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SB4136E00

May. 2004

Service Manual
G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine
Lift Trucks
G15S-2, G18S-2, G20SC-2
GC15S-2, GC18S-2, GC20SC-2
With G420E Tier LP Engine
G20E-3, G25E-3, G30E-3, G32E-3
GC20E-3, GC25E-3, GC30E-3, GC32E-3
with G424E Tier LP Engine
Important Safety Information

Most accidents involving product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe basic safety
rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an
accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary training,
skills and tools to perform these functions properly.

Read and understand all safety precautions and warnings before operating or performing lubrication,
maintenance and repair on this product.

Basic safety precautions are listed in the Safety section of the Service or Technical Manual. Additional safety
precautions are listed in the Safety section of the owner/operation/maintenance publication.
Specific safety warnings for all these publications are provided in the description of operations where hazards exist.
WARNING labels have also been put on the product to provide instructions and to identify specific hazards. If
these hazard warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or other persons. Warnings in this
publication and on the product labels are identified by the following symbol.

WARNING

Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and could result
in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have read and
understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.

Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in this publication.

DAEWOO cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The warnings in
this publication and on the product are therefore not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating
technique not specifically recommended by DAEWOO is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and
others. You should also ensure that the product will not be damaged or made unsafe by the operation, lubrication,
maintenance or repair procedures you choose.

The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information available at the
time it was written. The specifications, torques, pressures, measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other
items can change at any time. These changes can affect the service given to the product. Obtain the complete and
most current information before starting any job. DAEWOO dealers have the most current information available.

1
WARNING

Read this entire manual and all other publications pertaining to the work to be performed before installing,
operating, or servicing this equipment. Practice all plant and safety instructions and precautions. Failure to follow
instructions can cause personal injury and/or property damage.

The engine or other type of prime mover should be equipped with an over speed (over temperature, or
overpressure, where applicable) shutdown device(s), that operates totally independently of the prime mover
control device(s) to protect against runaway or damage to the engine or other type of prime mover with possible
personal injury or loss of life should the mechanical-hydraulic governor(s) or electric control(s), the actuator(s), fuel
control(s), the driving mechanism(s), the linkage(s), or the controlled device(s) fail.

CAUTION

To prevent damage to a control system that uses an alternator or battery-charging device, make sure the charging
device is turned off before disconnecting the battery from the system. Electronic controls contain static-sensitive
parts. Observe the following precautions to prevent damage to these parts.
z Discharge body static before handling the control (with power to the control turned off, contact a grounded
surface and maintain contact while handling the control).
z Avoid all plastic, vinyl, and Styrofoam (except antistatic versions) around printed circuit boards.
z Do not touch the components or conductors on a printed circuit board with your hands or with conductive
devices.

IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS

WARNINGindicates a potentially hazardous situation, which, if not avoided, could result in death or
serious injury.

CAUTIONindicates a potentially hazardous situation, which, if not avoided, could result in damage to
equipment.

NOTEprovides other helpful information that does not fall under the warning or caution categories.

* This manual shows just LP fuel and engine control system for TIER- LP engine, so regarding
other ares(basic engine), please refer to the separate manual of SB4008E for G420 and SB2215E for
G424.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 3 Table of Contents


Index CHAPTER 3 MI- 04 MAINTENANCE
SCHEDULE

WORKING WITH LPG EQUIPMENT RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE.....30


Test Fuel System for Leaks ......................................30
Inspect Engine for Fluid Leaks .................................30
CHAPTER 0 LPG AND LPG FUEL TANKS
Inspect Vacuum Lines and Fittings...........................30
Inspect Electrical System .........................................30
LPG Fuel Supply........................................................ 8
Inspect Acceleration Pedal Operation ......................31
LPG Fuel Tanks.......................................................... 9
Check Coolant Level ................................................31
Installing LPG Fuel Tanks .......................................... 9
Inspect Coolant Hoses .............................................31
LPG Fuel Tank Components .................................... 10
Inspect Battery System ............................................31
Fuel Gauge .............................................................. 10
Inspect Ignition System ............................................31
Service Valve ........................................................... 10
Replace Spark Plugs ................................................31
Quick Disconnect Coupling...................................... 11
Replace LP Fuel Filter Element................................32
Filler Valve................................................................ 11
Testing Fuel Lock-off Operation ...............................33
Pressure Regulator/Converter Testing and
nspection ..................................................................33
CHAPTER 1 ENGINE SPECIFICATION Fuel Trim Valve Inspection (FTV) .............................33
Inspect Air/Fuel Valve Mixer Assembly.....................33
Indication of Engine Serial Number ......................... 12 Inspect for Intake Leaks ...........................................34
Specifications(G420E) ............................................. 13 Inspect Throttle Assembly ........................................34
Specifications(G424E) ............................................. 14 Checking the TMAP Sensor .....................................34
Inspect Engine for Exhaust Leaks............................34
Replace Oxygen Sensor ..........................................34
CHAPTER 2 MI-04 LPG SYSTEM Maintenance Schedule.............................................35
OPERATIONAL OVERVIEW

MI-04 General Description ....................................... 15 CHAPTER 4 MI-04 LP BASIC


MI-04 LP Fuel Filter.................................................. 17 TROUBLESHOOTING
MI-04 Fuel Lock-Off (Electric) .................................. 17
MI-04 N-2001 Regulator/Converter.......................... 18 Basic Troubleshooting ..............................................37
N-2001 Theory of Operation .................................... 19
MI-04 N-CA55-500TR Mixer .................................... 20
N-CA55-500-TR Air/Fuel Mixer Theory of
CHAPTER 5 MI-04 LP ADVANCED
Operation ................................................................. 20
MI-04 Electronic Throttle .......................................... 22 DIAGNOSTICS
MI-04 Fuel Trim Valve .............................................. 23
Heated Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor (HEGO) ........ 24 Advanced Diagnostics..............................................44
MI-04 SECM (General Description) ......................... 25 Reading Diagnostic Fault Codes..............................44
MI-04 SECM (Fuel Management) ............................ 25 Displaying Fault Codes (DFC) From SECM
MI-04 SECM (Load/Speed Management)................ 27 Memory ....................................................................45
MI-04 Ignition management ..................................... 29 Clearing Fault (DFC) Codes.....................................45
Fault Action Descriptions..........................................45
Fault List Definitions .................................................46
Table a. MI-04 Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash
Codes)......................................................................48

CHAPTER 6 MI-04 ELECTRICAL


CONNECTIONS

Resistance Checks...................................................62
Voltage Checks ........................................................63

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 5 Table of Contents


CHAPTER 7 N2001 PRESSURE
REGULATOR /CONVERTER

Removal and Installation of N2001 LP


Regulator/Converter................................................. 64
Hose Connections.................................................... 65
N2001 Removal Steps: ............................................ 66
N2001 Regulator Disassembly Steps: ..................... 67
N2001 Disassembled Service.................................. 69

CHAPTER 8 N-CA55-500TR AIR/FUEL


MIXER

Removal and Installation of the N-CA55-500TR


Mixer ........................................................................ 70
N-CA55-500TR Mixer Removal Steps: .................... 71
N-CA55-500TR Disassembly and Service ............... 72
N-CA55-500TR Disassembled Service.................... 74
Installing the Mixer/Throttle Assembly ..................... 75

CHAPTER 9 TEST AND ADJUSTMENTS

N2001 Service Testing ............................................. 78


Primary Stage Test Hardware .................................. 79
Primary Stage Pressure Test.................................... 79
N-CA55-500TR Service AVV (Air Valve Vacuum)
Testing...................................................................... 81
Ignition Timing Adjustment ....................................... 82
Idle Mixture Adjustment............................................ 85

CHAPTER 10 SERVICE TOOL KIT

Service Tool Kit ........................................................ 87

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 6 Table of Contents


WORKING WITH LPG NOTE
EQUIPMENT
NFPA (National Fire Protection Agency) 58 covers the
procedures for storage and garaging for repair
purposes, on propane powered equipment.
WARNING

Propane Vapor is heavier than air and can collect in CAUTION


low areas when adequate ventilation or air movement
is not present to disperse it. Never check for leaks Safety is an important consideration for any repair
with a flame or match. Use a leak detector solution or facility, and repairing LPG fueled machinery is no
an electronic detector. Make sure the container exception. Refer to the NFPA (National Fire
service valve is closed when connecting or Protection Agency) for the appropriate fire
disconnecting. If the container service valve does not extinguisher specifications and fluorescent lighting
operate properly, discontinue use and contact your requirements.
propane supplier. Never insert any object into the
pressure relief valve. Propane has a heavier than air vapor density and will
fall if a leak occurs, while natural gas, by comparison,
will rise in the event of a leak (Figure 1).
WARNING This is an important property that technicians need to
be aware of when performing maintenance. When
LP gas is highly flammable. To prevent personal injury, repairing propane machinery, the work should be
keep fire and flammable materials away from the lift performed in the lowest point of the facility where
truck when work is done on the fuel system. possible. The tank supply should be shut off, except
Gas vapor may reduce oxygen available for breathing, when required for running equipment.
cause headache, nausea, dizziness and
unconsciousness and lead to injury or death. Always
operate the forklift in a well ventilated area
Liquid propane may cause freezing of tissue or
frostbite. Avoid direct contact with skin or tissue;
always wear appropriate safety protection including
gloves and safety glasses when working with liquid
propane.
Diesel

CAUTION CNG

The regulator/converter and mixer are part of a Figure 1 LPG


certified system complying with EPA and CARB 2004
requirements. Only trained certified technicians
should perform disassemble, service or replacement
of the regulator/converter or mixer.

CAUTION

LPG fueled machinery may be garaged anywhere


gasoline powered vehicles are garaged. When
machines are stored for a long period, it is advisable
to shut off the tank supply valve and run the machine
until the fuel trapped down stream of the valve is
depleted.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 7 Working with LPG Equipment


CHAPTER 0 LPG AND LPG FUEL TANKS
The same principle is applied to LPG in a container,
LPG Fuel Supply commonly referred to as an LPG tank or cylinder.
Typically an LPG tank is not filled over 80% capacity
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of allowing for a 20% vapor expansion space. Outside
propane, propylene, butane, and butylenes in various air temperature effects an LPG tank and must be
mixtures. LPG is produced as a by-product of natural considered when using an LPG system. (Figure 2)
gas processing or it can be obtained from crude oil as shows the relationship between pressure and
part of the oil refining process. LPG, like gasoline, is a temperature in a LPG tank at a steady state condition.
compound of hydrogen and carbon, commonly called
hydrocarbons.
LPG Tank Pressure VS Temperature
In its natural state, propane is colorless and odorless; 300

an odorant (ethyl mercaptan) is added to the fuel so 250


its presence can be detected. There are currently
three grades of propane available in the United States. 200

Pressure, psig
A propane grade designation of HD5 (not exceeding 150
5% propylene), is used for internal combustion
100
engines while much higher levels of propylene
(HD10) are used as commercial grade propane along 50

with a commercial propane /butane mixture. 0


-20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Figure 2 Temperature, deg F

APPROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF HD5


With 128 PSIG vapor pressure acting against the
PROPANE BY VOLUME liquid propane the boiling point has been raised to
slightly more than 80 deg. F / 27 deg. C.
Propane Propy Butane Iso- Methane
TOTAL
(C3H8) lene (C4H10) Butane (CH4)

90.0%
5% max. 2.0% 1.5% 1.5% 100%
min. Compressed
Vapor
An advantage of LPG is the ability to safely store and 128 PSIG Liquid
transport the product in the liquid state. In the liquid Propane
state propane is approximately 270 times as dense
as it is in a gaseous form. By pressurizing a container
of LPG we can effectively raise the boiling point
above 44 deg. C / -42 deg. C, keeping the propane LPG Tank
in liquid form. The point at which the liquid becomes a
Figure 3
gas (boiling point) depends on the amount of
pressure applied to the container.
NOTE
This process operates similarly to an engine coolant Vapor pressure inside an LPG tank
system where water is kept from boiling by depends on the ambient air temperature
pressurizing the system and adding a mixture of outside the tank, not the amount of liquid
glycol. For example water at normal atmospheric inside the tank. A tank that is full of
pressure will boil at 212 deg. F / 100 deg. C. If an liquid propane at 80 deg. F will contain
engines operating temperature is approximately 230 the same vapor pressure as a tank that is
deg. F / 110 deg. C, then the water in an open un- only full of liquid propane.
pressurized cooling system would simply boil off into
steam, eventually leaving the cooling system empty LPGs relative ease of vaporization makes it an
and over heating the engine. If we install a 10 PSIG excellent fuel for low-rpm engines on start-and-stop
cap on the radiator, pressurizing the cooling system operations. The more readily a fuel vaporizes the
to 10 PSIG, the boiling point of the water increases to more complete combustion will be.
242 deg. F / 117 deg. C, which will cause the water to Because propane has a low boiling point (-44F), and
remain in liquid state at the engines operating is a low carbon fuel, engine life can be extended due
temperature. to less cylinder wall wash down and little, if any,
carbon build up.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 8 LPG and LPG Fuel Tanks


LPG Fuel Tanks Installing LPG Fuel Tanks
The two styles of LPG storage containers available When installing a tank on a lift truck, the tank must be
for industrial use and lift truck applications are within the outline of the vehicle to prevent damage to
portable universal cylinders and permanently the valves when maneuvering in tight spaces.
mounted tanks. Portable universal cylinders are used Horizontal tanks must be installed on the saddle that
primarily for off-highway vehicles and are constructed contains an alignment pin, which matches the hole in
in accordance with the DOT-TC (United States the collar of the tank. When the pin is in the hole, the
Department of Transport Transport Canada). The liquid withdrawal tube is positioned to the bottom of
cylinders are referred to as universal because they the tank. A common problem is that often these
can be mounted in either a vertical or horizontal guide-pins are broken off, allowing the tank to be
position (Figure 4). mounted in any position. This creates two problems.
1). When the liquid withdrawal tube is exposed to the
vapor space, it may give a false indication that the
tank is empty, when it actually is not. 2). The safety
relief valve may be immersed in liquid fuel. If for any
reason the valve has to vent, venting liquid can cause
a serious safety problem,

CAUTION
When empty, the tank is exchanged with a
pre-filled replacement tank. When
exchanging a tank, safety glasses and
gloves should be worn.
Figure 4

NOTE
A 375-psig, relief valve is used on a DOT
forklift tank. The relief valve must be
replaced with a new valve after the first 12
years and every 10 years thereafter.

