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Lecture 8:

Stress Analysis around

Underground Openings

Authors Note:

The lecture slides provided here are taken from the course

Geotechnical Engineering Practice, which is part of the 4th year

Geological Engineering program at the University of British Columbia

(V

(Vancouver, Canada).

C d ) The

Th course covers rock k engineering

i i andd

geotechnical design methodologies, building on those already taken

by the students covering Introductory Rock Mechanics and Advanced

Rock Mechanics.

Mechanics

Although the slides have been modified in part to add context, they

of course are missing the detailed narrative that accompanies any

l

lecture. It is also

l recognizedd that

h these

h lectures

l summarize,

reproduce and build on the work of others for which gratitude is

extended. Where possible, efforts have been made to acknowledge

th vvarious

the ri us ssources,

urc s with

ith a list of

f references

r f r nc s being

b in provided

pr vid d att the

th

end of each lecture.

author at: erik@eos.ubc.ca

Stress-

Stress -Controlled Instability Mechanisms

Structurally-controlled

ll ll d instabilities

i bili i are generally

ll driven

d i by

b a

unidirectional body force, i.e. gravity. Stress-controlled

instabilities, however, are not activated by a single force, but by

a tensor with six independent components.

components Hence,

Hence the

manifestations of stress-controlled instability are more variable

and complex than those of structurally-controlled failures.

Stress-

Stress -Controlled Instability Mechanisms

Kaiser et al.

al (2000)

Stress-

Stress -Controlled Instability Mechanisms

Although

Al h h the

h fundamental

f d l complexity

l i of f the

h nature off stress has

h to be

b

fully considered in the design of an underground excavation, the problem

can be initially simplified through the assumptions of continuous,

homogeneous, isotropic, linear elastic behaviour (CHILE).

The engineering

Th i i question

ti isi whether

h th a solution

l ti based

b d on the

th CHILE

assumption are of any assistance in design. In fact though, many CHILE-

based solutions have been used successfully, especially in those

excavations at depth

p where high g stresses have closed the fractures and

the rock mass is relatively homogeneous and isotropic. However, in near-

surface excavations, where the rock stresses are lower, the fractures

more frequent, and the rock mass more disturbed and weathered, there is

more concern about the validity of the CHILE model.

model

Stress-

Stress -Controlled Instability Mechanisms

A stress analysis begins with a knowledge of the magnitudes and directions

of the in situ stresses in the region of the excavation. This allows for the

calculation of the excavation disturbed or induced stresses.

wn (2006)

Brady & Brow

There exists several close form solutions for the induced stresses

B

techniques extend these to many smooth, symmetrical geometries),

and with numerical analysis techniques the values of the induced

stresses can be determined accurately for any three-dimensional

excavation geometry.

Stresses & Displacements - Circular Excavations

from the theory of elasticity, used to calculate the stresses and

displacements

p around a circular excavation.

k P

kP

Stress ratio:

k = h/v

Stresses & Displacements - Circular Excavations

From these equations we can see that the stresses on the

boundary (i.e. when r = a) are given by:

= p[(1+k) + 2(1

2(1-k)cos2]

k)cos2]

rr = 0

r = 0

Note that

h theh radial

d l stresses are zero

because there is no internal pressure,

and the shear stresses must be zero at

a traction-free

t ti n f b

boundary.

und

Example 1: Stresses around a Circular Opening

Q. At a depth of 750 m, a 10-m diameter circular

tunnel is driven in rock having a unit weight of

26 kN/m3 and uniaxial compressive and tensile

strengths of 80.0

80 0 MPa and 3 3.0

0 MPa

MPa,

respectively.Will the strength of the rock on

the tunnel boundary be exceeded if:

(a) k=0.3,

k=0 3 and

(b) k=2.0?

Harrison & Hudson (2000)

A.

pressure applied to it, the local stresses at the boundary have

3 = r = 0 and 1 = . The Kirsch solution for the

circumferential stress is:

(i.e. a = r), this simplifies to:

Example 1: Stresses around a Circular Opening

Hudson (2000)

1 First, we can assume that the vertical stress is

equal to the weight of the overburden, giving:

Harrison & H

MP

2 The extreme values of induced stress occur at positions aligned with the

principal in situ stresses, and so in order to compute the stress induced

n the crown

in wn and

n invert

n ((i.e.

. . roof

f and

n ffloor)) w

we u

use = 9

90,, and

n ffor

the sidewalls we use = 0.

Sidewalls ( = 0

0):

): = 52.7

52 7 MPa

Sidewalls ( = 0

0):

): = 19.5

19 5 MPa strength is

exceeded

Stress and Failure Criterion

The key is that the failure criterion is

compared to the stresses and is not part

of the calculation!!

when similar relationships

based on Mohr-Coulomb

and Hoek-Brown are

incorporated into stress-

strain constitutive

relationships.

