =) )t
AmiT BmiT Cmaj

Whenyoudevelopthe abilityto recognizemodalprogressions on the spot,youstartto discover


"minimodalprogressions"lurkingwithincommon, run-olthe-mill majorprogressioni. Forinstance,
you?elikelyto comeacrossthe lmi-lVma(Gmi-c)progression in Fig.7 seivingas a Il-V movein the
keyof F majorsomewhere in yourimprovisational
lifetime.
Therefore, you'llknowyoucandishoutyour
G Dorianlicksoverbothchords. Likewise,thelmi- mi-blll(Amiz-Bmiz-cmaz; mignteventua|y popup
in a G majorprogression
servinga llmi-lllmi-lVmatunction,signalingyourchancJtosimplify rne
changes by deploying
theA Dorianmodeoverall of thechords.
(Ddds anel Ends
Here'sa listof addltional
tips for creatingyourown Dorianlicks.They'reall in A Dorianso you
can use themon the Play-Along Progression thatfollows.Whenyou havethem down,transposetnem
to otherkeys.Be awarethat whenapplyingthem,you needto establishthe rootof Dorianas the Ditch
AXIS.

1. combineAmiTand BmiTarpeggios(together, theyaccountfor everynotein A Dorian).


2. CombineB minorpentatoniclickswithA Dorian.
3. Borrowideas{romthe parentscaleof G major(harmonized thirdand/orsixthdyads,
open-string
licks,etc.).
4. Borrowideasfromthe relativeminorof the parentscale(E minor).

Play-Along progressiorr
Usethe livepatternsof Dorian,locatedat the top oi thischapter,to jam overthisA Dorian
progression.Youcanuseanyof thetipsin the"oddsandEnds,, sectionas thevareall in A Dorian.
Also,tryto applysomeof the licksin thischapter,
changing the rhythms andtransposing themwnere
necessarv

q = 120
AmiT
Phryg-an
QUICKREFERENCE GUIDE
Formula: 1-b2_bg-44_b6_b7
Construction: H_W-W_W_H_W_W
Category: Minor
Differentiatingscale degree: ,2
Forchordtypes: mi(tg),mi7(t9),mi(f9,16)
Harmony: lmiT_tll ma7_blll7_lVmi7_Vmi7b5_LVl
ma7_!VlImi7
Commonprogressions: tmi+ ; lmi-blll_b; lmi_bVltmi;lmi_!ll_bVllmi
Five patterns: B Phrygian
(circlednotesarethe roots;notesin parentheses
arethe ,2nddegrees)
Pattem2 Pattern3 Pattem4 pattem 5 pattem I
FFFFI''I
?lal-i..u
?rt)t taa #F:t' ,ffiB'o
i.oi
1-ffiffisr' FFm'|2ii
!!tr?J aanfT-l
lmoTt ,| | |
"t
qiii.rlO ..rr, o.I .fT:l
56-.1*i
ffia
Lt-t-!t!u Tr ,-I re |_]_a-t_l-
ti||?{
Phrygian outlines the basicstructure of a minor seventh chotd: root,bard, sth,and
bTth;and highlightstheseextensions:rgth,l1th, andrlOth.

The "Exotic" lUlilror lUloele


Phrygian(1-b2-b34-5-b6-b7) , likeDorian,is also categorizedas a minormodebecauseof its
b3rddegree,but the two modesare milesapartin theiroverallronality. The ,,heavy,,t6thdegreeof
Phrygianbringsit closerin qualityto the Aeolianmode,but the starfling,,,exotic,,sound
of iis b2nd
degreesets it quiteapartfrom bothDorianand Aeolian.while phrygiancan oftenbe found
in the
aoventurous progressions of jazzlfusion,it also makesits homein the rockworld.Featuredprominenly
in the "MiddleEastern"jams of vintagepsychedelic bandslikeJeffersonAirplaneand euicksilver
MessengerService,Phrygianis alsoa mainstayin the musicof mainstream metalbandssuchas
Metallicaand Megadeth,and is oftenthe launchingpointfor the riffageof modernmetal
bandstike
Kornand the Deftones.
when isolated,Phrygian's tonarityrs unusuarto say the reast,but it can be preasingry
. merodic
when usedin its diatoniccontext-overthe Irmi chordin a majorprogression (Fig.1).

9::'
G
D7

G majorpentatonic- - l (paftem4) ---


B Phrygian --- - - r C chordrones- l D m a j o rp e n t a l o n i-c - - - - ,-l
iry'! I

Whilethemelodyrelieson majorpentatonics forthe l, lV andV chords(G,C, andD7),the


Phrygianmodeis usedto outlinethebasicchordtonesof the BmiT
1s-o-rt-nj anoitsdiatonic
alter-
ations(b9,b13or b6).Theresultis a "no-surprises"
melodrcphrase, andalthough pleasing,
thedramatic
properties
of themodearesuppressed. ButwhenPhrygian is featuredin a on6-chord
v#p. a modal
progression,
or superimposedovercertainchords,itsimpactis undeniable.
Srr;eer-rnposing Phrygian
Webster's Diciionarydelinitionol superimpose is,"to put,stack,or layon something else."The
superimposing of a scaleor modeis perhaps bestexplained as,layinga scaleon topof a chordwhere
supposedlyit doesn'tbelong. Forexample, in Fig.1 we witnessed thatPhrygian "linesup"withthe lllmi
chordso wellthatit almostgoes by unnoticed. Butsuperimpose Phrygian overa stand-alone major
chord,andthe resultis quitedifferent.Forexample, thecadenza lickin Fig.2 superimposes E
Phrygianoveran E chord,resulting in a "flamenco" or Spanish tlavor.

@,,,,J = t3s

E Phrygian (pattem 4)

Thisnextexample of superimposing (Fig.3)beginswithan A naturalminor(A


Phrygian
Aeolian)sequence whichseguesintotheA Phrygianmode.Thisrepresents a mixing,or juggling,
of
parallelmodes(different
modesthatsharethe sameroot),a veryusefulandhighlyeffectivedevicefor
soloingoverone-chord progressions.

ll Fig.3
J = rzo
Ami

APhrygian (pattem 4) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - r

In minorprogressions,
Phrygian homeon theVmichord(referto "MinorScale
findsitsdiatonic
Harmony" in theAeolian butit canalsobeveryuselulwhensuperimposed
chapter), overtheV7 chord
in a majorprogression.
Thell-V-|, C majorprogression of thisprocess.
in Fig.4 offersan example

Fis. 4

a = 8 4 QJ = J ) ' )
Dmi9
D Dorianon the llmi chord(Dmig)and C lonianon the | (C6/9)supplythe consonantnote
choicesfor thosemelodicstatements. On the V chord(G+7)however,dissonance or tensionis added
withthe applicationol the G Phrygianmode,highlighting
boththe tg and +9(Aband Bb),and the b13
(Eb)---{rb6-of the chord-
Be awarethat when usedthis way,the Phrygianmodedoesnot supplythe 3rd of the V chord,
but whentollowedup witha strongresolvingphraseon the I chord,it can functionvery wellas an
alteredscale.

Phrygian Progressions ancl Riffs


In the genresof fusionand heavymetal,the harmonized chordsfromthe Phrygianmodeare
oftenusedas a backdropto supportadventurous soloingexplorations.
In heavymetal,theseprogres-
sions generallyemploypowerchordsand tend to be riff-oriented,whereasfusiontakes advantageof
the richerqualityof seventhand extendedchords.The progression in Fig, 5 useschordsharmonized
fromthe A Phrygianmode:lmi (Ami7),bll (Bbma9), and bVllmi(Gmi13)- All the extensions
are diatonic
to the mode,makingthe progression ripefor an A Phrygianblow{est.

o
) = lt2
AmiT

lAmitriad) (Bbmajorriad-----l rlJDma/arp---t

Gmi13

(F major pentatonic) (Bb triad-- -) (Ami triad)

All of the notechoicesin Fig.5 are derivedfromthe A Phrygianmode.Measure1 Jeatures a


rhythmicdisplacement of a melodicmoti{.The secondmeasureexploitsthe triadsand arpeggiosbased
off of the root(Amitriad),b2nd(Bbtriadand BbmaTarpeggio),and ,6th (Fma7arpeggio)degreesof the
mode.In measure3, the majorpentatonic formof A Phrygian'sparentscale(F major)providesa nice
breakin the action,and measure4 slipsback-and-forth betweenthe tmi (Ami)and tll (Bb)triads.
Fig,6 represents a heavy-metalversionof an A Phrygianprogression. and of a
Riff-oriented
sinisterqu;lity,it employsthe harmonizedpowerchordsof the root,b2nd,sth, ,6th,and bTthdegreesof
the scale:A5, Br5, E(r5),F5, and G5.

9=;" A5 B'5 A5 Bb5 E(bs) A5

Fig.7 is a modern-metal it displaysthe


riff derivedfrom E Phrygian.Ardentand foreboding,
extremelyheavyprospectsof the Phrygianmode.

\! -J Fig I
=ec
N.C.(85) F5 NC(E5)

(Ddds anel Ends


tips for creatingyourown Phrygianlicks.They'reall in B Phrygianso
Here'sa listof additional
you can use them on the Play-Along Progression that follows.Whenyou havethem down,transpose
ihem to otherkeys.Be awarethat when applyingthem,you needto establrsh lhe rootof Phrygianas
the pitchaxis.