The tank must be discarded if the collar is damaged


to the point that it can no longer protect the valves. It
must also be replaced if the foot ring is bent to the
point where the tank will not stand or is easily
knocked over.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 9 LPG and LPG Fuel Tanks


LPG Fuel Tank Components Service Valve
The service valve is a manually operated valve using
a small hand wheel to open and close the fuel supply
2 3 7 8 to the service line (fuel supply line). The service valve
9 installs directly into the tank and has two main
1 categories, liquid and vapor service valves. Liquid
service valves used on portable LPG tanks use a 3/8
(3/8 NPT) male pipe thread on the service valve
outlet for attachment of a quick disconnect coupler.

4 An excess flow valve is built into the inlet side of the


6 12 10
11 service valve as a safety device in case of an
5
Figure 5 accidental opening of the service line or damage to
the service valve itself. The excess flow valve shuts
(1) Fuel Gauge (2) 80% Stop Bleeder off the flow of liquid propane if the flow rate of the
(3) Pressure Relief Valve liquid propane exceeds the maximum flow rate
(4) Service Valve (Tank end male coupling) (5) Filler Valve
(6) Alignment Pin
specified by the manufacturer.
(7) Vapor Withdrawal Tube (Only used with Vapor Withdrawal)
(8) 80% Limiter Tube (9) Liquid Withdrawal Tube
(10) Foot Ring (11) Fuel Level Float (12) Collar

Fuel Gauge
Outlet
In figure 5 a visual fuel gauge is used to show the fuel
level in the tank. A mechanical float mechanism
detects the liquid propane level. A magnet on the end
of the float shaft moves a magnetic pointer in the fuel Excess Flow
gauge. Some units have an electronic sending unit Valve
using a variable resistor, installed in place of a gauge Figure 6
for remote monitoring of the fuel level. The gauge
may be changed with fuel in the tank. DO NOT
REMOVE THE FOUR LARGE FLANGE BOLTS CAUTION
THAT RETAIN THE FLOAT ASSEMBLY, WITH When the tank is in use the service valve
FUEL IN THE TANK! should be completely open. If the valve is
partly open, the vehicle may not be
WARNING getting enough fuel to operate efficiently.
It is not a legal practice to fill the tank
through the liquid contents gauge. In addition to possibly starving the engine for fuel,
a partly open valve may restrict the flow enough
In some applications a fixed tube fuel indicator is
to prevent the excess flow valve from closing in
used in place of a float mechanism. A fixed tube
the event of a ruptured fuel line.
indicator does not use a gauge and only indicates
when the LPG tank is 80% full. The fixed tube
indicator is simply a normally closed valve that is Most liquid service valves have an internal hydrostatic
opened during refueling by the fueling attendant. relief valve and are usually labeled LIQUID WITH
When opened during refueling and the tanks LPG INTERNAL RELIEF. The hydrostatic relief valve
level is below 80%, a small amount of vapor will exit protects the fuel service line between the tank and
the valve. When the LPG tank level reaches 80% the lock off from over pressurization. The internal
liquid propane will begin exiting the valve in the form hydrostatic relief valve has a minimum opening
of a white mist (Always wear the appropriate pressure of 375 PSIG and a maximum pressure of
protective apparel when refueling LPG cylinders). In 500 PSIG. These type of relief valves have an
order for this type of gauge to be accurate, the tank advantage over external relief valves because the
must be positioned properly. When full (80% LPG) propane is returned to the tank in the event of an over
the valve is closed by turning the knurled knob pressurization instead of venting the propane to
clockwise. Typically a warning label surrounds the atmosphere.
fixed tube gauge which reads STOP FILLING WHEN
LIQUID APPEARS.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 10 LPG and LPG Fuel Tanks


Quick Disconnect Coupling Filler Valve
The liquid withdrawal or service valve on a DOT tank The liquid filler valve (Figure 9) has a male thread to
has male threads and accepts the female portion of a receive a fuel nozzle and typically has a plastic or
quick disconnect coupling (Figure 8). The female brass screw on cap that is retained with a small chain
portion is adapted to the liquid hose going to the fuel or plastic band to keep debris out of the filler valve.
system. Both halves are equipped with 100% shutoffs, The filler valve is a one-way flow device that uses two
which open when coupled together to allow fuel flow. check valves to allow fuel to enter the tank but
The coupler has two seals. One is an o-ring and the prevent it from exiting. Both check valves are
other is a flat washer. The o-ring prevents leakage backpressure type check valves, designed so that
from the shaft on the other coupling and the flat backpressure from the tank assists the check valves
washer seals when the coupler is fully connected. own spring pressure to close the valve. The first valve
uses a neoprene on metal seal and the second valve
NOTE uses a metal on metal seal.
The flat seal and/or the o-ring will
sometimes pop off when disconnecting A weakness ring is machined into the filler valve just
and slide up the shaft of the mating above the check valves and will allow the filler valve
connector, causing the valve not to open to shear off in case of an accident. The valve will
when fully mated. The extra washer or o- break or shear off above the check valves so that the
ring must be removed from the shaft and tank will be sealed and no liquid propane can escape.
the coupling reconnected.

Weakness
Ring

Figure 9
Figure 8

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 11 MI-04 System Overview


CHAPTER 1 ENGINE SPECIFICATION
Indication of Engine Serial Number

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 12 Engine Specification


Specifications(G420E)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
ENGINE TYPE: Water-cooled, Inline 4-Cycle, 4-Cylinders
Naturally Aspirated 1-Venturi Intake Manifold
COMBUSTION SYSTEM:
Semi-spherical Combustion chamber
EXHAUST SYSTEM: Cast Iron, Dry
VALVE CONFIGURATION: OHC, 2 Valves per Cylinder
DISPLACEMENT: 1,997 cc (122 CID)
BORE: 85 mm (3.35 in.)
STROKE: 88 mm (3.46 in.)
COMPRESSION RATIO: 8.5:1
COMPRESSION PRESSURE: 1,128 kPa (163.5 psi)
Intake Valve: 12 BTDC(Open)/ 40 ABDC(Close)
VALVE TIMING:
Exhaust Valve: 54 BBDC(Open)/ 6 ATDC(Close)
FIRING ORDER: 1-3-4-2
SPARK PLUGS: BPR5ES: 0.7-0.8 mm (0.028-0.031 in.) Air Gap
WEIGHT: 139 Kg (306 lbs.), Dry
ROTATION: Counter-Clockwise (CCW) when viewed from Flywheel End
FUELTYPE: LPG
GOVERNED SPEED: 2400 +/- 25 RPM
IDLE RPM: 700 +/- 25 RPM
IGNITIOIN TIMING: Electronic controlled by ECM
LP FUEL SYSTEM
MIXER: Piston Type Air Valve Assembly inside, Downdraft
REGULATOR: Two-Stage Negative Pressure Regulator
FUEL FILTRATION: 40 Microns Maximum
COOLING SYSTEM
WATER PUMP ROTATION: V-Belt Drive - Clockwise (CW) when viewed from engine front
Opening Temperature: 82C (180F)
THERMOSTAT:
Fully Open Temperature: 95C (203F)
COOLING WATER CAPACITY 3.1 L (block only)
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
450 kPa (65 psi) @ Hi Idle
OIL PRESSURE:
50 kPa (7 psi) @ Low Idle
Upper Limit: 125C (257F)
OIL TEMPERATURE: Recommended: 99 - 110C (210 - 230F)
Lower Limit: 80C (176F)
CRANKCASE CAPACITY: 3.7 L
OIL FILTER: 0.3 L
ENGINE OIL SPECIFICATION: API - SJ, SAE 10W30 or SAE 5W30
ENGINE ELECTRICAL
IGNITION TYPE: Electronic Advanced by ECM
IGNITION COIL: 12 V operation volt, Ignition driver circuitry inside
DISTRIBUTOR: Mitsubishi Distributor
STARTER MOTOR: 12 Volt, 1.2 kW, Reduction drive
ALTERNATOR: 12 Volt, 61 Amp
ENGINE OIL PR. S/W: 24.5 kPa (3.6 psi)
ENGINE CONTROL MODULE(ECM): 12 V operation volt, 24 pins of I/O
VR SENSOR: Magnetic pick up sensor
TMAP: Intake Air Temp. & Manifold Absolute Press. Sensor
PEDAL ANGLE SENSOR: Two-Output Signals (Installed on Accelerator Pedal)
Heated Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor (HEGO)
OXYGEN SENSOR:
12 V operation volt
ECT-ECM: Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor for ECM
ECT-GAUGE Engine Coolant Temp. Sensor for GAUGE on Instrument Panel
TPS: Throttle Position Sensor (built in Throttle Body)
THROTTLE BODY: Electronic Throttle Body
FUEL TRIM VALVE (FTV): 12 V operation volt
LP FUEL LOCK-OFF: 12 V operation volt, ON/OFF Control by ECM
EXHAUST SYSTEM
CATALYTIC MUFFLER: Three-way Catalyst included

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 13 Engine Specification


Specifications(G424E)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
ENGINE TYPE: Water-cooled, Inline 4-Cycle, 4-Cylinders
Naturally Aspirated 1-Venturi Intake Manifold
COMBUSTION SYSTEM:
Semi-spherical Combustion chamber
EXHAUST SYSTEM: Cast Iron, Dry
VALVE CONFIGURATION: OHC, 2 Valves per Cylinder
DISPLACEMENT: 2,350 cc (143 CID)
BORE: 86.5 mm (3.41 in.)
STROKE: 100 mm (3.94 in.)
COMPRESSION RATIO: 8.6:1
COMPRESSION PRESSURE: 1,128 kPa (163.5 psi)
Intake Valve: 12 BTDC(Open)/ 40 ABDC(Close)
VALVE TIMING:
Exhaust Valve: 54 BBDC(Open)/ 6 ATDC(Close)
FIRING ORDER: 1-3-4-2
SPARK PLUGS: BPR5ES: 0.7-0.8 mm (0.028-0.031 in.) Air Gap
WEIGHT: 146 Kg (322 lbs.), Dry
ROTATION: Counter-Clockwise (CCW) when viewed from Flywheel End
FUELTYPE: LPG
GOVERNED SPEED: 2600 +/- 25 RPM
IDLE RPM: 700 +/- 25 RPM
IGNITIOIN TIMING: Electronic controlled by ECM
LP FUEL SYSTEM
MIXER: Piston Type Air Valve Assembly inside, Downdraft
REGULATOR: Two-Stage Negative Pressure Regulator
FUEL FILTRATION: 40 Microns Maximum
COOLING SYSTEM
WATER PUMP ROTATION: V-Belt Drive - Clockwise (CW) when viewed from engine front
Opening Temperature: 82C (180F)
THERMOSTAT:
Fully Open Temperature: 95C (203F)
COOLING WATER CAPACITY: 3.1 L (block only)
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
OIL PRESSURE: 50 kPa (7 psi) @ Low Idle 450 kPa (65 psi) @ Hi Idle
Upper Limit: 125C (257F)
OIL TEMPERATURE: Recommended: 99 - 110C (210 - 230F)
Lower Limit: 80C (176F)
CRANKCASE CAPACITY: 3.7 L
OIL FILTER: 0.3 L
ENGINE OIL SPECIFICATION: API - SJ, SAE 10W30 or SAE 5W30
ENGINE ELECTRICAL
IGNITION TYPE: Electronic Advanced by ECM
IGNITION COIL: 12 V operation volt, Ignition driver circuitry inside
DISTRIBUTOR: Mitsubishi Distributor
STARTER MOTOR: 12 Volt, 1.2 kW, Reduction drive
ALTERNATOR: 12 Volt, 61 Amp
ENGINE OIL PR. S/W: 24.5 kPa (3.6 psi)
ENGINE CONTROL MODULE(ECM): 12 V operation volt, 24 pins of I/O
VR SENSOR: Magnetic pick up sensor
TMAP: Intake Air Temp. & Manifold Absolute Press. Sensor
PEDAL ANGLE SENSOR: Two-Output Signals (Installed on Accelerator Pedal)
OXYGEN SENSOR: Heated Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor (HEGO) 12 V operation volt
ECT-ECM: Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor for ECM
ECT-GAUGE Engine Coolant Temp. Sensor for GAUGE on Instrument Panel
TPS: Throttle Position Sensor (built in Throttle Body)
THROTTLE BODY: Electronic Throttle Body
FUEL TRIM VALVE (FTV): 12 V operation volt
LP FUEL LOCK-OFF: 12 V operation volt, ON/OFF Control by ECM
EXHAUST SYSTEM
CATALYTIC MUFFLER: Three-way Catalyst included

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 14 Engine Specification


CHAPTER 2 MI-04 LPG SYSTEM OPERATIONAL
OVERVIEW

MI-04 General Description


MI-04 control system is designed to provide a complete, fully integrated solution that will meet or exceed TIER-2
Large Spark Ignited Engines emission standards established by the California Air Research Board (CARB) and the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for 2004. The MI-04 is a closed loop system utilizing a catalytic muffler to
reduce the emission level in the exhaust gas. In order to obtain maximum effect from the catalyst, an accurate
control of the air fuel ratio is required. A small engine control module (SECM) uses a heated exhaust gas oxygen
sensor (HEGO) in the exhaust system to monitor exhaust gas content.