Orientation of 1 & Induced Stresses

Potential Ground Control Issues:

Destressing = wedge failures

1 1 Concentration = spalling

d t

destressing

i stress

t

concentration

stress

destressing

concentration

t ti

direction of the major principle stress (1).

) Where they diverge

diverge, relaxation

occurs; where they converge, stress increases occur.

Stresses Away from Opening

Zone of Influence

The concept of influence is important in excavation design, since

the presence of a neighbouring opening may provide a significant

disturbance to the near-field stresses to the point of causing

f l

failure.

distribution around a circular

opening

i ini a hydrostatic

h d t ti stress

t

field; (b) circular openings in a

hydrostatic stress field,

effectively

ff ct y isolated

at by y virtue

rtu off

their exclusion from each

others zone of influence.

Zone of Influence

Brad

illustration of the effect of contiguous openings of different

dimensions The zone of influence of excavation I includes excavation

dimensions.

II, but the converse does not apply.

Stresses Around Elliptical Openings

treated in an analogous way to that just

presented for circular openings.

openings There is much

greater utility associated with the solution for

elliptical openings than circular openings,

because these can p provide a first

approximation to a wide range of engineering

geometries, especially openings with high

width/height ratios (e.g. mine stopes, power

house caverns

caverns, etc.).

etc )

changing either the orientation within the

stress field or the aspect ratio of such

elliptical openings can be studied to optimize

stability.

Stresses Around Elliptical Openings

characterized by two parameters: aspect ratio (major to minor

axis) which is the eccentricity of the ellipse; and orientation with

respect to the principle stresses. The position on the boundary,

with reference to the x-axis, is given by the angle .

Stresses Around Elliptical Openings

It is instructive to consider the maximum and minimum values of

the stress concentrations around the ellipse for the geometry of

an ellipse

p aligned

g with the principal

p p stresses. It can be easily

y

established that the extremes of stress concentration occur at the

ends of the major and minor axes.

Example 2: Stresses around an Elliptical Opening

Q. A gold-bearing quartz vein, 2 m thick and dipping 90, is to be

exploited by a small cut-and-fill stoping operation. The mining is to

take place at a depth of 800 m, and the average unit weight of the

granite

r nite hhost

st rrock

ck above

b ve this level is 29 kN/m3.

kN/m3 The strike off the

vein is parallel to the intermediate stress, and the major principal

stress is horizontal with a magnitude of 37.0 MPa. The uniaxial

compressive

p strength

g of the vein material is 218 MPa, and the tensile

strength of the host rock is -5 MPa. What is the maximum

permissible stope height before failure occurs.

A

A. We can assume that,

W h in

i 2-D

2 D cross-section,

i the

h stresses induced

i d d in

i

the sidewalls (tensile) and the crown (compressive) of the stope can

be approximated using the equations for an elliptical excavation.

Example 2: Stresses around an Elliptical Opening

Hudson (2000)

1 Rearranging the given equations, we can solve for

the height of the excavation as the minimum of:

or

Harrison & H

2 The maximum stress that can be sustained by the crown and the

sidewall are 218 and 5 MPa, respectively. Note that the sidewall

stress is negative because this represents the tensile strength.

strength

Example 2: Stresses around an Elliptical Opening

4

The maximal height of a stope such that the compressive strength of

the rock in the crown is not exceeded is given by:

The maximal height of a stope such that the tensile strength of the

rock in the sidewall is not exceeded is given by:

Thus we see that sidewall

failure is the limiting condition

f no str

if stress-induced

ss n uc fa

failure

ur iss

acceptable in the stope design.

Zone of Influence

elliptical approximation

to the zone of influence

around an elliptical

excavation.

ti

Stress Analysis - Numerical Modelling

Many underground

excavations are

i

irregular

l ini shape

h

and are frequently

grouped close to

other excavations.

excavations

These problems

require the use of

numerical techniques.

techniques

Numerical Modelling

Numerical methods of stress and deformation analysis fall into two

categories:

Integral only problem boundary is defined &

Methods discretized

Pro: more computationally efficient

Con: restricted to elastic analyses

distinct-element methods

Differential

D fferent al problem domain is defined &

Methods discretized

Pro: non-linear & heterogeneous

material properties accommodated

C

Con: l

longer solution

l ti run times

ti

Boundary-

Boundary -Element & Stress Analyses

The

h Boundary

B d Element

El Method

h d

(BEM) is generally favoured for

stress analyses involving

multiple excavations with

complex 3-D geometries (e.g.

those frequently encountered in

underground mine design). The

i

irregular

l shape

h off the

th

orebodies and staged nature of

mining, makes the ease of

mesh ggeneration and

computational efficiency Complex 3-D geometries: Its

easier to generate a mesh over a

afforded by the BEM highly surface than through a volume

advantageous.