1. play parallelminorpentatoniclicksand add the b2and ,6 (i.e.,B minorpentatonic,


addingCandGnotes).
2. Playthe VmiTt'sarpeggio(Filmi7t's)and resolveto the rootof Phrygian
3. Borrowideasf romthe parent (G
scale majoo'
4. Borrowideasfromthe relativeminorof the parentscale(E minor)'

Play-Along Progress-on
use thefivepatternsol Phrygian, locatedat the top of thischapter,to iam overthisB Phrygian
progression. Youcanuseanyof thetipsin the"OddsandEnds"sectionas theyareall in B Phrygian.
nso, try to applysomeof thelicksin thischapter,changing the$ythmsandtransposing themwhere
necessary.
,4.
v ) =rrz
BmiT CmaT BmiT AmiT BmiT Cma? Amil3
Lydian
QUICKREFERENCE
GUIDE

Formula: 1-2-3-*4-5-S-7
Construction: W-W-W-H-W-W-H
Category: Major
Dilferentiating
scaledegree: {4
Forchordtypes: ma({11), ma6(*11), ma6/9(*11),ma7(*11},
ma13(*11)
Harmony: lmaT -ll7 -lltmiT
-{ |Vmi715-Vma7-Vt mi7-VlImi7
Commonprogressions: l*ll; l-ll-Vllmi; l-Vllmi; l-lllmi-Vllmi
Fivepatterns: D Lydian
(circlednotesare the roots;notesin parentheses
are the f4th degrees)
Paffem I Pattem 2 Pattern3 pattem 4 pattern 5
.a..atlrf '.,aao ia,rn -f
r rTOTf ;tr lTt,f(tr+gr'r OTT lr'ri
T rel
,ffi Fot--Fl
r--'! - tfiTT_t dlTiib Trt,hn
._t -ft F;i;fi -t6it r
r\!t i i .. r-t-''
o o,e.io IOT-:]F iifr, -i,f,-
rir--T- : i,.i? i l .-T,T-r
i-f
fTfSl
fi-l-l-liil

The Lydian mode outlines the basic structure of a major seventh chord: root, 3rd, Sth,
and 7th;and highlightsthese extensions:?th, ll lth, and 13th.

The "XDrearny" lUlaior lUlo.le


Of all the modes,Lydian(1-2-3-f4-5-6-7) is the closestin structureto that of the majorscale,
or lonianmode.Bothmodescontainthe same majorpentatonic framework(1-2-3-s-6) and sharea
major7th-or leadingtone-scale degree.The onlythingthat sets Lydianapartfrom lonianis its
raised,or sharped,4th degree,but this one differenceis significant.
The fi4createsa seriesof three
wholestepsfromthe rootwhichin turn establishes a senseof mystery.
whereaslonianis consonantand familiar,Lydianhas a "dreamy"and anticipatory nature.
Indeed,sometimesit'sdilficultto establishthe tonalcenterwhen Lydianis employed-almostlikethere
are two tonicnotessimultaneously in play.Olten usedas the musicalbackdropfor the wide-eyedwon-
der of childhoodin movies,Lydianis also a favoritechoiceamongsinger/songwriters like Fleetwood
Mac'sstevieNjcks("Dreams," "sara")and Joni lvlitchell,
who use it to paintatmospheric settingsfor
theirlyrics.And in the handsof masterguitaristslikeJoe Satrianiand SteveVai,the Lvdianmodecan
bringtearsto a listener'seyes.

Lyelian Appl-cations
Lydianis the fourthmodeof the majorscale,makingit the naturalchoicefor the lV chordin a
majorprogression. Whenappliedoverthe lV chord,its effectcan be subtle,but if the {4 of the mooers
featuredprominently, it addsa *11 qualityto the chord.To someplayers,this extensionis a litfletoo
unsettling or active,so theyavoidit. But othersenjoyits "emotionevoking"capabilities and use it often.
The l-lV A majorprogression in Fig. 1 puts D Lydianin its diatonicsettingoverthe lV chord(Dsus2).
but the strategicallyplacedf4 (G*)bringsout a {11 qualityin the chordeventhoughthat extensionis
not present.Noticethe yearning,somewhatheartbreaking moodthe lineinstills.
Fig. 1
) =70
Aadd9

(pattem3 -) (pattem4 ---- ----' ----' -----------)


A major (pattem 5)
D L'dian
a.r {^ar'.'-r'r!r

the Lydianmodefindsits diatonichomeon the ofienencountered bvl


In minorprogressions,
';MinorScaleHarmony"in the Aeolianchapter.)Many playerslind the mode easierto
chord.(Referto
,,minolJ' P-erhapsbecauseinfiajor progressions the {4 of Lydian(played
apptyin these surroundings.
to the 7th degree of the key cenler-a notoriously di1-
overthe lV chord)is enharmonicfthesamenote)
the {+ of Lydian (overthe bvl chord)is enhar-
ficultnoteto use in soloing.But in minorprogressions,
monicto the muchused 2nd degree of the key cenler,makingit sounda littlemore"familiai'tothe ear'
Fig.2 offersan exampleoveran F* minorrockprogression'

@u*'
) =96
ts{mr

F { A e o l i a n- - - -
ll4

F$mi
ar^ aaaa A^faa

D L y d i a n- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
aaa,a|taaaA+r^ 'a

Thelinesoverthe lmichord(Ffmi)areconstructed fromthe F{ naturalminorscale(Fl Aeolian),


is featured
andD Lydianis appliedoverthe tvl iOi. frloticethatthe G{ (2nddegreeof the keycenter)
prominently in thesecondmeasure oi t'netmichord.This"familiarizes" thelistener to thenote'resulting
in a lessstarlingeffectwhenit functions asthe 14ol D Lydian in the following measures.
The LydLn mode reallysparkles when it hasa chanceto "breathe." lt'sfor this reasonmany
playersusethe harmonized chordsfromLydianto writeprogressions expressly madefor the exploita-
in the"Theory' chapter') Fig'3
iionot t" modeitself.(Referto "ModesandModalProgressions"
an A bass-note pedal,invitingevery
placesthe | (A),l17(87),andlllmi(c{mi)chordsof A Lydianover
chordhereis therecurring ll chord (87) as it con-
notefromthemodeto be usedat will.Theimportant
You'llfindprogressions likethisin theinstrumental guitar-rock styleof
tainsthe+4(D{)ol A Lydian.
playerssuchas Joe SatrianiandSteveVai.
@'','
) = rrz
B"7IA C{mi/A

Someplayers areso attunedto the Lydianmodetheyuseit as an alternative


to lonian.
The
progression in Fig.4 is a commonl-lV in C major.Thediatonicsourcefor melodies
is C lonianon
the I chord(Cma7)and F Lydianon the lV (Fma7),buthereLydianis usedoutof context---{r
superimposed-over theI chord.Interestingly,
thistendsto placemoreemphasis on the"diatonic"
F Lvdianlines.

9ooo
J =so
N.C. CmaT

C Lydian- - - - - - - - - - - r F Lydian - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 C Lydian - - - - - - - - - i


IN

Totheunaccustomedear,lineslikethisaretoo"outside"
thekeycenter.
Likefinewine,oneneedsto
develop
an acquired
tasteforsomeapplications of theLydianmode.

Borroraring Frorn the Parent Scale


Relatinga modeto its parentscaleand "borrowing" fingeringpatterns,licks,arpeggios,and
even chordstrom that scale, is common practiceamong experiencedmodal players.Sincethe Lydian
modeis so similarin construction and applicationto the majorscale(lonian),it oftenreceivesthe "par-
ent scale"treatment.For instance,when playingD Lydian,someguitaristsuse licksthey havedeveF
opedfromthe three-notes-per-string pattern5 oi the A majorscale(parentscaleof D Lydian). The
"starting"
and "ending"notesof their phrases sometimesneedslightadjustment, but the processputs
theirfingersin familiarterritoryon the Jretboard.

The followingthree examplesare "parentscale concepts."They'reall in D Lydian,to get you


primedJorthe Lydianplay-alongprogressionon the CD.
The D Lydianlickin Fig.5 scattersthe notesof an AmaTarpeggio-lhetonicchordof the par-
entscaleof A ma.ior-around a pairof F{ 'target'notes.Thoughnotpartot an AmaTarpeggio,F{ is the
3rdof theDmaTchordandhelpsto keepthemelodic focuson thechord.

9'* '
J =to
DmaT
a/ta^,a,i'iliarl'ti,i!

The Fig.6 D Lydian/parentscaleexampledrawson the conceptof playingminorpentatonics


otf the 3rd degreeol the maiorscale(see"Oddsand Ends"in the lonianchapter).Again,in this situa-
tionA majoris the parentscale,and C[ is the 3rd degreeof A major.Comfortably snuggledin the lick-
ladenCl minorpentatonicscale,this exampleis representative of the pentatonicdouble-stop stylingsof
Jimi Hendrix.Usingthe minorpentatonicscale pattern in this way (1/2step below the root of a major
chord)affordssome "automatic"
moves that outlinelive choice Lydian notes (2-3-il4-6-7), while omit-
ting onlythe rootand sth.

@u*.u
) =6s
Dmal3

Cflminop 4) -----------
r e n t a t o nt ipca l t e m

the | (A),lV (D),andV (E)majortriads


D Lydianlickthatsuperimposes
Fig.7 is a fusion-style
fromthe parentscaleof A major.Playedovera basicD chord,the A triadrellectsa Dmagquality,the D
nailsthechordtones,whilethe E driveshomethe D Lydianionalityas it contains 2nd,*4th,
thecolorful
and6th degreesof the mode.

9::,1,N.C. Dadd9({I l)
3

>
3
(Atriad)--r (Etriad)--i (A fiad) r (E triad)
(Ddds anel Ends
Here'sa listof additional
tipsfor creatingyourown Lydianlicks.They?eall in D Lydianso you
can use themon the Play-Along Progression thatfollows.Whenyou havethem down,transposethem
to otherkeys.Be awarethat whenapplyingthem,you needto establishthe rootof Lydianas the pitch
axis.

1. Add a G* ([4) to a DmaTarpeggio.


2. PlayD majorpentatonics and add a cil (*a).
3. Movearoundthe neckusingpatternsof A major(theparentscale).
4. Movearoundthe neckusingpatternsof F{ minor(relativeminorof parentscale).
5. PlayB DorianLicks(secondmodeol parentscale)and accentuate the 6th degree(G*,
whichis the f,4of D Lydian).
6. CombineF{mi7and GfmiTbsarpeggios. (Vl and Vll chordsof parentscale,they high-
lightthe 3rd and f4th degreesof Lydian.)