MI-04 System with the N-CA55-500 Mixer

Fuel Filter
Fault Light

LP Fuel Line
Key switch
Fuel Lock
Main
Accel Pedal PWR
APP
Relay Converter
Vacuum Line

Air Cleaner Coolant Line Fuel Trim Valve

Mixer
DBW Throttle TPS
TMAP SECM
Oxygen

Engine Distributor
Catalytic
Muffler
VR Sensor

Coolant Temp Sensor

Figure 10

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 15 System Operational Overview


The SECM makes any necessary corrections to the air fuel ratio by controlling the inlet fuel pressure to the air/fuel
mixer by modulating the fuel trim valve (FTV) connected to the regulator. Reducing the fuel pressure leans the
air/fuel mixture and increasing the fuel pressure enriches the air/fuel mixture. To calculate any necessary
corrections to the air fuel ratio, the SECM uses a number of different sensors to gain information about the engines
performance. Engine speed is monitored by the SECM through a variable reluctance (VR) sensor. Intake manifold
air temperature and absolute pressure is monitored with a (TMAP) sensor. The MI-04 is a drive by wire (DBW)
system connecting the accelerator pedal to the electronic throttle through the electrical harness, mechanical
cables are not used. A throttle position sensor (TPS) monitors throttle position in relation to the accelerator pedal
position sensor (APP) feedback. Even engine coolant temperature is monitored by the SECM. The SECM
controller has full adaptive learning capabilities, allowing it to adapt control function as operating conditions change.
Factors such as ambient temperature, fuel variations, ignition component wear, clogged air filter, and other
operating variables are compensated.

Open Loop LP Fuel System

Fuel LP LP Engine
Governor Muffler
Lock-Off Converter Mixer

G420/G424 Open Loop LP Fuel System

MI-04 Closed Loop LP Fuel System

VR
Sensor

Coolant
Sensor Small
Engine
TMAP Control
Sensor Module
Acceleration (SECM)
pedal
Angle
Oxygen Fuel Trim
Sensor Smart Coil
Sensor Valve

Fuel LP LP Electronic Engine Catalytic


Lock-Off Converter Mixer Throttle Muffler

G420E/G424E Closed Loop LP Fuel System

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 16 System Operational Overview


MI-04 LP Fuel Filter MI-04 Fuel Lock-Off (Electric)

Figure 11 Figure 12

After exiting the fuel tank, liquid propane passes The fuel lock-off is a safety shutoff valve, normally
through a serviceable inline fuel filter to the electric held closed by spring pressure, which is operated by
fuel lock off. (Figure 11) shows a typical inline type LP an electric solenoid and prevents fuel flow to the
fuel filter manufactured by Century. The primary regulator/converter when the engine is not in
operation. This is the first of three safety locks in the
function of the fuel filter is to remove particles and
MI-04 system. (Figure 12) shows the electric fuel lock
sediments that have found their way into the tank.
assembly.
The LP fuel filter will not remove heavy end solids
and paraffins that build up in LPG fuel systems as a In the MI-04 design, power is supplied to the fuel
result of vaporization. lock-off with the SECM controlling the lock-off ground
(earth) connection. The lock-off remains in a normally
closed (NC) position until the key switch is activated,
this supplies power to the lock-off and the SECM but
will not open the lock-off until the SECM provides the
lock-off ground connection. This design gives the
SECM full control of the lock-off while providing
additional safety by closing the fuel lock-off in the
unlikely event of a power failure, wiring failure or
module failure.

When the liquid service valve in the fuel container is


opened liquid propane flows through the LP filter and
through the service line to the fuel lock-off. Liquid
propane enters the lock-off through the NPT liquid
inlet port and stops with the lock-off in the normally
closed position. When the engine is cranked over the
main power relay applies power to the lock-off and
the SECM provides the lock-off ground causing
current to flow through the windings of the solenoid
creating a magnetic field. The strength of this
magnetic field is sufficient to lift the lock-off valve off
of its seat against spring pressure. When the valve is
open liquid propane, at tank pressure, flows through
the lock-off outlet to the pressure regulator/converter.
A stall safety shutoff feature is built into the SECM to
close the lock-off in case of a stall condition. The
SECM monitors three engine states. Crank, when the
VR sensor detects any engine revolutions. Stall, when
the key is in the ON position but the VR sensor
detects no engine revolutions, and the Run state,
when the engine reaches pre-idle RPM. When an
operator turns on the key switch the lock-off is
opened but if the operator fails to crank the engine,
the SECM will close the lock-off after 5 seconds.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 17 System Operational Overview


MI-04 N-2001 N-2001
Heat Transfer
Regulator/Converter Chamber

Coolant
Passage

Figure 14

(Figure 14) shows the heat chamber and the coolant


passage in the N-2001.
Figure 13

After passing through the electric fuel lock-off, liquid


propane enters the N-2001 regulator/converter
(Figure 13). The N-2001 functions as a fuel vaporizer,
converting liquid propane to vapor propane and as a
two-stage negative pressure regulator, supplying the
correct vapor propane fuel pressure to the mixer.

The regulator is normally closed requiring a vacuum


signal (negative pressure) to allow fuel to flow. This is
the second of three safety locks in the MI-04 system.
If the engine stops, vacuum signal stops and fuel flow
will automatically stop when both the secondary (2nd
stage) valve and the primary (1st stage) valve closes.
Unlike most other regulator/converters, the N-2001
primary valve closes with fuel pressure rather than
against pressure, extending primary seat life and
adding additional safety.

Liquid propane must be converted into a gaseous


form in order to be used as a fuel for the engine.
When the regulator receives the desired vacuum
signal it allows propane to flow to the mixer. As the
propane flows through the regulator the pressure is
reduced in two stages from tank pressure to slightly
less than atmospheric pressure. As the pressure of
the propane is reduced the liquid propane vaporizes
and refrigeration occurs inside the regulator due to
the large temperature drop inside the regulator from
the vaporization of liquid propane. To replace heat
lost to vaporization, engine coolant is supplied by the
engine driven water pump and pumped through the
regulator. Heat provided by this coolant is transferred
through to the fuel vaporization chamber.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 18 System Operational Overview


N-2001 Theory of Operation

N-2001
Cutaway View

7 8

6 5

9
4

1 3
2

Figure 15

Liquid propane, at tank pressure, enters the N-2001 signal (vacuum) travels through the vapor fuel outlet
through the fuel inlet port (1). Propane liquid then connection of the regulator (9), which is the regulator
flows through the primary valve (2). The primary valve secondary chamber, and the vapor fuel inlet of the
located at the inlet of the expansion chamber (3), is mixer. The negative pressure in the secondary
controlled by the primary diaphragm (4), which reacts chamber causes a pressure/force imbalance on the
to vapor pressure inside the expansion chamber. Two secondary diaphragm, which overcomes the
springs are used to apply force on the primary secondary spring force, opening the secondary valve
diaphragm in the primary diaphragm chamber (5), and allowing vapor propane to flow out of the
keeping the primary valve open when no fuel expansion chamber, through the secondary chamber
pressure is present. to the mixer.
A small port connects the expansion chamber to the
primary diaphragm chamber. At the outlet of the Because vapor propane has now left the expansion
expansion chamber is the secondary valve (6). The chamber, the pressure in the chamber will drop,
secondary valve is held close by the secondary causing the primary diaphragm spring force to re-
spring on the secondary valve lever (7). The open the primary valve allowing liquid propane to
secondary diaphragm controls the secondary lever. enter the regulator, and the entire process starts
When the pressure in the expansion chamber again. This creates a balanced condition between the
reaches 1.5 psi it causes a pressure/force imbalance primary and secondary chambers allowing for a
across the primary diaphragm (8). This force is constant flow of fuel to the mixer as long as the
greater than the primary diaphragm spring pressure demand from the engine is present. The fuel flow is
and will cause the diaphragm to close the primary maintained at a constant output pressure, due to the
valve. calibrated secondary spring. The amount of fuel
flowing will vary depending on how far the secondary
Since the fuel pressure has been reduced from tank valve opens in response to the negative pressure
pressure to 1.5 psi the liquid propane vaporizes. As signal generated by the air/fuel mixer. The strength of
the propane vaporizes it takes on heat from the that negative pressure signal developed by the mixer
expansion chamber. This heat is replaced by engine is directly related to the amount of air flowing through
coolant, which is pumped through the coolant the mixer into the engine. With this process, the
passage of the regulator. At this point vapor propane larger the quantity of air flowing into the engine, the
will not flow past the expansion chamber of the larger the amount of fuel flowing to the mixer.
regulator until the secondary valve is opened. To
open the secondary valve a negative pressure signal
must be received from the air/fuel mixer. When the
engine is cranking or running a negative pressure

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 19 System Operational Overview


MI-04 N-CA55-500TR Mixer N-CA55-500-TR Air/Fuel Mixer
Vapor propane fuel is supplied to the N-CA55-500TR
Theory of Operation
mixer by the N-2001 pressure regulator/converter.
The N-CA55-500TR mixer uses a piston type air
valve assembly to operate a gas-metering valve 1
inside the mixer. The gas-metering valve is normally
closed, requiring a negative pressure (vacuum) signal 4
from a cranking or running engine to open. This is the 2
3
third of the three safety locks in the MI-04 system. If 6 5
the engine stops or is turned off, the air valve
assembly closes the gas-metering valve, stopping
fuel flow past the mixer. The gas-metering valve
7
controls the amount of fuel to be mixed with the
incoming air at the proper ratio. The air/fuel mixture
then travels past the throttle, through the intake Figure 17
manifold and into the engine cylinders where it is
compressed, ignited and burned.
View of Venturi Air
Valve Piston Air Intake

Gas-Metering
Valve open
Figure 18

Figure 16 The air/fuel mixer is mounted in the intake air stream


between the air cleaner and the throttle. The design
of the main body incorporates a cylindrical bore or
(Figure 16) shows the N-CA55-500TR mixer installed
mixer bore, fuel inlet (1) and a gas discharge jet (2).
with the electronic throttle.
In the center of the main body is the air valve
assembly, which is made up of the piston air valve (3),
the gas-metering valve (4), and air valve sealing ring
(5), air valve spring (6) and the check valve plate (7).
The gas-metering valve is permanently mounted to
the piston air valve with a face seal mounted between
the two parts.

When the engine is not running this face seal creates


a seal against the gas discharge jet, preventing fuel
flow with the aid (upward force) of the air valve spring.
The outer surface of the piston air valve forms the
venturi section of the mixer while the inner portion of
the piston is hollow and forms the air valve vacuum
chamber. The check valve plate seals off the bottom
of the air valve vacuum (AVV) chamber and the air
valve sealing ring seals the top portion of the AVV
chamber as the piston moves against the air valve
spring.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 20 System Operational Overview


When the engine is cranked over it begins to draw in
N-CA55-500TR
air, creating a negative pressure signal. This negative
pressure signal is transmitted through a port in the Air
Intake
check valve plate to the AVV chamber. A
pressure/force imbalance begins to build across the Idle Mixture
air valve piston between the AVV chamber (below the Adjustment
piston) and atmospheric pressure above the piston. Screw
Approximately 6 W.C. (Water Column) of negative
pressure is required to overcome the air valve spring
force and push the air valve assembly (piston) Electronic
downward off the valve seat. Approximately 24 W.C. Throttle
pushes the valve assembly to the bottom of its travel Figure 19
in the full open position.
A main mixture adjustment valve on the fuel inlet of
The amount of negative pressure generated is a the N-CA55-500TR is not used in the MI-04 system,
direct result of throttle position and the amount of air however an idle mixture adjustment is incorporated
flowing through the mixer to the engine. At low engine into the mixer (Figure 19).The idle mixture adjustment
speeds, low AVV causes the piston air valve to move is an air bypass port, adjusting the screw all the way
downward a small amount, creating a small venturi. in, blocks off the port and enriches the idle mixture.
At high engine speeds, high AVV causes the air valve Backing out the idle adjustment screw opens the port
piston to move much farther creating a large venturi. and leans the idle mixture. The idle mixture screw is a
The variable venturi air/fuel mixer constantly matches nylon type screw that is factory set with a tamper
venturi size to engine demand. To prevent engine resistant cap installed after adjustment. Accurate
reversion pulses, commonly encountered in small adjustment of the idle mixture can only be
displacement engines, from having an effect on the accomplished by adjusting for a specific fuel trim
piston AVV chamber, a check valve is incorporated on valve (FTV) duty cycle with the service tool software,
the check valve plate control port to the AVV chamber. and should be only be adjusted by trained service
The check valve is held open with gravity and technicians.
remains open with any negative pressure signal from
the engine. If a reverse pressure pulse, caused by
engine reversion, travels up the intake manifold
toward the mixer it will close the check valve for the
duration of the pulse, preventing the pulse from
entering the AVV chamber.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 21 System Operational Overview


The SECM calculates the correct throttle valve
MI-04 Electronic Throttle opening that corresponds to the drivers demand,
makes any adjustments needed for adaptation to the
Conventional throttle systems rely on mechanical
engines current operating conditions and then
linkage to control the throttle valve. To meet
generates a corresponding electrical (driver) signal to
fluctuating engine demands a conventional system
the throttle-valve actuator.
will typically include throttle valve actuators designed
to readjust the throttle valve opening in response to
There are multiple limp-home modes available with
engine demand, together with idle control actuators or
ETC. 1. If the throttle itself is suspected of being
idle air bypass valves.
inoperable, the SECM will remove the power to the
throttle motor. When the power is removed, the
throttle blade returns to its default position,
approximately 7% open. 2. If the SECM can still
control the throttle but some other part of the system
is suspected of failure, the SECM will enter a
Reduced Power mode. In this mode, the power
output of the engine is limited by reducing the
maximum throttle position allowed. 3. In some cases,
the SECM will shut the engine down. This is
accomplished by stopping ignition, turning off the fuel,
and disabling the throttle.