Eberhardt et al.

al (1997)

Commercial Software:

Examine3D (Rocscience) - http://www.rocscience.com/

Map3D (Mine Modelling Pty Ltd.) - http://www.map3d.com/

BEFE (Computer Software & Services - CSS) - http://members.chello.at/sylvia.beer/

GPBEST (Best Corp.) - http://www.gpbest.com/

BEASY (Beasy Group) - http://www.beasy.com/

Boundary-

Boundary -Element & Stress Analyses

In performing

I f i an analysis,

l i the

h boundary

b d of

f the

h

excavation is divided into elements and the

interior of the rock mass is represented

mathematically as an infinite continuum. The

solution works to find a set of approximate

stresses which satisfy prescribed boundary

conditions, and then uses these to calculate the

stresses

t andd displacements

di l t iin th

the rock

k mass.

What to Know:

Computational method of solving linear partial differential equations which have

been formulated as integral equations (i.e. in boundary integral form).

Key advantage is the reduction of the model dimension by one, providing simpler

mesh generation & input data preparation, and greater computational efficiency.

Key disadvantage is the required assumption of homogeneous linear elastic material

behaviour; plasticity and heterogeneity negate the methods intrinsic simplicity.

Common applications include stress analysis of underground excavations, soil-

structure interactions

interactions, brittle fracturing processes

processes, dynamic problems

problems,

groundwater flow and coupled H-M & T-H-M problems.

Boundary-

Boundary -Element & Stress Analysis

Examine2D)

cscience E

(Roc

27 of 37 Erik Eberhardt UBC Geological Engineering ISRM Edition

Case History: Trout Lake Mine, Flin Flon

Since 1927, Hudson Bay Mining & Smelting

has developed more than 29 mines in the

Flin Flon Greenstone belt, with continuous

production of zinc,

zinc copper,

copper silver

silver, and gold

since 1930.

Case History: Trout Lake Mine, Flin Flon

discovered in 1976, with mining beginning in

1982. The deposit is a VMS-type deposit

that involves two ore zones 500 m apart,

which reach depths exceeding 1200 m.

Flin Flon Mining Belt

Projected life

of mine.

In a historic mining centre like Flin Flon, the life of the town is

dependent on the ability to mine new and deeper reserves to feed the

mill and keep the smelter running.

running

Case History: Trout Lake Mine, Flin Flon

Initial mining was carried out by ramping down to the

deposit and mining it at relatively shallow depths through

sub-level stoping. To what depths, though, will mining be

economical?

31 of 37 Erik Eberhardt UBC Geological Engineering ISRM Edition

Case History: Trout Lake Mine, Flin Flon

Ground control,

control dilution and drift stability

problems encountered at 400m depth.

Case History: Trout Lake Mine, Flin Flon

Eberrhardt et al. (1997)

Case History: Trout Lake Mine, Flin Flon

problem at shallower depths,

what will happen when the mine

expands

d andd goes d

deeper? ?

Case History: Trout Lake Mine Stress Analysis

R schk & R

Reschke Romanowski

m n ski (1993)

Empirical analysis based on performance of

stope backs in the Flin Flon deposits, although

useful, may be limited in its applicability if

the

h database

d is populated

l d with

h cases at

shallower depths (i.e. lower stresses).

Eberhardt et al.

al (1997)

y of

Trout Lake stopes.

Case History: Trout Lake Mine Stress Analysis

boundary element technique, 3-D analyses

(e.g. those looking at the stress

interactions between neighbouring stopes)

becomes a relatively straightforward

exercise.

pillar

Eb h d et al.

Eberhardt l (1997)

(199 )

against estimated rock mass strengths to

assess pillar stability.

Lecture References

Brady, BHG & Brown, ET (2006). Rock Mechanics for Underground Mining (3rd Edition). Chapman &

Hall: London.

Eberhardt, E, Stead, D, Reeves, MJ & Connors, C (1997). Design of tabular excavations in

foliated rock: An integrated numerical modelling approach. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 15

(1): 47-85.

Harrison, JP & Hudson, JA (2000). Engineering Rock Mechanics Part 2: Illustrative Worked

Examples. Elsevier Science: Oxford.

Hudson, JA & Harrison,

Hudson Harrison JP (1997).

(1997) Engineering Rock Mechanics An Introduction to the Principles .

Elsevier Science: Oxford.

Kaiser, PK, Diederichs, MS, Martin, D, Sharpe, J & Steiner, W (2000). Underground works in

hard rock tunnelling and mining. In GeoEng2000, Melbourne. Technomic Publishing Company:

Lancaster pp.

Lancaster, pp 841-926.

841 926

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