Play-Along Progression
Usethe fivepatternsof Lydian,locatedat the top of thischapter,to jam overthis D Lydian
progression. Youcanuseanyof thetips in the"Oddsand Ends"sectionas theyareall in D Lydian.
Also,try to applysomeof the licksin thischapter,changingthe rhythmsandtransposing themwhere
necessarv.
IUlir<olydian
OUICKREFERENCE
GUIDE

Formula: 1*2*3^4*5-O-b7
Conslruction: W-W-H-W-W-H-W
Category: Maior
scaledegree: b7
Differentiating
For chordtypes: dom7,domg,dom13,all dom(sus4)chords
Harmony: l7-llmi7-lllmi7r5*lVma7-Vmi7-Vlmi7-bVllmaT
Commonprogressions: l-bVll;l-LVll-lV;l7-Vmi;l7-lV; l7-l7sus4;l-Vlmi-bVll
Five patterns: C Mixolydian
(circlednotes are the rools;noles in parentheses
are the bTthdegrees)
Pattern2 Pattem3 Pattem4 Pattem5 Pattem 1

mt a a | | ffisr.
(a) |lata) ffizr'
(a)a{al a(a) mEm8r,
|Itat|
{TITJ}tzr'
ata) t(aJa
a(t)aia)aa taaa | | , I ta I aaiaiaaa ! taa i
ttttt (a)a{4, a(a} aa(liaaa titl(a)t a(ala(ajaa
.t.(t).t | | | | | | ;r?). tttl tt I | | i
fl-fT{it' -rFTdr
The Mixolydian mode autlines the basic sttucture of a dominant seventh chord: root,
srd, sth, and bTth;and theseextensions:9th, 11th,and 1sth.

The "llip Anel Funky/"


Dorninant llllode
Mixolydian,the fifthmode,is placedin the majormodecategorysimplybecauseot its major
3rd degree.But unlikeits sistermodes-lonianand Lydian-Mixolydian containsa rTthdegree
(1-2-3-4-5-6-t7), settingit apartand placingit in a categoryall by itself.Referredto by manyas the
"dominantmode,"Mixolydian alignsperfectlywithdominantseventhchords:The root,3rd,sth, and bTth
scaledegreesof the modeoutlinethe basicchordstructure, whilethe remainingnotesnailthe routine-
ly applied extensions of the 9th (2nd),13th(6th),and 11th(4th).(Thelatterusuallyservesa domTsus4
function.)
The "sound"of Mixolydian is in the musicall aroundus.The abundanceof dominantseventh
chordsusedin the progressions of blues,lunk,jazz,country,and rock,makeMixolydian a popular
choiceamongsoloistsin thosestyles.The modeis also usedheavilyby songwriters wishingfor a "hip-
pei'or "funkief'alternativeto the "pretief'lonianmode.And manya classicriff is Mixolydian by
nature-Roy Orbison's"Oh,PrettyWomanj'the Beatles"'lFeelFine"and "Birthday," Jimi Hendrix's
"ThirdStonefromthe Sun,"and MilesDavis's"All Blues,"to nameonlya few.

IUlixolydian Licks
Likeall the modes(exceptLocrian),if you chipawayat Mixolydian you'llfind a familiarunderly-
ing pentatonicframework. Removalof the bTthand the 4th degreesof Mixolydian leavesthe majorpen-
tatonicscale (1-2-3-5-6). Many players
usethis process a
to establish common-ground areaon the
neckwherethe two scalescan "interminglel' Fig. 1 offersan exampleof this pentatonic-meets-
Mixolydian C majorpentatonicpatternin 5th position(relativeA minorpenta-
approachin the fail-safe,
tonic).Mostof the lickconsistsof commonplace C majorpentatonicmoves,butthe occasionalBband
F notesadd the Mixolydian spice.
o Fig. l

= t 2 6 t JI
C7

C majorpentatonic/Mixolydian(paltern3)

Manyguitaristsstrugglefor a longtimetryingto get lvlixolydian


to "soundright"to thetrears.
often the problemlies in the waytheyare phrasingtheirnotes-eithermelodically, rhythmically,or
both.The C Mixolydian lickin Fig. 2 is one exampleof balancingrhythmicand melodicphrasing. The
simpledescendingmelodyin the firstmeasureis set againstthe super-funk syncopation of sixteenth-
noterhythms.In the secondmeasure,the rhythmsrelaxand givewayto the melodywhichis consider-
ably moreinvolvedthan it was in the firstbar.

o Fig.2

C9

Fig.3 represents anotherapproachto phrasing.Rhythmicvariationtakesa backseatwhile


speedand flashtake overto drivethis E lvlixolydian
sequence.
Toofastfor the listenerto cue intoeach
and everypitch,the linedependson notetargetingfor melodicinterest.The lickstartson the bTth-
the magicalnoteof Mixolydian-andendson the root,but that'snot all thereis by a longshot.
Attentionhas beengivento the firstnotein eachgroupingto makesuretheyadd up to a melodic,E
Mixolydianstatement. In order,theyare D-G{-A-D-E-A-B-E. Rearrange them,and you,llget the
notesof an E7 chord(E-G*-B-D)-the I chordin E Mixolydian-plusa few left-overA notes.But the
A notesare hardlythrowaways-theyrepresentthe suspended-fourth sound-an importantingredient
of Mixolvdian.

@o* '
J =Ma
E

E Mixolydian(pattem2) -, - - - l
ln the ll-V-l progressions
oJimprovisationaljazz,the V chordis usuallytreatedwithsomeform
of alteration(see"Phrygian" chapter,Fig.4).But whenan "inside"melodicstatementis calledfor,
Mixolydian reignssupremeas the diatonicchoicein majorkeys.Fig.4 givesan exampleof Mixolydian
and two othermodesin playovera ll-V-l in Bbmajor.On the llmi chord(Cmi7),the C Dorianmodeis
dispatched, whichleadsto a smoothtransitionintoF Mixolydian on the V chord(F7).Noticehow the
firstpart of this phraseoutlinesan F7 arpegg;o(l chordin F Mixolydian).This seguesto a simplerun
up the firstfive notesof F Mixolydian,and the melodyendson a BbmaTarpeggio(l chordin Bblonian).
All of the notesin this three-measureexamplebelongto the key ol Bjlat major,butthe way theyare
phrasedleavesno doubtthat modesare in play.

o Fie.4
J =srrjl =.1Jr
CmiT

3
C Dorian(pattem4) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - r F Mixolydian (pattem2) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -----r Bb Ionian(pattem5)

Fig. 5 is a V-|, C majorprogression in a sambavein.The doublestops-or dyads-are thirds


harmonized fromthe G Mixolydian mode,witha finalresolution to the rootand 3rd of a C chord.These
typesof linescan be easy to apply if you know your thirds
diatonic in majorkeys-just borrowfromthe
parentscaleol the mode your are in. In this example, can thinkof thirdsin the keyof C major,as
you
it'sthe parentscaleof G Mixolydian. Be awarethat whenyou are borrowingfromthe parentscale,your
"homebase"-or tonicrestingpoint-shifts.For instance,in this example,the firsttwo dyadsare
"home-base" positionsfor a G majorchord,whilethe lasttwo fit a C chord.

(|jf Fig. s
)=u
GI3 C;

G Mixolydian (thirds)

Fig.6 harmonizes G Mixolydian again,but thistime in sixthintervals.lt'sa countrystyle,hybrid-


picking(pick-and{ingers)lick,featuringan arrayof hammer-ons fromthe openG and D strings.Each
hammered-on noteis the bottomof a sixth-intervalcouplet.Again,it'softeneasierto createlineslike
theseby borrowing{rom the parent scale.

9;:: G7
llllir<olydian anel the Blrre
Thewealthof dominant seventhchordsfoundin bluesmusicoffersmanyenticing opportunities
for Mixolydianlovers.consequently, manybluesguitaristsdrawfromthe modeextensively, but notin
theconvLntional manner. In blues,theMixolydianmodeis usuallyheardin conjunction withthatstyle's
intrinsicscale-the bluesscale(1-b$-4-bS-5-b7).What many guitarists
do is "graft"
the two scalesinto
one,creatingwhatis referredto as a "hybridscalel'

A Blues A Mixolyilian A Hybrid Scale


--7Y5Tl
ir. Tffifi-T-l ,rr" 4fr

+ ffi-ffi
A,\1#AA = A&tbiz\A
Y\+Ylfr/ :ffTdI
F-nraa Tf-ll-ro

Thediagram whathappens
illustrates whenyou"plop"theA bluesscaleon topof A Mixolydian
(thedotsrepreslntthe blues-scale notes,the circlesmakeup the Mixolydianmode)'Thelret areasthat
sharea dot anda circlerepresent the commontonesof the two scales-the root,4th,sth, andbTth-a
ralherambiguous setof noteslhatcouldimplyeithera dominant seventhor a minorseventh chord'The
fivenotesthatsunoundthis basicframework arethe onesthattrulydictatethe tonalityat anygiven
time.Mixolydian suppliesthe2nd,3rd,and6th,whilethebluesscalesupplies theb3rdandbsth-the
,,blue"note!.Theend resultis a nearly-chromatic,
nine-noiescale(1-2-b3-3-4-b5-5-O-b7l knownas
hybridscale,"picturedherein patterns4 and2'
the "Mixolydian/blues

A Mixolydian/Blues D Mixolydian/Blues
Pattern4 Pattel'J.2
t=F5T-f l ++ {-fT-I-fl +rr
(a)ra a a a(al a(a)t t ! I
ITITT-]'
a a{a)t a ?
rr|]n
a a a(t)o ?
a I tttt aa I lll
tffiIf F5-Trrr

Don'tspenda lot of practicetimerunningup anddownthesepatterns,as this is notthe way


the Mixolydianlblues hybridscaleis generallyused.The objectis to seeandfeelit as lwo overlapping
patterns,andtolugg|gphraseslromeach,thusmo|dingthemintoone,push-and.pu||,hybridso
'Fig.7
f""tur"r unlir"V ot Mixolydian/blueshybridmovescarvedfrompatterns4 and2, overa con-
densedl-lV-V dominantotues[rogression. lilOre: In this example, hybridscale
the Mixolydian/blues
andusedovereachchange,mainlylor demonstration purposes. you
until get a handle
is transposed
on it, piacticeusingit onlyoverthe I chordin dominant bluesprogressions')
9.'r., _,_
)=szdl=J )t
N.C.