Figure 20 In place of a dual TPS design (TPS1 and TPS2), the


SECM calculates correct throttle position (Predicted
TPS) based on RPM and MAP and compares this to
In contrast, the MI-04 system uses electronic throttle
the actual throttle position, based on TPS1. The
control (ETC). The SECM controls the throttle valve
SECM continuously checks and monitors all sensors
based on engine RPM, engine load, and information
and calculations that effect throttle valve position
received from the Acceleration Pedal. Two mutually
whenever the engine is running. If any malfunctions
opposed potentiometers on the Acceleration Pedal
are encountered, the SECMs initial response is to
assembly monitor accelerator pedal travel. The
revert to redundant sensors and calculated data. If no
electronic throttle used in the MI-04 system is a
redundant signal is available or calculated data
Bosch 32mm Electronic Throttle Body DV-E5 (Figure
cannot solve the malfunction, the SECM will drive the
20). The DV-E5 is a single unit assembly, which
system into one of its limp-home modes or shut the
includes the throttle valve, throttle-valve actuator (DC
engine down, storing the appropriate fault information
motor) and the throttle position sensor (TPS) (Figure
in the SECM.
21).

Throttle Plate

Gear Drive

DC Drive Motor

Bosch 32mm Electronic Throttle Body DV-E5


Figure 21 Picture courtesy of Robert Bosch GmbH

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 22 System Operational Overview


A branch-tee fitting is installed in the atmospheric
MI-04 Fuel Trim Valve vent port of the N2001 with one side of the branch-tee
connected to the intake side of the mixer forming the
balance line and referencing atmospheric pressure.
The other side of the branch-tee fitting connects to
the FTV inlet (small housing side). The FTV outlet
(large housing connector side) connects to the AVV
port. When the FTV is open AVV is sent to the
atmospheric side of the N2001 secondary diaphragm,
which lowers the reference pressure, closing the
N2001 secondary valve and leaning the air/fuel
mixture. The MI-04 system is calibrated to run rich
without the FTV. By modulating (pulsing) the FTV the
Fuel Trim Valve SECM can control the amount of AVV applied to the
N2001 secondary diaphragm. Increasing the amount
of times the FTV opens (modulation or duty cycle)
causes the air/fuel mixture to become leaner;
The Fuel Trim Valve (FTV) is a two-way electric
decreasing the modulation (duty cycle) enriches the
solenoid valve and is controlled by a pulse width
mixture.
modulated (PWM) signal provided by the SECM. The
FTV is used to bias the output fuel pressure on the
LPG regulator/converter (N-2001), by metering air
valve vacuum (AVV) into the atmospheric side of the
N-2001 secondary regulator diaphragm. An orifice
balance line connected to the air inlet side of the
mixer provides atmospheric reference to the N-2001 Balance Line
when the FTV is closed. The SECM uses feedback
FTV
voltage from the O2 sensor to determine the amount
of bias needed to the regulator/converter.

In normal operation the N2001 maintains fuel flow at


a constant output pressure, due to the calibrated
secondary spring. The amount of fuel flowing from the Figure 22
N2001 will vary depending on how far the secondary
diaphragm opens the secondary valve in response to
(Figure 22) shows the Fuel Trim Valve connected in
the negative pressure signal generated by the air/fuel
the MI-04 system.
mixer. One side of the N2001 secondary diaphragm is
referenced to atmospheric pressure while the other
side of the diaphragm reacts to the negative pressure
signal from the mixer. If the pressure on the
atmospheric side of the N2001 secondary diaphragm
is reduced, the diaphragm will close the secondary
valve until a balance condition exists across the
diaphragm, reducing fuel flow and leaning the air/fuel
mixture.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 23 System Operational Overview


The HEGO stoichiometric air/fuel ratio voltage target
Heated Exhaust Gas Oxygen is approximately 500mV and changes slightly as a
Sensor (HEGO) function of speed and load. When the HEGO sensor
sends a voltage signal less than 500mV the SECM
interprets the air/fuel mixture to be lean. The SECM
then decreases the duty cycle of the FTV lowering the
amount of air valve vacuum (AVV) acting on the
atmospheric side of the N2001 secondary diaphragm,
increasing the regulator vapor propane output to
richen the air/fuel mixture. The opposite is true if the
SECM receives a voltage signal above 500mV from
the HEGO. The air/fuel mixture would then be
interpreted as being too rich and the SECM would
increase the duty cycle of the FTV.

Figure 24 CAUTION
The HEGO sensor used is calibrated to
work with the MI-04 system. Using
The HEGO sensor (Figure 24) installed in the exhaust alternate sensors may impact drivability
manifold before the catalytic muffler is a basic and the ability of the system to diagnose
zirconium type oxygen sensor comprised of a hollow rich and lean conditions.
cone-shaped internal element made of zirconium
dioxide (ZrO2, a ceramic material), which is coated
with a thin layer of micro-porous platinum. The outer
layer is exposed to the exhaust stream, while the
inner layer is vented to the atmosphere and attached
to a wire that runs to the SECM. It operates like a
galvanic cell with the zirconium dioxide acting as the
electrolyte and the platinum layers serving as
electrodes. Once the ZrO2 reaches approximately
600 deg. F., it becomes electrically conductive and
attracts negatively charged ions of oxygen. These
ions collect on the inner and outer platinum surfaces.
Naturally, there's more oxygen in plain air than in
exhaust, so the inner electrode will always collect
more ions than the outer electrode, and this causes a
voltage potential for electrons to flow. The
concentration of oxygen in the exhaust stream
determines the number of ions on the outer electrode,
hence the amount of voltage produced. If the engine
is running rich, little oxygen will be present in the
exhaust, few ions will attach to the outer electrode,
and voltage output will be relatively high. In a lean
situation, more oxygen will be present, and that
translates into more ions on the outer electrode, a
smaller electrical potential, and less voltage. In order
for the sensor to conduct and create an electrical
signal below 600 deg. F., a heated element is added
to the sensor housing. Two wires provide the
necessary 12VDC and ground signal for the heater
element. A fourth wire provides an independent
ground for the sensor.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 24 System Operational Overview


MI-04 SECM MI-04 SECM
(General Description) (Fuel Management)
The Woodward Small Engine Control Module (SECM) During engine cranking at startup, the SECM
controller has full authority over spark, fuel and air. provides a low side driver signal to the fuel lock-off,
Utilizing Motorolas HCS12 micro controller, the which opens the lock-off allowing liquid propane to
SECM has 24 pins of I/O and is fully waterproof and flow to the N2001 regulator. A stall safety shutoff
shock hardened (Figure 23). To optimize engine feature is built into the SECM to close the lock-off in
performance and drivability, the SECM uses several case of a stall condition. The SECM monitors three
sensors for closed loop feedback information. engine states. Crank, when the VR sensor detects
These sensors are used by the SECM for closed loop any engine revolutions. Stall, when the key is in the
control in three main categories: ON position but the VR sensor detects no engine
z Fuel Management revolutions, and the Run state, when the engine
z Load/Speed Management reaches pre-idle RPM. When an operator turns on the
z Ignition Management key switch the lock-off is opened but if the operator
fails to crank the engine, the SECM will close the
lock-off after 5 seconds.

To maintain proper exhaust emission levels, the


SECM uses a heated exhaust gas oxygen sensor
SECM (HEGO) mounted before the catalyst, to measure
exhaust gas content in the LP gas system. Engine
speed is monitored by the SECM through a variable
reluctance (VR) sensor. Intake manifold air
temperature and absolute pressure is monitored with
a (TMAP) sensor. The HEGO voltage is converted to
an air fuel ratio value. This value is then compared to
Figure 23 a target value in the SECM. The target value is based
on optimizing catalyst efficiency for a given load and
speed. The SECM then calculates any corrections
The SECM monitors system parameters and stores that need to be made to the air fuel ratio.
any out of range conditions or malfunctions as faults
in SECM memory. Engine run hours are also stored The system operates in open loop fuel control until
in memory. Stored fault codes can be displayed on the engine has done a certain amount of work. This
the Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL) as flash codes or ensures that the engine and HEGO are sufficiently
read by the MI-04 Service Tool software through a warmed up to stay in control. In open loop control, the
CAN (Controller Area Network) communication link. FTV duty cycle is based on engine speed and load.
Once the HEGO reaches operating temperature the
Battery power (12 VDC) is supplied through the fuse fuel management is in closed loop control for all
block to the main power relay. The ignition key switch steady state conditions, from idle through full throttle.
is used to energize the main power relay. A main In closed loop mode, the FTV duty cycle is based on
power relay supplies 12 VDC power to the SECM, the feedback from the HEGO sensor. In order to handle
heated element of the oxygen sensor, Fuel Lock-Off, transient loads, engine RPM and load is compared to
Fuel Trim Valve (FTV) and the Smart Coil. The SECM a threshold used by the SECM. When this threshold
supplies positive voltage to the electronic throttle is exceeded, the FTV duty cycle will be set to a Feed
actuator, oil pressure switch and the coolant Forward Adaptive value.
temperature sensor. Transducer or sensor power (+5
VDC) is regulated by the SECM and supplied to the The SECM then makes any necessary corrections to
Temperature/Manifold Air Pressure Sensor (TMAP), the air fuel ratio by controlling the inlet fuel pressure
Throttle Position Sensor (TPS), and the Accelerator to the air/fuel mixer Reducing the fuel pressure leans
Pedal Position Sensors (APP1 & APP2). The SECM the air/fuel mixture and increasing the fuel pressure
provides a constant voltage (VCC) to the Smart Coil enriches the air/fuel mixture. Control is achieved by
Driver, transducer ground for the all sensors, and a modulating the fuel trim
low side driver signal controlling the fuel lock-off, MIL
and FTV.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 25 System Operational Overview


Catalytic Muffler As exhaust and catalyst temperatures rise the
following reaction occurs:
All exhaust gases pass through a catalyst that is z Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are reduced into simple
mounted in the catalytic muffler. It filters the harmful nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
gases through a dense honeycomb structure coated z Hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO)
with precious metals such as platinum, palladium, are oxidized to create water (H2O) and carbon
and rhodium. Chemical reactions occur on these dioxide (CO2).
surfaces to convert the pollutants into less harmful
gases. Catalysts store oxygen on lean mixtures (less
than optimal amount of fuel) and release oxygen on
rich mixtures (more than optimal amount of fuel). The
primary pollutant produced on the lean swing is
nitrous oxide. Oxygen is removed from nitrous oxide
by the converter, resulting in nitrogen gas, a harmless Catalyst
Efficiency
emission. On the rich cycle, the primary pollutant is
carbon monoxide. By adding the oxygen that was
stored on the lean cycle to the carbon monoxide, Operational
carbon dioxide is produced. Range of
Converter

Inside the catalytic muffler is a three-way catalyst as Richer Air Fuel Ratio Leaner
well as sound dampening and spark arresting
features. The three-way catalyst section consists of a
honeycomb coated with a mixture of platinum, The third stage is the MI-04 control system that
palladium and rhodium. As engine exhaust gases monitors the exhaust stream, and uses this
flow through the converter passageways, they contact information to control the air/fuel mixture. By using
the coated surface, which initiate the catalytic process. the signal from the HEGO the SECM can increase or
The reduction catalyst is the first stage of the decrease the amount of oxygen in the exhaust by
catalytic converter. It uses platinum and rhodium to modulating the FTV and adjusting the air/fuel ratio.
help reduce the NOx emissions. The oxidation This control scheme allows the SECM to make sure
catalyst is the second stage of the catalytic converter. that the engine is running at close to the
It reduces the unburned hydrocarbons and carbon stoichiometric point, and also to make sure that there
monoxide by burning (oxidizing) them over a platinum is enough oxygen in the exhaust to allow the
and palladium catalyst. Cerium is also used to oxidization catalyst to burn the unburned
promote oxygen storage and improve oxidation hydrocarbons and CO.
efficiency.

Oxidation and Reduction Process

Reduction:
NOx, CO > N2 + CO2
Oxidation:
HC, CO, O2 > H2O + CO2

3-Way Catalytic
Muffler
Figure 25

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 26 System Operational Overview


NOTE
MI-04 SECM The DV-E5 is not a serviceable assembly.
(Load/Speed Management) If the TPS sensor fails, the assembly
should be replaced.
Drive by wire refers to the fact that the MI-04 control
system has no throttle cable from the Acceleration
Pedal (Figure 26) to the throttle body. Instead, the
SECM is electronically connected both to the
Acceleration Pedal assembly and the throttle body.
The SECM monitors the Acceleration Pedal position
and controls the throttle plate by driving a dc motor
connected to the throttle. The dc motor actuates the
throttle plate to correspond to the Acceleration Pedal
position when the operator depresses the pedal.
The use of electronic throttle control (ETC) ensures
that the engine only receives the correct amount of
throttle opening for any given situation, greatly Figure 27
improving idle quality and drivability.

Figure 26 Figure 28

SECM self-calibration and cross checking of the


TPS is accomplished by comparing the TPS signal to
a calculated throttle position in the SECM software
(Predicted TPS). In addition to the throttle position
sensor, a Temperature/Manifold Air Pressure Sensor
(TMAP) is used to monitor intake manifold
temperature and pressure (Figure 28). This enables
the SECM full control capabilities monitoring actual
airflow in relationship to desired airflow. The TMAP
sensor is a single unit incorporating both intake
manifold temperature and manifold pressure
measurement.

A Throttle Position Sensor (TPS), (Figure 27) which is


integral to the Drive By Wire (DBW) throttle assembly,
provides feedback for position control by monitoring
the exact position of the throttle valve.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 27 System Operational Overview


The MI-04 system also performs minimum (min) and
Acceleration
maximum (max) governing through the SECM and
Pedal
DBW throttle. For min governing, or idle speed control,
the idle speed is fixed by the SECM. Unlike a
mechanical system, the idle speed is not adjustable
by the end user. The idle speed is adjusted by the
SECM based on engine coolant temperature. At
these low engine speeds, the SECM uses spark and
throttle to maintain a constant speed regardless of APP2
load.

The MI-04 system eliminates the need for air velocity APP1
governors. This substantially increases the peak
torque and power available for a given system as
shown in (Figure 29). When the engine speed
reaches the max governing point the speed is
controlled by closing the DBW throttle. Using the
DBW throttle as the primary engine speed control
allows for a smooth transition into and out of the
governor. If speed exceeds this max governing point,
spark is interrupted to attempt to bring the speed APP 0-100%
Self Calibration
back to a point that can be controlled by throttle alone.
SECM 5msec Cross Check of
If over speed is detected multiple times, the engine is Update APP1 & APP2
shutdown. Rate

SystemPowerComparison

60.0
TPS TPSd
(Demand)
Power,hp(corrected)

40.0 DBW
Throttle

20.0


MI-4 System
Baselinesystem PID
0.0
1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000

RPM Figure 30

(Figure 30) describes the signal flow process of the


MI-04 DBW section. The Acceleration Pedal
assembly uses two potentiometers to detect pedal
SystemTorqueComparison
position. These two signals, accelerator pedal
140.0 position 1 (APP1) and accelerator pedal position 2
(APP2) are sent directly to the SECM. The SECM
Torque,ft-lb(corrected)

120.0

100.0
uses a series of algorithms to self calibrate and cross
80.0
check the signals from the pedal assembly. A demand
60.0
position for the throttle will then be derived and sent
40.0
to the throttle as a throttle position sensor demand
20.0
MI-4 System
Baselinesystem (TPSd). The signal will be processed through a PID
0.0
1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) controller in the
RPM
SECM to achieve the appropriate motor-current
response then passed to the throttle. The throttle
moves to the commanded position and provides a
feedback signal from the throttle position sensor
(TPS) to the SECM.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 28 System Operational Overview


MI-04 Ignition management SmartCoil

In the normal course of events, with the engine


operating at the correct temperature in defined
conditions, the SECM will use load and engine speed
to derive the correct ignition timing. In addition to load
and speed there are other circumstances under which
the SECM may need to vary the ignition timing,
including low engine coolant temperature, air
temperature, start-up, idle speed control.

VR Sensor
The MI-04 system uses a single coil, which
incorporates the ignition driver circuitry inside the coil
itself. The SECM signals the smart coil when to
1
begin its dwell cycle then the coil waits for the trigger
2 signal from the SECM.

The smart coil eliminates the need for a driver circuit


inside the SECM or externally from the coil. Using a
single VR sensor and smart coil eliminates multiple
sensors and coil packs used in more complex ignition
systems.

Figure 31
Distributor
(1) Timing Wheel (2) VR Sensor
The distributor of G420/G424 engine has the
A Variable Reluctance sensor (Figure 31) is an mechanical advance system internally. But the new
electromagnetic device consisting of a permanent distributor of G420E/G424E engine has no internal
magnet surrounded by a winding of wire. The sensor
advance mechanisms.
is used in conjunction with a ferrous timing wheel
located on the crankshaft pulley. The timing wheel is
A333011: Distributor assy for G420E/G424E engines
referred to as 30-5 ignition because the wheel has 30
A218350: Distributor assy for G420/G424 engines
gear teeth with 5 removed at precise locations, giving
the SECM a very accurate speed reference signal.
Rotation of the timing wheel near the tip of the sensor
changes the magnetic flux, creating an analog
voltage signal in the sensor coil.

Ignition Coil (Smart Coil)


The MI-04 system is capable of operating with either
a distributor based ignition system or a distributor less
ignition system. The current application uses a
distributor based ignition system. The distributor will
have no internal advance mechanisms giving the
SECM consistent authority over ignition timing. The
spark is sent to the appropriate cylinder in the
conventional way via the rotor arm and spark plug
wires. The SECM uses the signal from the VR
(Variable Reluctance) sensor mounted near the
crankshaft pulley to determine the engine position
and RPM at any time. It uses this information together
with the information from the TPS sensor and TMAP
to calculate the appropriate ignition timing settings for
the smart coil.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 29 System Operational Overview


CHAPTER 3 MI- 04 MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
RECOMMENDED Inspect Engine for Fluid
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE Leaks
Suggested maintenance requirements for an engine z Start the engine and allow it to reach operating
equipped with an MI-04 fuel system are contained in temperatures.
this section. The owner should, however, develop his z Turn the engine off.
own maintenance schedule using the requirements z Inspect the entire engine for oil and/or coolant
listed in this section and any other requirements listed leaks.
by the engine manufacturer. z Repair as necessary before continuing.

Test Fuel System for Leaks Inspect Vacuum Lines and


Fittings
z Visually inspect vacuum lines and fittings for
physical damage such as brittleness, cracks and
kinks. Repair/replace as required.
z Solvent or oil damage may cause vacuum lines
to become soft resulting in a collapsed line while
the engine is running.
z If abnormally soft lines are detected, replace as
necessary.
Check
Points

Vacuum
z Obtain a leak check squirt bottle or pump spray Lines
bottle.
z Fill the bottle with an approved leak check
solution.
z Spray a generous amount of the solution on the
fuel system fuel lines and connections, starting at
the storage container.
z Wait approximately 15-60 seconds then perform
a visual inspection of the fuel system. Leaks will
cause the solution to bubble.
z Repair any leaks before continuing.
z Crank the engine through several revolutions. Inspect Electrical System
This will energize the fuel lock-off and allow fuel
to flow to the pressure regulator/converter. z Check for loose, dirty or damaged connectors
Apply additional leak check solution to the and wires on the harness including: Fuel lock-off,
regulator/converter fuel connections and housing. TMAP sensor, O2 sensor, Electronic throttle,
Repeat leak inspection as listed above. Control Relays, Fuel Trim Valve, Acceleration
z Repair any fuel leaks before continuing. Pedal, and Distributor sensor.
z Repair and/or replace as necessary.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 30 Maintenance Schedule


Inspect Acceleration Pedal Inspect Ignition System
Operation z Disconnect Battery Cables.
z Remove and inspect the spark plugs. Replace as
z Verify Acceleration Pedal travel is smooth
required.
without sticking.
z Test secondary cables with an Ohmmeter. If
maximum resistance is higher than 25 kOhms,
repair and/or replace.
Check Coolant Level z Remove distributor cap and perform visual
inspection. Replace cap and rotor if corrosion is
z The items below are a general guideline for found on the contacts.
system checks. Refer to the engine z Inspect the ignition coil for cracks and heat
manufacturers specific recommendations for deterioration. Visually inspect the coil heat sink
proper procedures. fins. If any fins are broken replace as required.
z Engine must be off and cold.

WARNING
1
NEVER REMOVE THE PRESSURE CAP
ON A HOT ENGINE.

z The coolant level should be equal to the COLD


mark on the coolant recovery tank. 2
z Add approve coolant to the specified level if the
system is low.

Inspect Coolant Hoses Figure 31

(1) Spark Plug Cables (2) Distributor Cap


z Visually inspect coolant hoses and clamps.
Remember to check the two coolant lines that
connect to the pressure regulator/converter.
z Replace any hose that shows signs of swelling, Replace Spark Plugs
cracking, abrasion or deterioration.
z Disconnect Battery Cables.
z Using a gentle twisting motion remove the high
voltage cables from the spark plugs. Replace
Inspect Battery System any damaged cables.
z Remove the spark plugs.
z Clean battery outer surfaces with a mixture of z Gap the new spark plugs to the proper
baking soda and water. specifications.
z Inspect battery outer surfaces for damage and
replace as necessary. Spark plug air gap : 0.7 - 0.8 mm
z Remove battery cable and clean, repair and/or
replace as necessary. z Apply anti-seize compound to the spark plug
threads and install.

Spark plug tightening torque : 25 Nm (18 lbft)

CAUTION
DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN THE SPARK
PLUGS.

z Re-install the high voltage cables.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 31 Maintenance Schedule


Replace LP Fuel Filter Fuel Filter Disassembly
Element
2
Park the lift truck in an authorized refueling area with
the forks lowered, parking brake applied and the 4 1
transmission in Neutral.

1. Close the fuel shutoff valve on the LP-Fuel tank. 5


Run the engine until the fuel in the system runs
out and the engine stops. 3

2. Turn off the ignition switch.


6 7
3. Scribe a line across the filter housing covers,
which will be used for alignment purposes when
re-installing the filter cover. 5. Remove top cover (2), magnet (3), spring (4), and
filter element (7) from bottom cover (5).

Filter 6. Replace the filter element (7).


Housing 1
Scribe 7. Check bottom cover O-ring seal (6) for damage.
Point Replace if necessary.

8. Re-assemble the filter assembly aligning the


scribe lines on the top and bottom covers.

9. Install the cover retaining screws, tightening the


screws in an opposite sequence across the cover.

10. Open the fuel valve by slowly turning the valve


counterclockwise.
4. Remove the cover retaining screws (1).
11. Crank the engine several revolutions to open the
fuel lock-off. DO NOT START THE ENGINE. Turn
the ignition key switch to the off position.

12. Check the filter housing, fuel lines and fittings for
leaks. Repair as necessary.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 32 Maintenance Schedule


Testing Fuel Lock-off Fuel Trim Valve Inspection
Operation (FTV)
z Start engine. z Visually inspect the Fuel trim valve (C) for
z Locate the electrical connector for the fuel lock abrasions or cracking. Replace as necessary.
(A). z To ensure the valve is not leaking a blow-by test
z Disconnect the electrical connector. can be performed.
z The engine should run out of fuel and stop within
a short period of time. 1. With the engine off, disconnect the electrical
z Turn the ignition key switch off and re-connect connector to the FTV.
the fuel lock-off connector.
2. Disconnect the vacuum line from the FTV to the
pressure regulator/converter, at the converters
tee connection.

A B C 3. Lightly blow through the vacuum line connected to


the FTV. Air should not pass through the FTV
when de-energized. If air leaks past the FTV when
de-energized replace the FTV.

Inspect Air/Fuel Valve Mixer


Assembly
(A) LP fuel lock-off (B) LP regulator/converter Refer to the LP mixer (G) section of the service
(C) Fuel Trim Valve manual for procedures.

NOTE
The length of time the engine runs on
trapped fuel vapor increases with any
increase in distance between the fuel
lock-off and the pressure
regulator/converter.
G

Pressure
Regulator/Converter Testing
and Inspection
z Visually inspect the pressure regulator/converter (G) LP mixer
(B) housing for coolant leaks. Refer to the
pressure regulator/converter section of the
service manual if maintenance is required.

NOTE
For pressure testing and internal
inspection of the pressure
regulator/converter, refer to the pressure
regulator/converter section of the service
manual.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 33 Maintenance Schedule


Inspect for Intake Leaks Inspect Engine for Exhaust
z Visually inspect the intake manifold, throttle
Leaks
assembly (D), and manifold adapters (E), for
z Start the engine and allow it to reach operating
looseness and leaks. Repair as necessary.
temperatures.
z Perform visual inspection of exhaust system.
z Repair any/all leaks found.

D
Replace Oxygen Sensor

E
F

(D) Throttle Assembly (E) Manifold Adapter


(F) TMAP Sensor

Inspect Throttle Assembly


z Visually inspect the throttle assembly motor
housing for coking, cracks and missing cover- 1. Stop engine and wait until the exhaust pipe and
retaining clips. Repair and/or replace as exhaust pipe is cooled.
necessary.
2. Disconnect the electrical connector of oxygen
NOTE sensor.
Refer to the LP mixer and throttle section
of the service manual for procedures on 3. Remove oxygen sensor.
removing the mixer and inspecting the
throttle plate. 4. Assemble new oxygen sensor.