3
(pattem4) -----
A Mixolydian/blues (pattem2) - - - - - -,
D Mixolydian,/blues -, - - - - - I

E Mixolydian/blues(pattem2)- - - - - - A Mixolydian/blues(pattem4) - - --- - - -..1


t/2 1/2 vz

Fig. I is a jazz-bluesexampleof the BbMixolydian/blueshybridscalein action.When


constructing yourown hybridscalelicksin a traditional
jazz slyle,rememberto use slidesin place
of bends.

Fig. 8
IN
.J = 184(J .l
N.C.

Bb Mixolydian/blues(pattem4)

The blues-rock examplein Fig. 9 illustrates


the perfectpairingof the E Mixolydian/blues
hybrid
scalewiththe "motherof all blues-rock chords,"E7f9.The majorand minor3rdsof the scalealignwith
the 3rd and the *9 of the chord,whilethe ,5 tempersthe lickwithjust the rightamountof "meanness."
@o',n

(Ddds arrel Ends


tipsfor creatingyourown Mixolydian
Here'sa listof additional licks.They'reall in C Mixolydian
so you can use them on the Play-Along Progression that follows.
When you havethemdown,transpose
themto otherkeys.Be awarethat whenapplyingthem,you needto establishthe rootof Mixolydian as
the pitchaxis.

1. UseyourC Dorianlicksbut replacethe minor3rds(Eb)withmajor3rds(E).


2. Add an F,D, or A noteto a C7 arpeggiofor the followingresults:C7add4-Cg-C13
3. Use chromaticpassingtones(ascending and descending)to bridgeall of the whole
steps (c-cr-D: D-D!-E: G-Gb-F:B'-B-C: etc.).
4. Playan Emi7b5arpeggio(Vll chordol parentscale)and resolveto C. Experiment using
otherarpeggiosf romthe parentscale(Bbma7,Fma7,Dmi7,etc.).
5. PlayC, Bb,and F triads(V lV and I triadsfrom parentscale).
6. PlayC Mixolydian overa one-measure ll-V changein F major.

Play-Along Progression
Usethefivepatterns of Mixolydian,
located to jamoverihisC
at thetopof thischapter,
progression.
Mixolydian Youcanuseanyof thetipsin the"OddsandEnds"sectionas theyareail in C
Also,tryto applysomeof thelicksin thischapter,
Mixolydian. changing therhythms andtransposing
themwherenecessary.

o )
Aeolian
GUIDE
QUICKREFERENCE
Formula: 1-2-b3-4-5-b6-b7
Construction: W-H_W_W-H_W-W
CategorY: Minor
scaledegree: 2 0
Differentiating
For chordtypes: minor,mi(b6), mi7,mig,mi11
Harmony: Imi7-l Imi7b5-b|||ma7-lv mi7-v ml7-bv Ima7-rv ll7
Commonprogressions: lmi-bVll-bVl; lmi-lvmi; imi-Vmi;lmi-rlll-rvll; lmi-bvl
Five patterns: E Aeolian
(circlednotesare the roots;notesin parentheses
are the ',6thdegrees)
Pattem 5 Pattem I Pattem2 Pattem3 Pattern4
(O. a.
ITTt'8i a(,tTTTl3fr aoTfal 7ft rr'T-TO' sri fliT-
SIdT-T} [ft-l_T-] '5TTTT4'
-T-Ol- iiroil AJLt-tl?
fiTiFTTl {-ft6i Dlr_t: : -lJlrl
._J_QJ_.
fl_.rlt l---f--Tt -ffi-rF1 f TaT.
Ti-trdl iffi --i--Tr ffi ffi

The Aeolianmode outlinesthe basic structure of a minor seventh chord: root, b3rd,
,th. and iTth:and theseextensions:qth,11th,andb1sth.

The "Rornantic" lUlinor IUIode


minormode(thefirsttwelvenoteso{ the themefromthe
Aeolian,oftencalledthe "romantic"
film "TheGod{ather" speakvolumes),is simplythe modalnamefor the naturalminorscale(1-2-t3-4-
5-t6-b7).Whilerelegatedas the sixthmodeoJthe majorscale,it is the "kingdaddy"of the minormode
category(Aeoiian,Dorian,Phrygian,and Locrian),and of all otherminorscales(includingmelodic
minorand harmonicminor-see "OtherModes"chapter).Sinceit is one-and{he-same wilh the natural
minorscale,Aeolianalso servesas the basisof minorscale harmony. So beforewe get lntolicksand
applications,let'shavea lookat harmonizingthe Aeolianmode'

IUIinor Scale llarrnonY


Just as it did withthe maiorscale,harmonizing everydegreeof the naturalminorscale,or
Aeolianmode,resultsin a predictable seriesof triadand seventhchordqualities,shownherein E
mtnor:
Triads Seventhchords
Am Bm EniT F{mi7b5 GmaT AmiT BmiT CmaT

bI lVmi bvl bvn lmiT IIrniTbSbIIImaT lvmiT VmiT bvlmaT bVIIT

In fact,theseare the samechordqualitiesloundin the majorscale,but starting{roma differentpoint.


Whilethe samecan be saidfor all the harmonized modes-Dorian,Phrygian,etc.-the Aeolianmode's
importantframeof reference.
popularityand its statusas "thenaturalminorscale"makeit a particularly
Justas you did withthe majorscale,you shouldcommitthis chordorderto memoryso you will be able
to discernminorkeyprogressions.
Also,try to memorizethe corresponding
modefor eachchordin the harmonized
scale.

E Aeolian F$ Locrian c Ionian A Dorian B phrygian C Lydian D Mixolydian

Aeolian Licks anel Appl-cations


The Aeoliantonalitycan be considered as beingbetweenDorianand phrygian-sharingthe
softand melodicgth (2nd)of the formet and the heavyb6thof the latter.Thereforl]toanalyze
a
melodyas beingAeolianmeansthat it has a minor3rd ol course,but mostimportantly the combination
of the b6thand gth (2nd).The simpleE Aeolianmelodyin Fig. 1 showcasesthesethreenotes
in a
bluesyexamplethat disclosesthe hauntingaspectsof the mode.The half-stepbendsheighten
the cry-
ing qualityproducedby the pairingof the 2nd withthe t'3rd(Ffiand G), wnireine trequentiotrs
an atmosphere 1c; aoo
of susDense.

O"*'
) =sz

The blues'rockexamplein Fig.2 is basicallya sequencedrun up the E minorpentatonicscale


(E-G-A-B*D), the basicframeworkof the E Aeolianmode.The brjefinclusionsof the ,,missino,,
scale
degrees-both(C) and 2nd (Fil)-give the lickits Aeolianflavor.

r'*.
, _,_
9 J =r+rrJ?
=J .ltl
Emi

J
E Aeolian (paftem 4)
Fig. 3 is a jazzy approachto C Aeolianover a lmi-Vmi vamp.Noticelhe liberaluse of halJ-step
slidesfromthe z6th(Ad and to the r3rd (Eb).

tT2 .'t., _,_


I =120(l| =J l'l

The melancholy Fig.4 stringstogetherthe b6th(Fma7)and b3rd(Cma7)arpeggiosof A


Aeolian.The FmaT drawsout the "gloomy"b6thdegreeof the modewhilethe CmaTsuggestsan
Ami(add9)quality,whichsoftensthe mood.

0
r---

rock,it'snot unusualto find guitaristsjugglingAeolian,


In stylessuchas fusionand progressive
Dorian,and evenPhrygianmelodiesbackand forthoveran extendedlmi chordvamp.Fig.5 tosses
aroundideasfromall threeof thesemodesin a two-barexampleoveran Ami chord.

.^.
tjEf Fig.s
v
) = tzo

AAeolian--- ------------ - '1 A D o r i a nr- A P h r y g i a n - - - - - - - --l ADorian- r A Phrygian


Using Aeolian in
l(ey Genter Play-ng
Thereare manyapproaches to soloingoverminorkey (Aeolian)progressions. Someguitarists
relyexclusively on minorpentatonic
scaleswhileotherscraftmelodiesusingthe completeAeolian
mode.Thereare playerswho liketo arpeggiate the chordtonesof changeswhileothersenjoy,,fillingin
the holes"thosearpeggiosleavebehind,by "pluggingin"the diatonicmodeovereachchord.lt
dependson the styleof music,but generallyspeaking,a mixtureof all fourof thesetechniquesusually
providesthe mostinteresting and melodicresults.Let'shavea lookat somehands-onexamotesovera
few minorprogressions.
Fig' 6 is a four-measure
progression in the key ol D minor:lmi-bVl-bVll-lmi.The D Aeorran
modecouldworkoverthe entireprogression, but insteadthe melodyholdsbackin the firsttwo oars,
stayingwithinD minorpentatonic. This anticipatesthe arrivalof the bVland bVllchordsin measure3
wherethe D Aeolianscaleis dispatchedin a shortmelodicstatementthat highlights the chord
changes.This"holding-back-on-the-l-chord-approach" can be very eflectivein addingimpactto the
arrivalol new chord changes.

e Fig. 6
) = 100
Dmi

D m i n o rp e n t a t o n- i c ------ l D A e o l i a -n ---- ----i


4l .l al ltar i aaaa ryyt+

Fig.7 is basicallythe sameprogression as Fig.6 exceptit is longer,allowingmoretimefor


melodres to be developedoverthe changes.This beingthe case,the chord/scale approachis useo,
exploiting the entirediatonicmodeof eachchord-Aeolianon the lmi, Lydianon the tvl, and
Mixolydian on the bVllchord.Eachtwo-barsectionis a melodicstatementin its own right,but there
is a definitesenseof unityas all the modesare derivedfromthe parentmode.D Aeolian.
D Aeolian B b l y d i a n -- - , ----- l
L
I
)

C
^ !.araa a

C M i x o l y d i a-n ____-r D Aeolian

Fig.8 is a ll-V-l-lv progression in C minor,featuringa mixtureof arpeggiosand modalplay-


ing.All chordsare diatonicto C Aeolianexceptfor the V chord,whichis dominantinsteadof minorsev-
enth in quality.However,its fsth and *gthalterations are diatonicto the key.
The examplebeginswitha Dmi7r5arpeggioin the ll chordmeasure,whichseguesto G
Phrygianfor the V chord(G+7$9)change.The modeservesits purposewellas it outlinesthe *9, b9,
root,b7,and f5 of the chord,provingitselfa usefulalternative to the alteredscale(referto the "Other
Modes"chapter).c Aeoliannotechoicescolorthe lmi chordin measure3, and the examplecloses
witha strongF Dorianstatementoverthe lvmi chord.Again,all the modeschosenfor this exampte
belongto the "parent"modeof the progression (in this case,C Aeolian),resultingin a strongsense
of continuity.

e Fig.8
J = 120
Dmi7t5

-J--

---- r
Dmr7b5arpeggio- F Dorian l
(Ddels anel Ends
Here'sa listof additional
tips for creatingyourown Aeolianlicks.They'reall in E Aeorranso you
can usethem withthe Play-Along Progression that follows.Whenyou havethemdown,transposethem
to otherkeys.Be awarethat whenappryingthem,you needto estabrish the rootof Aeolianas rne
pitchaxis.