Tightening torque : 45 Nm (32.5 lbft)


Checking the TMAP Sensor 5. Connect the electrical connector of oxygen sensor.

z Verify that the TMAP sensor (F) is mounted


tightly into the manifold adapter (E), with no
leakage.
z If the TMAP is found to be loose, remove the
TMAP retaining screw and the TMAP sensor
from the manifold adapter.
z Visually inspect the TMAP O-ring seal for
damage. Replace as necessary.
z Apply a thin coat of an approved silicon lubricant
to the TMAP o-ring seal.
z Re-install the TMAP sensor into the manifold
adapter and securely tighten the retaining screw.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 34 Maintenance Schedule


Maintenance Schedule
Interval Hours

Every Every Every Every Every


CHECK POINT Every
500 1000 1500 2600 4500
Daily 250hrs or
Hours or Hours or Hours or Hours or Hours or
a month
3 months 6 months 9 months 15 months 2 years

General Maintenance Section


Test Fuel System for Leaks Prior to any service or maintenance activity
Inspect engine for fluid leaks X
Inspect all vacuum lines and
X
fittings
Inspect electrical system- check
for loose, dirty, or damaged wires X
and connections
Inspect all fuel fittings and hoses X
Inspect Acceleration Pedal travel
X
and operation
Engine Coolant Section
Check Coolant Level X
Inspect coolant hoses and fittings
for leaks, cracks, swelling, or X
deterioration
Engine Ignition Section
Inspect battery for damage and
X
corroded cables
Inspect ignition system X
Replace spark plugs X
Fuel Lock-Off/Filter Section
Replace LP fuel filter element X
Inspect lock-off and fuel filter for
X
leaks
Ensure lock-off stops fuel flow
X
when engine is off
Pressure Regulator/Converter Section
Test regulator pressures X
Inspect pressure regulator vapor
X
hose for deposit build-up
Inspect regulator assembly for
X
fuel/coolant leaks
Fuel Trim Valve Section
Inspect valve housing for wear,
X
cracks or deterioration
Ensure valve seals in the closed
X
position when the engine is off

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 35 Maintenance Schedule


Maintenance Schedule Continued
Interval Hours

Every Every Every Every


Every Every
CHECK POINT Daily 250hrs or 500hrs or
1000 1500 2600 4500
Hours or Hours or Hours or Hours or
a month 3 months
6 months 9 months 15 months 2 years

Carburetor Section
Check air filter indicator X
Check for air leaks in the filter
X
system
Inspect air/fuel valve mixer
X
assembly
Inspect air/fuel mixer assembly
X
throat
Check for vacuum leaks in the
intake system including manifold
X
adapter and mixer to throttle
adapter
Inspect throttle assembly X
Inspect air filter X
Replace air filter element X
Check TMAP sensor for tightness
X
and leaks
Exhaust & Emission Section
Inspect engine for exhaust leaks X
Replace Oxygen Sensor X
Replace PCV Valve and breather
X
element

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 36 Maintenance Schedule


CHAPTER 4 MI-04 LP BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
Basic Troubleshooting
The MI-04 systems are equipped with built-in fault diagnostics. Detected system faults can be displayed by the
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) and are covered in the Advanced Diagnostics section. Items such as fuel level,
plugged fuel lines, clogged fuel filters and malfunctioning pressure regulators may not set a fault code by the Small
Engine Control Module (SECM). Below are basic checks that should be made before referring to the Advanced
Diagnostics section, if engine or drivability problems are encountered.

Locating a problem in a propane engine is done exactly the same way as with a gasoline engine. Consider all
parts of the ignition and mechanical systems as well as the fuel system.

Problem Probable Cause Corrective Action


Engine Cranking Fuel container empty Fill fuel container
but Will Not Start z Do not exceed 80% of liquid capacity

Liquid valve closed Slowly open liquid valve


Excess flow valve closed Reset excess flow valve
z Close liquid valve
z Wait for a click sound
z Slowly open liquid valve

Plugged fuel line Remove obstruction from the fuel line


z Close liquid fuel valve
z Using caution, disconnect the fuel line
(some propane may escape)
z Clear obstruction with compressed air
z Re-connect fuel line
z Slowly open liquid fuel valve
z Leak test

Broken Fuse - SECM Replace Fuse for SECM


z See Maintenance Section of Operation &
Maintenance Manual, Fuses replacement
Clogged fuel filter Repair/replace as required
z See Chapter 3 Fuel Filter replacement

Faulty vapor connection between Check connection


the pressure regulator/converter z Verify no holes in hose
and the mixer z Clamps must be tight
z Look for kinked, pinched and/or
collapsed hose
Fuel Lock-off malfunction Repair/replace Fuel Lock-off
z See Chapter 3 Fuel Lock-off

Pressure regulator/converter Test pressure regulator/converter operation


malfunction z See Chapter 9 Tests and Adjustments

Incorrect air/fuel or ignition/spark See Chapter 5 Advanced Diagnostics


control

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 37 Basic Troubleshooting


Problem Probable Cause Corrective Action
Engine Cranking No VR Sensor Signal Verify the VR signal is present
but Will Not Start z See Chapter 5 Advanced Diagnostics

Difficult to Start Fuel container almost empty LPG Vapor from liquid outlet
z Fill fuel container
z Do not exceed 80% of liquid capacity

Excess flow valve closed Reset excess flow valve


z Close liquid valve
z Wait for a click sound
Slowly open liquid valve
Clogged fuel filter Repair/replace as required
z See Chapter 3 Fuel Filter replacement

Plugged fuel line Remove obstruction from the fuel line


z Close liquid fuel valve
z Using caution, disconnect the fuel line
(some propane may escape)
z Clear obstruction with compressed air
z Re-connect fuel line
z Slowly open liquid fuel valve
z Leak test

Faulty vapor connection between Check connection


the pressure regulator/converter z Verify no holes in hose
and the mixer z Clamps must be tight
z Look for kinked, pinched and/or
collapsed hose
Pressure regulator/converter Test pressure regulator/converter operation
malfunction z See Chapter 9 Tests and Adjustments

Fuel container almost empty LPG Vapor from liquid outlet


z Fill fuel container
z Do not exceed 80% of liquid capacity

Air filter clogged Check air filter


z Clean/replace as required

Incorrect air/fuel or ignition control See Chapter 5 Advanced Diagnostics


Engine Mechanical See Engine Manufacturers Service Manual

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 38 Basic Troubleshooting


Problem Probable Cause Corrective Action
Will Not Run Fuel container almost empty LPG Vapor from liquid outlet
Continuously z Fill fuel container
z Do not exceed 80% of liquid capacity

Excess flow valve closed Reset excess flow valve


z Close liquid valve
z Wait for a click sound
Slowly open liquid valve
Clogged fuel filter Repair/replace as required
z See Chapter 3 Fuel Filter replacement

Plugged fuel line Remove obstruction from the fuel line


z Close liquid fuel valve
z Using caution, disconnect the fuel line
(some propane may escape)
z Clear obstruction with compressed air
z Re-connect fuel line
z Slowly open liquid fuel valve & Leak test

Pressure regulator freezes Check level in cooling system


z Must be full, check coolant strength
z -35F minimum
z Check coolant hoses
z Watch for kinks and/or pinched hoses
z Verify one pressure hose and one return
hose
Fuel Lock-off malfunction Repair/replace Fuel Lock-off
z See Chapter 3 Fuel Lock-off

Incorrect idle speed or ignition See Chapter 5 Advanced Diagnostics


problem
Engine Mechanical See Engine Manufacturers Service Manual
Will Not Fuel container almost empty LPG Vapor from liquid outlet
Accelerate/Hesita z Fill fuel container
z Do not exceed 80% of liquid capacity
tion During
Acceleration Excess flow valve closed Reset excess flow valve
z Close liquid valve
z Wait for a click sound
Slowly open liquid valve

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 39 Basic Troubleshooting


Problem Probable Cause Corrective Action
Will Not Clogged fuel filter Repair/replace as required
Accelerate/Hesita z See Chapter 3 Fuel Filter replacement

tion During Faulty vapor connection between Check connection


Acceleration the pressure regulator/converter z Verify no holes in hose
and the mixer z Clamps must be tight
z Look for kinked, pinched and/or
collapsed hose
Throttle butterfly valve not opening See Chapter 5 Advanced Diagnostics
or sticking
Acceleration Pedal signal incorrect
or intermittent
Incorrect air/fuel or ignition control
Engine Mechanical See Engine Manufacturers Service Manual
Engine Stalls Fuel container almost empty LPG Vapor from liquid outlet
z Fill fuel container
z Do not exceed 80% of liquid capacity

Excess flow valve closed Reset excess flow valve


z Close liquid valve
z Wait for a click sound
Slowly open liquid valve
Clogged fuel filter Repair/replace as required
z See Chapter 3 Fuel Filter replacement

Plugged fuel line Remove obstruction from the fuel line


z Close liquid fuel valve
z Using caution, disconnect the fuel line
(some propane may escape)
z Clear obstruction with compressed air
z Re-connect fuel line
z Slowly open liquid fuel valve & Leak test

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 40 Basic Troubleshooting


Problem Probable Cause Corrective Action
Engine Stalls Fuel Lock-off malfunction Repair/replace Fuel Lock-off
z See Chapter 3 Fuel Lock-Off

Faulty vapor connection between Check connection


the pressure regulator/converter z Verify no holes in hose
and the mixer z Clamps must be tight
z Look for kinked, pinched and/or
collapsed hose
Pressure regulator freezes Check level in cooling system
z Must be full, check coolant strength
z -35F minimum
z Check coolant hoses
z Watch for kinks and/or pinched hoses
z Verify one pressure hose and one return
hose
Pressure regulator malfunction Test pressure regulator operation
z See Chapter 9 Tests and Adjustments

Vacuum leak Check for vacuum leaks


z Between mixer and throttle body
z Between throttle body and intake
manifold
z Between intake manifold and cylinder
head
Air/Fuel Mixer malfunction Check mixer
z See Chapter 8 Air/Fuel mixer section

Engine Mechanical See Engine Manufacturers Service Manual

Rough Idle Faulty vapor connection between Check connection


the pressure regulator/converter z Verify no holes in hose
and the mixer z Clamps must be tight
z Look for kinked, pinched and/or
collapsed hose
Pressure regulator malfunction Test pressure regulator operation
z See Chapter 9 Tests and Adjustments

Vacuum leak Check for vacuum leaks


z Between mixer and throttle body
z Between throttle body and intake
manifold
z Between intake manifold and cylinder
head
Air/Fuel Mixer malfunction Check mixer
z See Chapter 8 Air/Fuel mixer section

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 41 Basic Troubleshooting


Problem Probable Cause Corrective Action
Rough Idle Incorrect Idle speed control See Chapter 5 Advanced Diagnostics &
Incorrect timing or spark control Chapter 9 Tests and Adjustments
Engine Mechanical See Engine Manufacturers Service Manual
High Idle Speed Incorrect Idle speed control See Chapter 5 Advanced Diagnostics &
Throttle sticking Chapter 9 Tests and Adjustments
Acceleration Pedal sticking or Check pedal return spring travel for binding
incorrect pedal signal z See Chapter 5 Advanced Diagnostics

Poor High Speed Clogged fuel filter Repair/replace as required


Performance z See Chapter 3 Fuel Filter replacement

Plugged fuel line Remove obstruction from the fuel line


z Close liquid fuel valve
z Using caution, disconnect the fuel line
(some propane may escape)
z Clear obstruction with compressed air
z Re-connect fuel line
z Slowly open liquid fuel valve & Leak test

Air filter clogged Check air filter


z Clean/replace as required

Faulty vapor connection between Check connection


the pressure regulator/converter z Verify no holes in hose
and the mixer z Clamps must be tight
z Look for kinked, pinched and/or
collapsed hose
Pressure regulator malfunction Test pressure regulator operation
z See Chapter 9 Tests and Adjustments

Air/Fuel Mixer malfunction Check mixer


z See Chapter 8 Air/Fuel mixer section

Restricted exhaust system Check exhaust system


z Measure exhaust back pressure

Incorrect ignition control See Chapter 5 Advanced Diagnostics &


Incorrect air/fuel control Chapter 9 Tests and Adjustments
Incorrect throttle position

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 42 Basic Troubleshooting


Problem Probable Cause Corrective Action
Excessive Fuel Air/Fuel Mixer malfunction Check mixer
Consumption/LP z See Chapter 8 Air/Fuel mixer section

G Exhaust Smell Air filter clogged Check air filter


z Clean/replace as required

Vacuum leak Check system vacuum hoses from regulator


to FTV and mixer
z Repair/replace as necessary

Pressure regulator malfunction/fuel Test pressure regulator operation


pressure too high z See Chapter 9 Tests and Adjustments

Faulty FTV Check FTV for housing cracks or obstructions


z See Chapter 5 Advanced Diagnostics
FTV operation
z Repair and/or replace as necessary

Weak ignition and/or spark control See Chapter 5 Advanced Diagnostics


Incorrect air/fuel control See Chapter 5 Advanced Diagnostics
Exhaust system leaks Repair exhaust system
Oxygen sensor failure Replace as necessary
z See Chapter 5 Advanced Diagnostics

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 43 Basic Troubleshooting


CHAPTER 5 MI-04 LP ADVANCED DIAGNOSTICS
Advanced Diagnostics Reading Diagnostic Fault
The MI-04 systems are equipped with built-in fault
Codes
diagnostics. Detected system faults can be displayed
All MI-04 fault codes are two digit codes. When the
by the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) as
fault codes are retrieved (displayed) the MIL will flash
Diagnostic Fault Codes (DFC) or flash codes, and
for each digit with a short pause (.5 seconds)
viewed in detail with the use of service tool software.
between digits and a long pause (1.2 seconds)
When the ignition key is turned ON the MIL will
between fault codes. A code 12 is displayed at the
perform a self-test, illuminate once and then go OFF.
beginning of the code list.
If a detected fault condition exists, the fault or faults
will be stored in the memory of the small engine
EXAMPLE: A code 26 has been detected
control module (SECM). Once a fault occurs the MIL
(ETCSticking) and the engine has shutdown and the
will illuminate and remain ON. This signals the
MIL has remained ON. When the codes are displayed
operator that a fault has been detected by the SECM.
the MIL will flash one time (1), pause, then flash two
times (2). This identifies a twelve (12), which is the
beginning of the fault list. It will then pause for 1.2
seconds (long pause) and flash two times (2), pause,
then flash six times (6). This identifies a twenty-six
(26), which is the ETCSticking fault. If any additional
faults were stored the SECM would again have a long
pause, then display the next fault by flashing each
digit. Since no other faults were stored there will be a
long pause then one flash (1), pause, then two
flashes (2). This identifies a twelve meaning the fault
list will begin again.
1
IB1O003L

(1) Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) for Engine control system

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 44 Advanced Diagnostics


Displaying Fault Codes (DFC) Clearing Fault (DFC) Codes
From SECM Memory To clear the stored fault codes from SECM memory
you must complete the reset fault pedal maneuver.
To enter code display mode you must turn OFF the
ignition key. Now turn ON the key but do not start the
CAUTION
engine. As soon as you turn the key to the ON
Once the fault list is cleared it cannot be
position you must cycle the Acceleration Pedal by
restored.
depressing it to the floor and then fully releasing the
pedal (pedal maneuver). You must fully cycle the
First turn OFF the ignition key. Now turn ON the key
Acceleration Pedal three (3) times within five (5)
but do not start the engine. As soon as you turn the
seconds to enable the display codes feature of the
key to the ON position you must cycle the
SECM. Simply turn the key OFF to exit display mode.
Acceleration Pedal by depressing it to the floor and
The code list will continue to repeat until the key is
then fully releasing the pedal (pedal maneuver). You
turned OFF. An automatic code display feature is
must fully cycle the Acceleration Pedal ten (10) times
activated if a Acceleration Pedal fault condition exists.
within five (5) seconds to clear the fault code list of
This feature enables the service technician to view
the SECM. Simply turn the key OFF to exit the reset
the fault codes by turning the key to the ON position,
mode. The code list is now clear and the SECM will
if a Acceleration Pedal malfunction is preventing the
begin storing new fault codes as they occur.
retrieval of the stored fault codes from the SECM.

Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL) Fault Action Descriptions


Each fault detected by the SECM is stored in memory
= CODE 12 (FIFO) and has a specific action or result that takes
place. Listed below are the descriptions of each fault
ON OFF ON ON OFF
action.

Engine Shutdown: The most severe action is an


Engine Shutdown. The MIL will light and the engine
will immediately shutdown, stopping spark with the
fuel lock-off closing.

Delayed Engine Shutdown: Some faults such as


low oil pressure will cause the MIL to illuminate for 30
seconds and then shutdown the engine.

Disable Throttle: The throttle moves to its default


position. The engine will run at idle but will not
accelerate.

Limp Home Mode: A limp home mode reduces


the lift truck power, and is provided to enable the
operator to drive the lift truck in an unsafe situation
but not use the truck for normal operation.

MIL ONLY: The MIL will light by an active low signal


provided by the SECM, indicating a fault condition but
no further action will take place.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 45 Advanced Diagnostics


ThrottleSensorRangeHi: (Throttle Position Sensor
Fault List Definitions (TPS1) Range has measured High) the TPS1
potentiometer has malfunctioned. An improper TPS
Several sensors in the MI-04 system have input
reading may be due to dirt or oxidation on the sensor
low/high faults and a sensor range fault. These are
traces. NOTE: The TPS is not a serviceable item and
the coolant temperature sensor, the throttle position
can only be repaired by replacing the DV-EV throttle
sensor and the pedal position sensors. Signals to
assembly.
these sensors are converted into digital counts by the
SECM. A low/high sensor fault is normal set when
ETCSticking: (Electronic Throttle Control is Sticking)
the converted digital counts reach the minimum of 0
is normally set if either of the ETC driver signals have
or the maximum of 1024 (1024=5.0 VDC with ~204
opened or become disconnected. This can also occur
counts per volt). A sensor range fault is set if the
if the throttle plate (butterfly valve) inside the throttle
parameter measured by the sensor is outside the
bore is sticking. The plate sticking can be due to
normal operating range.
some type of obstruction; a loose throttle plate or
worn components shaft bearings. Certified
technicians using the service tool software can
1024 Counts (Input High) perform a throttle motion test to confirm sticking
problems. NOTE: The throttle assembly is not a
serviceable item and can only be repaired by
replacing the DV-EV throttle assembly.
Sensor Range
PredictedTPSDifference: (Predicted Throttle
Position Sensor Difference) measured TPS1 is
different than SECM Calculated throttle position.
0 Counts (Input Low) Normally caused by intake leaks between the throttle
assembly and the engine.
Figure F1
ETCSpringTestFailed: (Electronic Throttle Control
ECTSensorInputLow: (Engine Coolant Temperature Spring Return Test has Failed) upon the initial startup
Sensor Input is Low) normally set if the coolant of the engine the SECM will perform a safety test of
sensor wire has shorted to chassis ground or the the throttle return spring. If this spring has become
sensor has failed. weak the throttle will fail the test and set the fault.
NOTE: The throttle assembly is not a serviceable
ECTSensorInputHigh: (Engine Coolant Temperature item and can only be repaired by replacing the DV-EV
Sensor Input is High) normally set if the coolant throttle assembly.
sensor wire has been disconnected or the circuit has
opened to the SECM. ETCDriverFault: (Electronic Throttle Control Driver
has Failed) an over current condition has occurred on
ECTRangeHigh: (Engine Coolant Temperature
either ETC+ or ETC- driver signals.
Range is High) the sensor has measured an
excessive coolant temperature typically due to the
engine overheating. MapSensorInputLow: (Manifold Air Pressure Sensor
Input is Low) is normally set if the TMAP pressure
ThrottleSensorInputLo: (Throttle Position Sensor signal wire has been disconnected or the circuit has
(TPS1) Input is Low) is normally set if the TPS1 opened to the SECM.
signal wire has been disconnected or the circuit has
opened to the SECM. MapSensorInputHigh: (Manifold Air Pressure
Sensor Input is High) is normally set if the TMAP
ThrottleSensorInputHi: (Throttle Position Sensor pressure signal wire has become shorted to power,
(TPS1) Input is High) is normally set if the TPS1
shorted to the IAT signal, the TMAP has failed or the
signal wire has become shorted to power, the TPS1
SECM has failed.
has failed or the SECM has failed.

ThrottleSensorRangeLo: (Throttle Position Sensor IATSensorInputLow: (Intake Air Temperature Sensor


(TPS1) Range has measured Low) the TPS1 Input is Low) is normally set if the TMAP temperature
potentiometer has malfunctioned. An improper TPS signal wire has become shorted to ground, shorted to
reading may be due to dirt or oxidation on the sensor the MAP signal, the TMAP has failed or the SECM
traces. NOTE: The TPS is not a serviceable item and has failed.
can only be repaired by replacing the DV-EV throttle
assembly.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 46 Advanced Diagnostics


IATSensorInputHigh: (Intake Air Temperature Pedal1SensorRangeHi: (Accelerator Pedal Position
Sensor Input is High) normally set if the TMAP 1 Sensor Range is High) the APP1 potentiometer has
temperature signal wire has become disconnected or malfunctioned. An improper APP1 reading may be
the circuit is open to the SECM. due to dirt or oxidation on the sensor traces.
Pedal2SensorInputLo: (Accelerator Pedal Position 2
EST1Low: (Electronic Spark Trigger) is a current Sensor Input is Low) normally set if the APP2 signal
driver signal and normally set if the signal from the wire has become shorted to APP power, APP2 has
SECM is shorted to ground. failed or the SECM has failed.

EST1High: (Electronic Spark Trigger) is a current Pedal2SensorInputHi: (Accelerator Pedal Position 2


driver signal and normally set if the signal from the Sensor Input is High) normally set if the APP2 signal
SECM is open or lost. wire has become disconnected or the circuit is open
to the SECM.
LowOilPressure: (Low Oil Pressure) the oil pressure
switch has opened or become disconnected, normally Pedal2SensorRangeLo: (Accelerator Pedal Position
indicating a low oil condition in the engine. 2 Sensor Range is Low) the APP2 potentiometer has
malfunctioned. An improper APP2 reading may be
BatterySensorInputLow: (Battery Voltage Sensor due to dirt or oxidation on the sensor traces.
Input is Low) normally set if the power to the SECM
drops below 8.5 VDC. Pedal2SensorRangeHigh: (Accelerator Pedal
Position 2 Sensor Range is Low) the APP2
BatterySensorInputHigh: (Battery Voltage Sensor potentiometer has malfunctioned. An improper APP2
Input is High) normally set if the power to the SECM reading may be due to dirt or oxidation on the sensor
increases above 15.9 VDC. traces.

XDRPSensorInputLow: (Transducer Voltage Sensor Pedal1ToPedal2Difference: (Accelerator Pedal


Input is Low) normally set if the sensor power from Position Sensor 1 and Accelerator Pedal Position
the SECM drops below 4.8 VDC. Sensor 2 are Different) normally set when APP1
measured pedal position is different from APP2
XDRPSensorInputHigh: (Transducer Voltage Sensor measured pedal position.
Input is High) normally set if the sensor power from
the SECM increases above 5.9 VDC. AFRTrimValveOutput: (Air Fuel Ratio Trim Valve
(FTV) Driver) is normally set when the FTV driver
EngineOverspeed: (Engine Over speed) is set when signal is open due to the connector becoming
the engine RPM increases above the SECM disconnected.
maximum governing RPM. Typically this is in
association with one or more throttle faults. This AFRTrimValveLowerDC: (Air Fuel Ratio Trim Valve
fault can be set without additional throttle faults if the (FTV) Lower Duty Cycle) normally set when the duty
operator motors the lift truck down a steep grade (hill). cycle of the FTV reaches the minimum limit (running
too lean).
Pedal1SensorInputLo: (Accelerator Pedal Position 1
Sensor Input is Low) normally set if the APP1 signal AFRTrimValveUpperDC: (Air Fuel Ratio Trim Valve
wire has become disconnected or the circuit is open (FTV) Upper Duty Cycle) normally set when the duty
to the SECM. cycle of the FTV reaches the maximum limit (running
too rich).
Pedal1SensorInputHi: (Accelerator Pedal Position 1
Sensor Input is High) normally set if the APP1 signal O2SensorSwitching: (Oxygen Sensor Switching)
wire has become shorted to APP power, APP1 has is set when the O2 sensor can no longer switch or be
failed or the SECM has failed. driven above and below 500mv by the SECM.

Pedal1SensorRangeLo: (Accelerator Pedal Position OxygenSensorInputHigh: (Oxygen Sensor Input is


1 Sensor Range is Low) the APP1 potentiometer has High)
malfunctioned. An improper APP1 reading may be
due to dirt or oxidation on the sensor traces. OxygenSensorInputLow: (Oxygen Sensor Input is
Low)

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 47 Advanced Diagnostics


Table a. MI-04 Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes)
DFC Probable Fault Action Corrective Action, First Check
12 NONE NONE None, used as a beginning and end
Signifies the end of one pass through of the fault list identification
the fault list
14 ECTSensorInputLow Stored Fault Code Check ECT sensor connector and
Coolant sensor failure or shorted to (MIL Only) wiring for a short to GND
GND
SECM (SIGNAL) PIN 16 to
ECT PIN A

SECM (GND) PIN 1 to


ECT PIN B
15 ECTSensorInputHigh Stored Fault Code Check if ECT sensor connector is
Coolant sensor disconnected or open (MIL Only) disconnected or for an open ECT
circuit circuit

SECM (SIGNAL) PIN 16 to


ECT PIN A

SECM (GND) PIN 1 to


ECT PIN B

16 ECTRangeHigh Delayed Engine Check coolant system for radiator


Engine Overheating Shutdown blockage, proper coolant level and for
leaks in the system. Possible ECT
short to GND, check ECT signal
wiring

SECM (SIGNAL) PIN 16 to


ECT PIN A

SECM (GND) PIN 1 to


ECT PIN B

z Check regulator for coolant leaks


*See Chapter 7.0
22 ThrottleSensorInputLo Disable Throttle Check throttle connector connection
TPS1 signal disconnected or open and TPS1 sensor for an open circuit
circuit
(Expected faults when ETC ETC PIN 6 to SECM PIN 17
connector is unplugged (SIGNAL)
CODES: 22 & 24)
ETC PIN 2 to SECM PIN 1 (GND)

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 48 Advanced Diagnostics


Table a. MI-04 Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes)
DFC Probable Fault Action Corrective Action, First Check
23 ThrottleSensorInputHi Disable Throttle Check throttle connector and TPS1
TPS1 sensor failure or shorted circuit sensor wiring for a shorted circuit

ETC PIN 6 to SECM PIN 17


(SIGNAL)

ETC PIN 2 to SECM PIN 1 (GND)

24 ThrottleSensorRangeLo Stored Fault Code Check the throttle connector and pins
TPS1 potentiometer malfunction. (MIL Only) for corrosion.
Improper TPS reading may be due to Perform Throttle test with the Service
dirt or oxidation on the sensor traces. Tool several times to clean sensor

To check the TPS disconnect the


throttle connector and measure the
resistance (1.25K +/-30%) from

TPS PIN 2 (GND) to


PIN 6 (TPS1 SIGNAL)

TPS PIN 3 (PWR) to PIN 6 (TPS1


SIGNAL)

*See Chapter 6.0 for sensor checks

25 ThrottleSensorRangeHi Stored Fault Code Check the throttle connector and pins
TPS1 potentiometer malfunction. (MIL Only) for corrosion.
Improper TPS reading may be due to z Perform Throttle test with the
dirt or oxidation on the sensor traces. Service Tool several times to
clean sensor

To check the TPS disconnect the


throttle connector and measure the
resistance (1.25K +/-30%) from

TPS PIN 2 (GND) to PIN 6 (TPS1


SIGNAL)

TPS PIN 3 (PWR) to PIN 6 (TPS1


SIGNAL)

*See Chapter 6.0 for sensor checks

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 49 Advanced Diagnostics


Table a. MI-04 Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes)
DFC Probable Fault Action Corrective Action, First Check
26 ETCSticking Engine Shutdown Check for debris or obstructions
Throttle plate sticking inside the inside the throttle body
throttle body or the ETC driver signal Perform the Throttle test using the
is open Service Tool and re-check for fault
Check throttle-plate shaft for bearing
wear

Check the ETC driver wiring for an


open circuit
ETC+ PIN 1 to SECM PIN 22
ETC-PIN 4 to SECM PIN 24

Check the ETC internal motor drive


by disconnecting the throttle
connector and measuring the motor
drive resistance at the throttle

TPS PIN 1 (+DRIVER) to PIN 4 (-


DRIVER) ~3.0 +/-30%

27 PredictedTPSDifference Engine Shutdown Check for manifold leaks between the


Measured TPS1 is different than throttle and the engine
SECM Calculated throttle position Note: Fault Code 27 is predicted
TPS. This fault means that the throttle
and our calculated prediction for
throttle do not agree. This code often
comes up as suspected during
transient manuevers. It is not system
trouble. If the fault really sets, then
the engine will shut down.