1. Playdiatonicthirdand sixthdyadsharmonized tromG major(parentkey).


2. Mix E minor,A minor,and B minorpentatonicscares.combined,they represent
every
noteof E Aeolian.
3. Mix E, A, and B minortriads(r-rv-v). combined,they represenreverynoteof E
Aeorian.
. 4. Playa D7 or FlmiTblarpeggioand resolveto an E minorpentatonic
ltk.

Play-Along progression
Usethefivepanernsof Aeolian,locateda1the top of thischapter,to jam overthis E Aeolian
progression. Youcan useanyof thetips in lhe "Oddsanddnds"section'"rit"y ar" all in FAeolian.
Also,try to applysomeof the ricksin this chapter,changlngthe rhythms tii*p"","g
;em where
necessary. ""0
Locrian
GUIDE
OUICKREFERENCE
Formula: 1-b2-b3-4'b5-b6-b7
Construction: H-W-W-H-W-W-W
CategorY: Minor
Differentiatingscale degree: bs
Forchordtypes: diminished'minorTbs
-bV
Harmony: lmi7b5-bllmaT-bIIImi7-tVmi7-bVma7-|,v17 llmiT
Commonprogressions: l'--rll;lmi7bs-lvmi7;lmi7bs-bvllmiT
Five oatterns: B Locrian
(circlednotes are the roots;notes in parentheses
slg ths !5th degrees)

Pattem2 Pattem 3 Pattem 4 Pattern5 Pattem 1

,EErEE, SEfErn ffifipzr' ?+;--!0" ?-|$?l':"


'irr--Ls?]
rffiiTl
aa(a)Laa at]_lAI
tt?t? Fffi f+9l#
trt-6.T1 r-ilT,Tit -fr11l
{Tr,lfi fTfIIl' +*t:h
r'--T'_l
iT.T-l ELrr EIEF,

The Locrianmodeouttinesthe basicstructureof a minorsevenflat+ivechord:root'


and theseertensions:b9th,
bgrd.r'th.andbTth; 1lth,and,13th.

The "EccenXric" IDirninished llllode


of all the minormodesof the majorscale,Locrian(seventhmode)is the oddballof the bunch'
Althoughits 1-b2-b3-4-r5-[,6-t7 formulais similarto that of Phrygian(1-b2-b3-4-5-t6-'7)'the bsth
of
degreJof Locrianpushesthe mode"overthe top"of the consonantladderintothe furtherreaches
mode(dueto its I chordtriadharmony:root-23-'5), it's usual-
dislonance.often calledthe "diminished"
ly associated with mi7b5chords.Rarelyencountered in majorprogressions of any musicstyle,mi7b5
jazz and jazlusion. consequently, the
chordsusuallyfunctionas the ll chordin the minorkeysof
tool in thoseidioms.This isn'tto say that Locriandoesn't
Locrianmodeis a popularimprovisational
dwellin othermusicstyles.Many heavy-metal guitaristsare acutelyawareof the sinisterproperties
lurkingwithinthe Locrianmode,and piogressive-blues guitaristshavebeen knownto use it in substitu-
tionsituations. In the propercontext,the Locrianmodecan proveto be a valuableally

Locrian Applications
Locrianand the mi7b5chordforma dream-team combination when placedin the ll chordslotof
in jazz.The modeoutlinesthe chord'sbasicstructure(root-b3-b5-07) plusaddsits
minorprogressions
matches up with the rootof
diatonicaiterations-tnebgtn,and fi5.The leftoverdegree(the4th, or 11th)
the V chord,whichalmostalwaysfollowsthe llmi7b5.
Fig, 1 represents an intrinsicfixturein iazz-lhe minorll-V-l progressionover the ll chord
(E7'9)'
(Bmi7r5), ihe B Locriantinerisesto the b9(C) thenfallsto resolveto the rootof the V chord
peaks out at the b9(F)
Herethe E Phrygianmodeis dispatchedin a similarlycontouredlinethat also
pattern 4 of B
of the chordthen descendsto resolveon the gth (B) of the I chord(Ami9).Noticehow
Locrianflowsintopattern2 of E Phrygian. The fingeringfor eachis the samebecausethe modesare
related-bothbelongingto the parentmodeof A Aeolian'
Fig. I

J =roorJ!=J Jl
Bmi7b5 Ami9

B Locrian (pattem 4) - - E Phrygian (pattem 2) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - I


a,ta/ti,t aaat^ ^a

In the unconventional worldof jazzlfusion,


improvisational it'snotuncommon to encounter a
mi7b5chordin a staticsituation(lasting
twoor morebars, lunctioningas a "temporary
I chord"),
as in
Fig.2.Eventhoughthe Bmi7r5is notfunctioning as a ll chord,theB Locrianmodestill rises
to the
occasion.Noticehowthehammer/pull movesenhance the"bluesy" by thepairingof
qualityproduced
the4thand bsthdegrees (E and F).

I o,r,
) =s2

B l,ocrian(paitem4) - - ------ - --r B Locrian(pattem5)

In the majorkeyprogressions of pop music,the Vll'chord is rarelyused.Whenthal harmonyis


V chordis usuallysubstituted
required,a first-inversion in its place.For example:in the key of C major,
a G/B chordsubstitutes for the B' or Bmi7bschord.lf you thinkoi the B noteas beingthe root,the
chordcan be considered a Bmi$s-a diatonicalterationof the Vll chord-makingit a candidatefor the
B Locrianmode.Placedin sucha context,the Locrianmodecan be extremelymelodic.Fig. 3 offersan
exampleof B Locrianover the first-inversion V chord in a typicalC majorpop progression.

9oo '
) =6s
C

r e n t a t o n- i c
C m a j op - --------1
.tia aaa aa ^ ^a!

I Because o{thesuper-alteration properties


foundwithinthestructureof themode09, *9,b5,{5),
manyplayers liketo superimpose Locrian V
overfunctioning chords.Fig.4 theturnaround
isolates bars
of a G minorbluesprogression.In the lmi-lvmimeasure (Gmi7-Cmi7),a G minor (addg)
pentatonic
thebluesymood,thenthe D LocrianmodetakesoverontheV chord(D7t9),hitting
lickestablishes
everypossiblealteration.
Thislicktakesfull advantage framework
of the blues-scale (sans5th)that lies
withintheLocrianmode.
e Fig. 4
. =63
GmiT D7*9
Af-

Gminorpentatonic(addg), - - - - - - - - - - - I
lt r!!
aafti!

Unliketheotherminormodesof themajorscale(Dorian, Phrygian, andAeolian),Locriandoes


notcontainthe minorpentatonic scaleas its underlying The presenceof the tsth degree
framework.
"throwsofl"the pattern,makingit awkwardto builduponeslablishedlicksfromthatscale.In lieuof the
minorpentatonic scale,manyplayers relyon thearpeggiated
tormof the I chordin Locrian(mi7b5)as
a buildingblockfor constructing
licks.ThefollowingtwoveryusefulpatternsoJthe mi7b5arpeggioare
movableto any key.
-- Dmi7b5 arpeggios- --------1

Pattem2 Pattem 4
{-fT-fT-} a r,
t(a)ta | |
tteltl
ffffitor'
TT(5TT-I
-T-TasTt t I ttf a
te | | tt
ffr=ffl
By playingthesearpeggiosand "sprinkling"
in the missingnotes(r2nd,4th,t6th)hereand
there,the entireLocrianmodeis represented.
Fig.5 givesan exampleof this processappliedto a
Dmi7b5arpeggiofrompattern2.

@oo'

Dmi?b5 a$eggio w/ "missing"Locdannotes

quality,the unembellished
Due to its distinctive mi7i5 arpeggiois oftenusedto "suggest"the
Locrianmode.Althoughthe arpeggioomitsthe b2nd,4tt1, and b6thdegreesof the mode,the diminished
qualityof its triad(root-b3rd-b5th)aloneis enoughto linkit to the Locrianmode.Fig.6 offersan exam-
ple with a lick that sequencestlvo patterns(2 and 4) ol a Dmi7ts arpeggioover a Dmi7bschord.In
additionto servicingthe Dmi7b5chord,the arpeggiated overa Bbgchord(mi7t5
linecan be substituted
arpeggiooff the 3rd of a dominantchord).

Fig. 6
)=wrJl=) )t
Dmi7l5 (orBb9)
The -ultra-heavy'propertiesof Locrianmakethe modea highlyquali{iedcandidatefor exploita-
tion in heavymetalmusic.The combination of the b2ndwiththe "Devil'sinterval"bsthproposesmany
sinisterpossibilities
for creatingominoussoundingriffs.The grindingexamplein Fig.7 usesthosetwo
notes(F and B,) in abundanceas it setsthe harmonjzed powerchordsfromthe E Locrianmooe
againsta relentlesslow-Epedal.The invertedE(bs)chordsin the fourthmeasureare the diatonic
power-chord formsof the I chord-rn the previousmeasuresonlythe rootis played.Whilethis riff
avoidsit. manyLocrianritfssubstitutea standardroovsthpowerchordfor the I chord.

@o'"
. = 100Half"time feel

\( F5 E(b5l Bb5 E(b5l Bb5

Odels anel Ends


Here'sa listof additionaltipsfor creatingyourown Locrianlicks.They'reall in B Locrianso you
can use them in the Play-AlongProgression on the cD. when you havethemdown,transposethemto
otherkeys.Be awarethat when applyingthem,you needto establishthe rootof Locrianas the pitch
axis.

1. Playthe B bluesscale(B-D-E-F-Ffi-A),but avordthe5th (F{).


2. Playthis "synthetic"pentatonicscale:B-C-E-F-A (1-b2-4-r'-b7).
3. Play8", C, and F majortriads.(Combined, they representeverynotefrom B Locrian.)
4. Playan A minorpentatonic scaleand add a B.
5. Playa D minorpentatonic scaleand add a B.

Play-Along Progressiofr
Usethefivepatternso{ Locrian,locatedat the top of thischapter,to iam overthis B Locrian
progression.Youcanuseanyof thetipsin the"OddsandEnds"sectionas theyareall in B Locrian.
Also,tryto applysomeol thelicksin thischapter,
changing the rhythms andtransposing themwhere
necessarv

B Locrian
(Dther lUlodes
The majorscaleis not uniquein containingsevenmodes.In fact,all diatonic(seven-note)
chapter,we'lltakea lookat the melodicminor
scaleshavetheirown set of modes.In this streamlined
and harmonicminorscales,and the most popular modes fromeach.Finally,we'llperforma "modal"
scale-the bluesscale.
ooerationon a nondiatonic

lUlelodic IUIinor anel lts Wlodes


The melodic minor scale (1-1,3-4-5-6-7) can be likenedto a majorscale with a b3rd
degree,but it'sactuallymoreakinto the Dorianmodewith a major7th.Playthroughthe followingthree
patlernsof melodicminorto see if they"feel"familiarto yourfingers-likeslightlyadjustedDorianpat-
ierns.lf you makethis"connection,"you can takeyour Dorianpatterns,raisethe tTthdegreesa half
step,or;ne fret,and you'llhavepatternsof melodicminor.In likefashion,you can convertyourDorian
licksintomelodicminorlicksby raisingthe bTthdegreesby a halfstep'
Melodic Minor

Pattem 4 Pattem I Pattem 2


5-TTTTI 5-rT-T_T-l fr-TT-T_l
(a)a I a a(t) looat a{a)a L a a
ttottt
._5(5]5t} tatttl
n.rfFt
i t t(t) L ?
? l _L_-LL..' tffi LOtt?
TT_I_[[}
Also referredto as "thejazz minorscale,"melodicminorcan be superimposed overmlnor
triadchordsand minorSeventhchordsfor Slightly sounding
"outside" licks,
but it's most commonly
usedovermi(ma7)chords(root-t3rd-5th-7th). Fig. 1 featuresan Ami(ma7)chord in its usualplace,
tuckedbetweenan Ami chordand an Ami7.A Dorianis usedoverthe Ami chordand seguesto A
melodicminor,whichoutlinesthe tonalitychangebeautifully. OverAmi7,the melodyreturnsto the
A Dorianmode.

,A. -t'19''
\yz
). =62
Ami(ma7)

-----r c i n o r( p a t t e m
A m e l o d im 4) ------ --------l
A D o i a n ( D a t t e 4m) - -

Am7
aliaaaa,la'raaar a

A Dorian (paftem 4) - -
rt ^AA a/laa ,a,a'r}rr,i!

Justas themajorscaleproduces modesbuiltfromitssevenscaledegrees, thesameis trueof


melodic minor.ln jazz andfusion,themelodicminor scale and its modes are used forsolo-
extensively
ingoverthecolorful chordsanddaringchordprogressions inherent in thosestylesWe havejustseen
modeof themelodic
the,'lonian" minorscalein action.Nowlet'stakea lookat itsseventh mode-
super-Locrian,or "thealteredscale."
Thealteredscaleis oneof themostpopular toolsin jazzsoloing. usedoverfunctioning
to the Locrianmode.Butwhereas
V chords,it'ssimilarin construction
(resolving) Locriancontainsa
oerfect4ih,thealteredscalehasa major3rddegree. Thisresultsin thealteredscalecontainingbotha
minorand a major3rd, but mostplayersviewits formulaas 1-b9-*9-3-b5-*5-p7. As you can see,all
are present:l'9,{9, b5,and fis.Combinedwith its major3rd and bTthdegrees,this
possiblealterations
makesthe alteredscalean idealchoicefor soloingoveraltereddominantchords.
Beloware threepatternsof the alteredscale.Noticetheyare exactlythe sameas the melodic
minorpatterns,exceptthatthe 7th degreeof melodicminoris now the root(in otherwords,the altered
scaleis the seventhmodeof melodicminor).This illustrates methodfor playing
the popular"shortcut"
an alteredscalepattern-go up a halfstep from the rootof a chordand playmelodic minor.
The Altered Scale
Pattem4 Pattern1 Pattern 2
6ifTTTA) {-T_TTT-} 6TTTI
tt ttll taaa(a)l f lf t??
IT6TT]
+TT.FFI T6TTTI ?_t_t_t_.1_t?
{tlrrf {frtin I tf !
fTTO

Fig.2 placesthe G alteredscale(seventhmodeof Abmelodicminor)overa G+7b9chord


whichis resolvingto Cmig.Noticethat the lickstartson a strongchordtone-the 3rd (B) of G+7b9-
and climbsthe scaleto hit the root(G) on the downbeatof the nextmeasure,then resolvesto the sth
(G) of Cmi9.Targetingstrongchordtoneson strongbeatsis imperative in makingthe alteredscale
soundmusical.

Fig.2
J = 138
C+'7b9

G altered scale (pattern 4) - - - - - - ----------------- l G altered scale (pattem l)

The sixthmodeof melodicminor,Locrian f2, is constructed just as its namesuggests-likethe


Locrianmodebut witha raised2nd degree:1-2-b3-4-b5-b6-b7 . lts chiefapplicationis overmi7b5
chords,as an alternative to the Locrianmode.Manyplayersconsiderthe z2ndof Locriantoo harsh,so
theyopt for the "softef'soundof Locrian+2.As you playthroughthesepatterns,try to "feel"the mi7b5
arpeggiosthat lie within(seethe "Locrian"chapter).
Locrian f2
Pattem4 Pattem2
5-TTTT }
].rfiTl t ( a ) at t
ttt ?l ? t t??
5Tr5T-Tl T5-T'5TI
ITT'FII ?ttlr?J

Fig. 3 setsthe E Locrian*2 modein motionoverthe ll chord(Emi7l,5),


and the A alteredscale
overthe V in a Il-V-l orooression
in D Notice
minor- how smoothlv the two scalesflow intoeachother.

o
)
Fig.3
-J-
= 1 0 8( J J = J J ' )
Dmi?

2)- -
*2 (paltem
E Locrian ---jl----, A a l t e r esdc a l e( p a t t e r4n) - - - - - - - - - - -
taaaa
The fourth mode of melodic minor, Lydian dominart---or Lydian b7---isidentical to the Lydian
mode ot the majorscale exceptthat it has, as the name implies,a bTthdegree:1-2-914-5.-+'7.
Here are two very practicalpatternsof Lydiandominant.Playthroughthem slowly,acquaintingyourself
withthe unusualsoundof the mode.
Lydian Dominant
Pattem 4 Patl'f,.rr'2
[rrTTt
(aJta I a(a)
rffftl
? tt? t?
t0tf tl 5'5TTT1
5T'5TT1 FT1Trl
| | tat I t t a(a)ao
fT_r[l -I-Tr-l
WhileLydiandominantand the Lydianmodehavemuchin commonin bothnameano con-
struction,when it comesto application,Lydiandominantis morecloselyassociated with Mixolydian.
LikeMixolydian, Lydiandominantis well suitedfor dominantseventhchords.Whileits {4th degreeputs
it especiallyin linewith dominant$11chords,manyguitaristsuse it overany staticor nonresolving
dominantchord.Fig.4 offersan exampleof the D Lydiandominantmodeovera staticDg chord.The
assortedbends,slides,and syncopatedrhythms,combinedwith the notes of the mode itself,make for
an interesting mixtureof funk,fusion,and blues.

o
N.C.
f,rs.4

, FFF=
\a a a
.
a =
.-l-.Jr
a
]-TI.
a a a)
D9

6
(Ami(ma7) arpeggio) (Amitriad -)

(F*mi7b5arp- - - - - - :' - -)
D Lydiandominanlrpalrem4r - - - --- - - - -

(D major triad) (C+ triad)

The superimposed arpeggiosin the aboveexample-Ami(ma7)and F{mi7r5arpeggios; A


minor,D major,and C augmentedtriads-are all harmonizedfromthe parentscaleof A melodicminor.
As with modesof the majorscale,borrowingfromthe parentscaleis quitecommonamongexperi-
encedplayersin dealingwith modesof melodicminor.The followingchordformulasare harmonized
lrom the kevof A melodicminor:

Triads: Ami-Bmi-C+-D-E-Fil"-c+"
Seventhchords: Ami(ma7)-Bmi7-Cma7(*5)-D7-E7-F*mi7f5-Gilmi7b5
Experiment withsomeof them in arpeggiated formfor the followingmodes:D Lydiandominant,
F, Locrian#2,and the G* (or At')alteredscale.And of course,transposethemto otherkeysas well.

Fig. 5 servesas a vehiclefor stringingthe melodicminorscaleand threeof its modestogether


all in one progression.lt'sa ll-v-l-lv7 in the key of G minor.The A Locrian12modeis usedfor the
IlmiTb5chord(Ami7b5) and seguesto the D alteredscalefor the V chord(D7b9).Noticethe common
tones(D and C) usedto tie the two modestogetheracrossthe bar line-In the thirdmeasure,a stmpte
G minortriaddrapesthe G minorchordfollowedby selectednotesfromG melodicminorfor the
Gmi(ma7). The c Lydiandominantmodeis usedfor the lv7 chord,c9($1t), and can be seenas a con-
tinuationof G melodicminor,as that is its parentscale.

@''*'

( D +t r i a d - - - )
A L o c r i a n f 2- - - - D a l t e r esdc a l e- - - - -

r Bb is pldlredinsre.d ol B on tlre CD

Gmi(ma7) c9(slr)

(Gmitriad- - - - - - - -----) (Cmi(ma7)arp - - - ) (Cmi(ma7)arp --)


G melodjcminor-- - - - , - -r C Lydiandominant-

Play-Along Progressiorr
Thislrackusesthe sameprogression as Fig.5. you can use thoselicksor comeup wilh yourown,
basedon the variouspatternsyou'velearnedfor the melodicminorscale and three of :ts modes-the
alteredscale,Locrian{2, and Lydiandominant.starl simply,usingonly a few notesfromeacnmooe,
and striveto be melodic.

Gmi(ma7) c9({r 1)

A l - o c . i a*n2 --------, ,l - - - - - - -, - - - - l C minor


Dalteredscale C L y d i a n d o m i n a-n- ,t - , , - - r
Pentatonic - 1
* CD @ordins endson a c9(* I I chord
)
Harrnonic lUlinor anel lts IUIodes
Like mefodicminor,the harmonic minor scale (1-2-r3-4-5-bA-7) has a raised7th degree.
But whereasmelodicminorhas a "soft'sounddue to its natural6th degree,harmonicminor'sb6th
makesthe scalesoundmoreunusualand assertive. This is due chieflyto the minor3rd "gap"between
the b6th and 7th degrees,which createsa strongsense of anticipationlor resolution-or returnto the
tonic. Playthroughthese three patternsand listento the strong"pull"of the scale from its sth degreeto
the tonic.
Harmonic Minor
Pattem 4 Pattem 1 Pattem 2
{-rT-rT-} ro
I ttf t I
ffi
t(?)? | a ?
tlttl a I o a(tll a-rTT-Fl
5T'5TT1 ETfT-] r-5r5T]
etlru ?1?!? l t?J Itt tt I
tTT-ff|
In jazz,harmonicminoris alsoa popular scalechoicefor minor-major seventh chords,andit is
usedin muchthesamewayas melodic minor(seeFig.1).lt is alsoa favorite lu-
amongclassically-inf
encedhardrockguitaristssuchasYngwieMalmsteen andTonyMacAlpine, and is oftenusedas an
Fig.6 offersjustsuchan example
to Aeolian.
alternative withan A harmonic minorrunplayedoveran
Amichord.

o Fig.6

= 126
Arm

Arguably,
themostcommonly usedmodeof theharmonic minorscaleis Phrygiandominant-
likethe Phrygianmodeol the majorscale,exceptthatinsteadof
or thelifth mode.lt is constructed
a minor3rddegree,it containsa major3rd (1-62-3-4-5-bo-t7). Trythesethreeveryserviceable
patterns.

Phrygian Dominant
Pattem 4 PattemI Pattem 2
Trtrn a-rT-FT-l IITT-N
OJJIi-O I t I t(t)f a(o)a a I a
Ll_i_Lu tttttl af | | tf
I aoa | | a ( a ) aa I a
[TI-r5t ? I -LL-L]? tltttu
TTT-T_|-}

Themostcommonusageof Phrygian dominant is to superimposeit overthefunctioning


V
chordin a minorkeyprogression.Jazz,blues,androckguitarists aliketakeadvantage of themode's
chord-altering
capabilities.
Forexample, whentheA Phrygian dominantscale(A-B'-C{-D-E-F-G)is
superimposed theroot(A),3rd(C{),sth (E),andbTth(G)ol thechord,
overan A7 chord,it outlines
plusthealterations
of a bgth(Bb)anda {sthor t13th(F).TheD noteservesas a "passing" 4thor 11lh.
Fig. 7 superimposes
the A Phrygiandominantmodeoverthe v chord(A7t9)in a ll-v-l in D
minor.Thiscreatestensionoverthe functioning
V chordand makesthe ear wantto hearresolution,
whichoccursin the D Aeolianmelodyplayedoverthe I chord(Dmi7).(E Locrianis usedto ouflinethe
Emi7b5chord.)

o Fic 7

) = 9 2 ( aI = J a ' )
A1b9

3
l)- - - -
E L o c r i r n( p a r t e m -- - - l A P h Oe i a nd o m i n a n( tp r { l e m4 ) - - - - - . 1 2)- --- -
DAeolian(patrern

Neoclassicalrockguitaristsput Phrygiandominanton the rockmap jn the,g0s.Super-


imposedoverpowerchords,it can be a potenttoolwhen usedto fashionsizzlingsequenceslike
the one in Fig. 8.

@o'*'
) = r52
B5

Whenthe harmonicminorscaleis harmonized in seventhchords,the resultingformulais


lmi(ma7)-llmi7rs-tlllmaT*5-lvmi7-V7-bVtmaT-V '7. A
of thesechordscan of coursLbe playeorn
arp-eggiatedformfor soloingpurposes,but the one that offersthe mostintriguingpossibilities
is the
Vll'7. Forexample,Fig.9 usesthe E Phrygiandominantscaleovera functioning E7 chord.Any of the
arpeggiosharmonized fromA harmonicminorare up for grabs(A harmonicminorts the parentscaleof
E Phrygiandominant), but this lineonlyexploitsthe Vll chord,G*'7-Takingfull advantageof the fact
that a diminishedseventharpeggioshaperepeatsitselfeverythreefrets,this lickspreadsa G{.7
arpeggioand its inversions(8"7, D"7, and F 7) acrossthe entiresecondhalfol this lick.

fll Frg.9
) = 126
^ Amr
Play-Along Progression
Forthis Latrnrockprogressionin D minor,play D Aeolianin the firstand thirdmeasures,and
switchto A Phrygiandominantoverthe V (A7)chords.Youmightsimplywantto think"onebar of D
Aeolian,one bar of D harmonicminor;'etc.Try someGl'7 arpeggiosoverthe A7 chordas well.

o
n Aeolian A Ph^
Phrygian
"irn dominmr
dominantor D Aeolian r A Phrygiandominantor
D harmonicminof - - - - - - - - - - - - - r D harmonicminor- I

The Blrres Scale arrel lts lUloeles


The blues scale is not a diatonicscale,but that doesn'tmeanit doesn'tcontain"modesl'Since
its constructionis unusualto beginwith (1-b34-,5-5-b7), its modesare equallyas uniqueand are
somewhatdifficultto applyin the traditionalsense.Thereis one modeof the bluesscale,however, that
is quitepopular,especiallyamongcounlryand country-rock guitarists.
Constructedby startingon the
b3rddegreeof the scale,its formulais 1-2-b3-3-5-6.Knownto manyas the "bluegrassscale;'it's
uniquein that it holdsthe basicpropertiesol the majorpentatonic scale,whilealsocontaininga
"bluesy"b3rddegree.
Beloware two patternsof the bluesscaleand two patternsof its "secondmode"-the bluegrass
scale.Youwill probablynoticethe resemblance pentatonic
to the relativemajor/minor scaleprinciple-
whereif you playa minorpentatonic scalepatternstartingfromthe ,3rd degreeyou get the relative
majorpentaionicscale.Someplayerswho use the bluegrassscalethinkin this relative-major manner
and simplytransposetheirblues-scale licksdowna minor3rd fromthe rootof the chord.
Blues Scale 1 Bluegrass Scale

Pattern4 Pilttern 2 Pattem3 Pattem I


r5,ttr5a)
TTTTTT ffi 5--50JT1
-|_tr-l ro
TTOTTI FT{-r-1 lilrT]
(5TTT-i')
t f-Tasl
fTTiFi I-TTOT] Ita I
tTT-rn {TTT-1 Il-ffrl '.5TTT1
fT IfII -T-TF'I

Fig.10 is an example scalein action.Noticethe constantmixingof major


of the C bluegrass
and minor in
3rds,especially the thirdmeasure.
Trytransposing this lickan octavehigher,using
pattern1.

Fig.10

d = 126(l | =,) ,)'\


C1

C b l u e g r asscsa l(ep a t i c 3
m) - ------------r
stylesolothat utilizesan
Fig. 11 usestwo patternsof the G bluegrassscalein a Southern-rock
moves.
abundanceof finger-slide

o Fig. I I

J =96
G
vtaal at|aaaa rltiataa

ryYttrL ta,l ^ l t aaaaa aaa/tt

G bluegrassscale(pattern3) -
I

Playingthe bluesscalestartingon its 5th degree("fifth"mode)producesa uniquescale


(1-bg-4-b6-b7-7)that, with propercare, works well over dominant{9 chords.A good way to apply this
modeis to playthe bluesscalea fourthabove(or a fifthbelow)the rootof the chordoverwhichyou're
soloing.Fig. 12 givesan exampleof this processby superimposing A bluesscalelicksoveran E7fl9
cnorO.lWnln usingthis method,watchout for the ,3rd of the patternyou are using-C in this case-as
it is the tsth of the chordoverwhichyou'replaying.)

@u', "
J =r:s
E'7*9 lttaat
- 3-

+J!

A bluesscale(pattem4) - - - -
!"t
""''!
r StartE
Ahhoughit containB 7), W usingthebznddeugbas a
actuallyworksquitewell overdominantseventhchords.A goodwayto oQerimentwilh
the mo,-de
modeis to playout of a bluesscalepatterna fifthabove(ora fourthbelow)the rootof the chord.
Fig.13 offeisin exampleof thismethodby usingnotesderivedfrompattern4 of the B bluesscale
to fashiona funkylineoveran E9.

@""'"
J =u <f,ffi

B blues scale(pattem 4)-


Guitar Notation Legend
GuitarMusic can be notatedthree d;fferentwayi on a musical6tall, in tabtaturc,and in rhtthm stashes.
D EG
RHYTHM SI-.ASHIS
slaft.Slrumchords
arcwrittenabovethe
intherh!,thmindicaled.
@@

sTtl^) n
open 3fr
ljsethechorddiaorams foundatthetopof
lhefirslpaqeofthkanscdption forthe
apprcpriatechordvoicings. Round Notes:
noteheads indicatesinglenots.
ci
THEMUSICAL STAFF showspitches and
rhythms andis divided bybarlinesinto
measures. Pitchesarnamed afterthelirst Strings:
seven letterc
ol lhealphabet. highr
3
TASI-ATUBE graphically
represents
the G
guitar
fingerboard.
Eachhorizontal
line 0
presentsa sting,andeachnumber
rpresents
afret.
played
togelher
HALF-SIEP 8EilD:Stikthenoteandbend WH0LE-S]EPBEIID:Strikethenoteand GnACEoTEBEilD:Strikethenoteand SLIGHI(MlCB0T0tlE)
BEil0:Sirike
the
upl/2 stp. 0en0uponestep. immediately
bend!p asindicatd. noteandbendup1/4step.

BEilDA!10BELEASE:
Strikethnoleand PBE-8END:Bend
thenoteasindicated,lhn VIBRATo: Thestringisvibrated
byrapidty WIDEV|SFAT0:Thepitchis vaiedto a greater
stikeit. bendinq andreleasing
thenotewiththe degrce
byvibraling
withthefrettinghand.
lrcttinghand.

HAMMER-oN: St kethefirstllower)notewith PUtt-oFF: Plac


bothiingers onthenotes IEGATo SIIDE:Strike
theihstnoteand SHIFTSIIDE:Same aslegato
slide,excepi
onefinger,thensound thehigher note(onthe to besounded.Strike
thefirstnoteand thenslidethesame lret-hand
finoerupor thesecond
noteis struck.
samestring) withanolherfinqerbylretting
il withoutpicking,
pullthelingeroftto sound downt0thesecond note,Thesecondnote
withoutpicking. thesecond is n0tsiruck.

TRIIL:Veryrapidlyalternate
between
the TAPPll,lG:
Hammer ("taD")lhe
fretindicated ilATURAL HA8Molci Slrike thenotewhile PINCHHARMoNIC:Thenoteisfretted
notes
indicatedbycontinuouslyhammeinq withthepick-handindexor middlefingerand thefret-hardlightly
louches
thestring normally is produced
anda hamonic byaddjno
onandpullingotf. pullofitothenotelrcttedbythetrethand. directly
overtheiretindicated. theedge
ofthelhumb
orthetipoltheindex

I PICK Theedgeotthepickis
SCRAPE: IIUFFLED
STSlilGS: Apercussive
soundis Thenoteis partially
PAIMMlrTll,lc: muted BAKE:Dragth6pickacrossthestrings
rubbeddown(0rup)thestring,
producing produced
bylayirgthefrcthandacross
the bythepickhandiightly
touchino
the indicated
wilha single
motion.
a scratchy
sound. justbefore
string(s) thebridoe.

TnEMoLo PlCKlc: Thenoteis picked


as VIBBATo BARolVEA D BETURili The VIBRATo BARSC00P: Depressthebarjust V|ERAT0BARDIP:Strikthenoteandthen
rapidly aspossible.
andconiinuously pitchofthenoteorchodisdroppeda st kingthenote,lhenquickly
before immediately
dropaspecilied
numberof
speciliednumberotsteps
{inrhythm)then release
thebar. steps,
ihenrelease
backtotheori0inalpitch.
relurnedtotheoriginalpitch.
D^tt
U
PRIVATETESSO'VS
K
t\/tc)f)tsS
-/"VW

A HANDS.ONAPPROACH
TO THEMODES-
THOROUGHLY
EXPLAINED!
I lonian,Dorian,PhrYgian,
Lydian,Mixolydian,Aeolian,
and Locrian

r MelodicMinor,Harmonic
Minor,and the BluesScale

r SoloingOverDiatonicand
ModalProgressions

Modes
r Superimposing

Licks,
r Patterns,Progressions,
and More

CD tncludes83 Full-BandTracks

Book $6.95,CD $10.00= Pkg $16.95


Partsnot sold separately

rsBN E-h3q-018??-1
Advanced 5<ale Concepts Funk Keyboards -The Complete Method
& Licks for Guitar A Cmrentpo&ryGuidcto CM.t, Rltllbrrt, ann li.ks
bfJeanMarcBelAadi b! CailJohnson
PrivateLessons ilaster Cla5s
0 0 6 9 5 2B9o8o V C PDa c k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 1 2 . 9 5 00695336 Book/cD Pack .... $li.9t
Basic Blues Guitar Music Reading for Keyboard
b! Stet)elio%to b! Laff! Steehnan
PrivateLessons BssntialConcepts
0 0 6 9 5 1B8o0o l d P
C aDc k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 1 2 . 9 t 00695205 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $12.9t

!ress Musicians
Contemporary Acoustic Guitar
b! Eic Paschal
MasterClass
0 0 6 9 5 3B20
andSteaeTrol)ato

ook/C
Creative Chord Shapes
l)! JmnieFindlq!
Pfirate Lssons
PD a c k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 1 4 . 9 t
R&B soul Keyboards
4 HentlJ Breuer
Privatekssons
00695327
Salsa Hanon
Book/CD Pack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $16.9t

P"i"aft r.""in"
0069t172BookCD Pack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $i.95 0 0 6 9 5 2. .2. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 1 0 . 9 5
Institute Press Diminished Scale for cuitar
b!JeafiMa/. Belkddi
is theofrcialseriesof SouthemCalifonua s PrivaleLessons Afro"Cuban Coordination for Drumset
00695227 Book/CD Pack. . . . . . . . . . . l)JtMariaMaltinez
renowned musicschool,Musicrans Institute.Mt PrivaleLessons
Guitar Basics 0 0 6 9 5 3B2o8o k CPDm k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 1 4 . 9 5
instructors,
someof thefineslmusicians i[ the b! RtuccBtbkinghan
PrivateLessons Brarilian Coordination for Drumset
world.share theirva.5r
Lnor\ledgeande\pcrience 00695134 Bool/mPack. . . . . . . . . . . b! Maia Maftinez
MasterClass
withyou- no matterwhatyourcurrentlevel.[or Guitar Hanon 00695284 BoolyCD Pack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $14.95
lryPeterDenef
guilar,bass,drums,vocals,andkeyboards, PrivatLssons Chart RadinE workbook for Drummers
0069i321 ....................... b! BobbiGabieh
Ml Prss offersthefnestmusiccuniculwl for PrivatLessons
higherlearning
through
a \afier]ofseries: 00695129 BooVCD Pack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $14.95
Drummerk Guide to Odd Meters
b! EdRoscehi
ESSEIUTTALCOIUCEPTS f,ssentialConcots
0 0 6 9 5 JB
4 9o o k / a D P a c. k... . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 1 4 . 9 5
Designdfrom MI core Working the Inner Clo.k for Drumset
cu,Ticulamprogram.s.
PrivateLessons
0 0 6 9 5 1B2o7o k / P
CaDc k. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 1 6 . 9 t
MASTER CLASS
Designed sightsinging
from MI electinecourses. Jazz Guitar lmprovisation ht MikeCanbbe
b! SidJacobs EssntialConcepts
MasterClass 0 0 6 9 5 1. .9. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 1 6 . 9 t
PRIr'ATE LESSONS 00695128 BooVCD Pxck ....$17.95
fackle d aa eU oftopics "one-on-one" Jazz-Ro<k Triad lmprovising
@
An Approach to Jazz lmprovisation
with MI faculty instructors. b!JeanMarcBelka.li
PrivatLssons PrivateLessons
0 0 6 9 5 3B6o1o w C l aDc k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 1 2 . 9 5 00695135 Book/CD Pack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1i.95
Modern Approach to ,azz, Encyclopedia of Reading Rhythms
Arpeggios for Bags Rock & Fusion Guitar b! Ga,! Hess
b! DawXeif bl|ea .llarcBelhadi PHvateLessons
PrivateLessons PrivatLessons
0 0 5 9 5 1. .4.5. . . . . . . . . . . ........$19.95
00695133 ............. 0 0 6 9 5 1B1o3o k / P C aDc .k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 1 2 . 9 5
Going Pro
The Art of walking Bass Music Reading for Guitar
bJ,Datid oakes 4 Kefi ! Kener
A etbodfor Acoustico" Electric Ba.ss PrivateLessons
b! BobMagnusson Essential Coocepls
0 0 6 9 5 3. .2. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 2 2 . 9 5
MasterClass 00695192 ............ . .$16.95
0 0 6 9 5 1B6o8o l / C PD & k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 1 7 . 9 5 Rhtrthm Guitar Harmony & Theory
ht KeitbWatt & CarlSchloeder
Bass Fretboard Basics h'BruceBuckingham E Eic Patchal IissentialConceps
EssntialConcepts
0 0 6 9 5 1. .6. 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 1 7 . 9 5
EssntialConcepts 00695188 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $16.9j
Lead Sheet Bible
0 0 6 9 t 2.0. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 1 2 . 9 5 Rock Lead Basics b! RobinRandall
Bass Playing Techniques b] NickNokn A Dann! Cill Privatlrssoos
bf AlexisSklaretski MastrClass 0 0 6 9 5 1B3o0o V cPDa c.k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 1 9 . 9 5
EssentialConcepts 00695144 Book/CD lack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $14.9t
00695207............. $16.95 Rock Lead Performance @
Groovesfor Electric Bass hJtNickNokn E Dmn! All Tlenscibedscorcsofthegreatestsongs
eter!
lt DaridKeif MasterClass
006952r'8 Bool./CD Pack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $16.95 Blues Workshop
Pri te Lessons
00695137.. .. .. ... ... ... .. . . $22.95
00695265 BookCD Peck .. . . . . . . . . . . $12.95 Rock Lead Techniques
b! NickNolan& Dann\lGill classic Rock Workshop
Music Reading for Bass 00695136. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $19.9t
b! lvel! wtehol)csiA MasterClass
f,ssntialConcepts 0 0 6 9 5 1B46o o V CPDa c .k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 1 4 . 9 5
0 0 6 9 5 2 0 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $. .9. . 9 5 Texas Blues Guitar
Odd"Meter Bassics b! Robe Ct ta T.HAI.LEoNARD@
b! DinoMonoxelos PrivateLessons L--c.c)FaPoRA-rloN
PrivatLssons 00695340 BooVCD Pack. . . . . . . . . ...... $14.95
0069t170 Bool/CD Pack .....$14.95
P/ices,co te/1ts,a/1dauaihbiliA suEectto changeuitbo l nolice. Sotrelrod cts,.r..1!not beaLwilableoulsideof tbe [.5"4.