28 ETCSpringTestFailed Power Limit Perform throttle spring test by cycling


Upon initial key-up the internal the ignition key and re-check for fault
throttle return spring has become
weak

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 50 Advanced Diagnostics


Table a. MI-04 Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes)
DFC Probable Fault Action Corrective Action, First Check
29 ETCDriverFault Disable Throttle Check ETC driver wiring for a shorted
Throttle driver over-current or driver circuit
signals shorted ETC+ PIN1 to SECM PIN 22
ETC- PIN 4 to SECM PIN 24

z Perform Throttle test and with


the Service Tool and re-check for
fault

Check the ETC internal motor drive


by disconnecting the throttle
connector and measuring the motor
drive resistance at the throttle

TPS PIN 1 (+DRIVER) to PIN 4 (-


DRIVER) ~3.0 +/-30%

33 MapSensorInputLow Disable Throttle Check TMAP connector and MAP


MAP signal disconnected, open signal wiring for an open circuit
circuit or sensor malfunction TMAP PIN 4 to SECM PIN 5
(Expected faults when TMAP (SIGNAL)
connector is unplugged TMAP PIN 1 to SECM PIN 1 (GND)
CODES: 33 & 38) TMAP PIN 3 to SECM PIN 18
(XDCR +5VDC)

Check the MAP sensor by


disconnecting the TMAP connector
and measuring at the sensor
TMAP PIN 1(GND) to PIN 4
(PRESSURE SIGNAL KPA) (2.4k -
8.2k)

TMAP PIN 3(PWR) to PIN 4


(PRESSURE SIGNAL KPA) (3.4k -
8.2k)

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 51 Advanced Diagnostics


Table a. MI-04 Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes)
DFC Probable Fault Action Corrective Action, First Check
34 MapSensorInputHigh Disable Throttle Check TMAP connector and MAP
TMAP sensor failure or shorted circuit signal wiring for a shorted circuit
TMAP PIN 4 to SECM PIN 5
(SIGNAL)
TMAP PIN 1 to SECM PIN 1 (GND)
TMAP PIN 3 to SECM PIN 18
(XDCR +5VDC)

Check the MAP sensor by


disconnecting the TMAP connector
and measuring at the sensor
TMAP PIN 1(GND) to PIN 4
(PRESSURE SIGNAL KPA) (2.4k -
8.2k)

TMAP PIN 3(PWR) to PIN 4


(PRESSURE SIGNAL KPA) (3.4k -
8.2k)

37 IATSensorInputLow Stored Fault Code Check TMAP connector and IAT


TMAP sensor failure or shorted circuit (MIL Only) signal wiring for a shorted circuit
TMAP PIN 2 to SECM PIN 4
(SIGNAL)
TMAP PIN 1 to SECM PIN 1 (GND)
TMAP PIN 3 to SECM PIN 18 (XDCR
+5VDC)

To check the IAT sensor of the TMAP


disconnect the TMAP connector and
measure the IAT resistance
*See the IAT table in Chapter 6.0

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 52 Advanced Diagnostics


Table a. MI-04 Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes)
DFC Probable Fault Action Corrective Action, First Check
38 IATSensorInputHigh Stored Fault Code Check TMAP connector and IAT
IAT signal disconnected, open circuit (MIL Only) signal wiring for an open circuit
or sensor malfunction TMAP PIN 2 to SECM PIN 4
(SIGNAL)
TMAP PIN 1 to SECM PIN 1 (GND)
TMAP PIN 3 to SECM PIN 18 (XDCR
+5VDC)

To check the IAT sensor of the TMAP


disconnect the TMAP connector and
measure the IAT resistance
*See the IAT table in Chapter 6.0

42 EST1Low Stored Fault Code Check coil driver wiring and


Coil driver signal low or under-current (MIL Only) connector for shorts
SECM PIN 7(EST1) to COIL PIN A

Verify GND on COIL PIN B


Verify GND on COIL PIN C
Verify GND on COIL PIN D
Verify +12vdc on COIL PIN E

To check the Smart Coil internal


circuit disconnect the coil connector
and measure the resistance from pin
to pin

*See Smart Coil resistance check


in Chapter 6.0

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 53 Advanced Diagnostics


Table a. MI-04 Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes)
DFC Probable Fault Action Corrective Action, First Check
43 EST1High Stored Fault Code Check coil driver wiring for an open
Coil driver signal high or over-current (MIL Only) circuit or disconnected connector
SECM PIN 7(EST1) to COIL PIN A

Verify GND on COIL PIN B


Verify GND on COIL PIN C
Verify GND on COIL PIN D
Verify +12vdc on COIL PIN E

To check the Smart Coil internal


circuit disconnect the coil connector
and measure the resistance from pin
to pin

*See Smart Coil resistance check


in Chapter 6.0

53 BatterySensorInputLow Stored Fault Code Check battery voltage


Battery voltage measured below (MIL Only) z Perform maintenance check on
+8.0 VDC electrical connections to the
battery and chassis ground
z Check battery voltage during
starting and with the engine
running to verify charging system
and alternator function

Measure battery power at the SECM


with a multimeter

SECM PIN 13 (BATT +) to SECM


PIN 14 (BATT -)

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 54 Advanced Diagnostics


Table a. MI-04 Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes)
DFC Probable Fault Action Corrective Action, First Check
54 BatterySensorInputHigh Stored Fault Code Check battery and charging system
Battery voltage measured above (MIL Only) voltage
+15.9 VDC z Check battery voltage during
starting and with the engine
running
z Check voltage regulator,
alternator and charging system
z Check battery and wiring for
overheating and damage
z Measure battery power at the
SECM with a multimeter
SECM PIN 13 (BATT +) to
SECM PIN 14 (BATT -)

55 XDRPSensorInputLow Engine Shutdown Measure transducer power at the


+5VDC Transducer power supplied TMAP connector with a multimeter
by the SECM to the sensors is below TMAP PIN 3 +5VDC to TMAP PIN 1
+4.60VDC XDCR GND
(Expected faults when Transducer
power is lost Verify transducer power at the SECM
CODES: 22, 24, 33, 62, 64, 66, 68 & with a multimeter
69) SECM PIN 18 +5VDC to SECM PIN
1 XDCR GND

Verify transducer power at ETC with


a multimeter
ETC PIN 3 XDCR PWR to ETC PIN
2 XDCR GND

Verify transducer power to the


Acceleration Pedal with a multimeter

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 55 Advanced Diagnostics


Table a. MI-04 Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes)
DFC Probable Fault Action Corrective Action, First Check
56 XDRPSensorInputHigh Engine Shutdown Measure transducer power at the
+5VDC Transducer power supplied TMAP connector with a multimeter
by the SECM to the sensors is above TMAP PIN 3 +5VDC to TMAP PIN 1
+5.20VDC XDCR GND

Verify transducer power at the SECM


with a multimeter
SECM PIN 18 +5VDC to SECM PIN
1 XDCR GND

Verify transducer power at ETC with


a multimeter
ETC PIN 3 XDCR PWR to ETC PIN
2 XDCR GND

Verify transducer power to the


Acceleration Pedal with a multimeter

57 Engine OverSpeed Engine Shutdown Usually associated with additional


Engine RPM increased beyond ETC faults
maximum RPM set point z Check for ETC Sticking or other
ETC faults
z Verify if the lift truck was motored
down a steep grade

61 Pedal1SensorInputLo MIN Power Limit Check Acceleration Pedal connector


APP1 signal disconnected, open z Check APP1 signal at SECM
circuit or sensor malfunction PIN 15
(Expected faults when APP connector
is unplugged
CODES: 61 & 66)

62 Pedal1SensorInputHi MIN Power limit Check Acceleration Pedal connector


APP1 sensor failure or shorted circuit z Check APP1 signal at SECM
PIN 15

63 Pedal1SensorRangeLo Stored Fault Code Check Acceleration Pedal connector


APP1 potentiometer malfunction. (MIL Only) z Cycle the pedal several times
Improper APP1 reading may be due and check APP1 signal at SECM
to dirt or oxidation on the sensor PIN 15
traces.

64 Pedal1SensorRangeHi Stored Fault Code Check Acceleration Pedal connector


APP1 potentiometer malfunction. (MIL Only) z Cycle the pedal several times
Improper APP1 reading may be due and check APP1 signal at SECM
to dirt or oxidation on the sensor PIN 15
traces

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 56 Advanced Diagnostics


Table a. MI-04 Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes)
DFC Probable Fault Action Corrective Action, First Check
65 Pedal2SensorInputLo MIN power Limit Check Acceleration Pedal connector
APP2 sensor failure or shorted circuit z Cycle the pedal several times
and check APP2 signal at SECM
PIN 2

66 Pedal2SensorInputHi MIN power Limit Check Acceleration Pedal connector


APP2 signal disconnected, open z Check APP2 signal at SECM
circuit or sensor malfunction PIN 2
(Expected faults when APP connector
is unplugged
CODES: 61 & 66)

67 Pedal2SensorRangeLo Stored Fault Code Check Acceleration Pedal connector


APP2 potentiometer malfunction. (MIL Only) z Cycle the pedal several times
Improper APP2 reading may be due and check APP2 signal at SECM
to dirt or oxidation on the sensor PIN 2
traces.

68 Pedal2SensorRangeHi Stored Fault Code Check Acceleration Pedal connector


APP2 potentiometer malfunction. (MIL Only) z Cycle the pedal several times
Improper APP2 reading may be due and check APP2 signal at SECM
to dirt or oxidation on the sensor PIN 2
traces.

69 Pedal1ToPedal2Difference MIN power Limit Check Acceleration Pedal connector


Measured APP2 pedal position signal z Cycle the pedal several times
is different than APP1 signal and check APP1 signal at SECM
PIN 15
z Check APP2 signal at SECM
PIN 2

71 AFRTrimValveOutput Stored Fault Code Check FTV for an open wire or FTV
FTV modulation driver signal fault (MIL, Disable Adaptive connector being disconnected
learns) FTV PIN A (SIGNAL) TO PIN B
(PWR)

Check FTV for an open coil by


disconnecting the FTV connector and
measuring the resistance (~26 +/-
2)

FTV PIN A (SIGNAL) TO PIN B


(PWR)

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 57 Advanced Diagnostics


Table a. MI-04 Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes)
DFC Probable Fault Action Corrective Action, First Check
72 AFRTrimValveLowerDC Stored Fault Code Engine measured Air/Fuel ratio at the
FTV duty cycle at lower (lean) limit (MIL, Disable Adaptive O2 sensor is excessively lean
learns) z Check for intake manifold leaks
z Check balance line (vacuum
hose) connection at the regulator
z Check N-CA55-500-TR mixer for
heavy end build-up and
operation (see mixer section)
z Check N2001 secondary for
operation or low primary
pressure (see N2001 Regulator
section)
Note: If LP-Gas fuel in LP tank is not
enough, this fault code can be set. If
LP tank is frozen, this fault code can
be set, too. It is not system trouble.

73 AFRTrimValveUpperDC Stored Fault Code Engine measured Air/Fuel ratio at the


FTV duty cycle at high (rich) limit (MIL, Disable Adaptive O2 sensor is excessively rich
(Expected fault when FTV connector learns)
is unplugged) Check FTV connector wiring for an
open circuit
FTV PIN A (SIGNAL) TO PIN B
(PWR)

Check FTV for an open coil by


disconnecting the FTV connector and
measuring the resistance (~26 +/-
2)
FTV PIN A (SIGNAL) TO PIN B
(PWR)

z Check N-CA55-500-TR mixer for


heavy end build-up and
operation (see mixer section)
z Check N2001 secondary for
operation (see N2001 Regulator
section)

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 58 Advanced Diagnostics


Table a. MI-04 Diagnostic Fault Codes (Flash Codes)
DFC Probable Fault Action Corrective Action, First Check
74 O2SensorSwitching Stored Fault Code Check the FTV for proper operation
O2 sensor is not switching across the (MIL, Disable Adaptive z Check FTV Hose Connections
reference AFR voltage learns)
Check FTV for an open coil by
disconnecting the FTV connector and
measuring the resistance
(~26 +/-2)

FTV PIN A (SIGNAL) TO PIN B


(PWR)

Note: If LP-Gas fuel in LP tank is not


enough, this fault code can be set. If
LP tank is frozen, this fault code can
be set, too. It is not system trouble.

77 OxygenSensorInputHigh Stored Fault Code Check if O2 sensor is shorted to


O2 sensor SECM driver signal is (MIL, Disable Adapts) +5VDC or Battery.
shorted to power O2 (SIGNAL) PIN B to SECM PIN 3

(AFRTrimValveLowerDC fault should


also occur)

Verify O2 sensor heater circuit is


operating by measuring circuit
resistance (2.1 +/-0.4)

O2 PIN C (HEATER GND) to PIN D


(HEATER PWR)

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 59 Advanced Diagnostics


CHAPTER 6 MI-04 ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS

Figure E1

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 60 Electrical Connections


CAN BUS
CONNECTOR

CAN1+

CAN1-
(FEMALE)

A B C D E F G J K
H

SECM CONNECTOR SECM CONNECTOR


(MALE)

SECMPWR+12vdc

XDCRPWR+5vdc
R01
CoilDriveSignal

120OHM

Lock-OffGND

ETCDriver+
VRSensor+

ETCDriver-
VRSensor-

SECMGND
XDCRGND

O2Sensor

CAN1+

CAN1-
APP2

APP1

TPS1
FTV-
MIL-
MAP

ECT
IAT

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

APP
GND
APP
PWR
APP2

APP1
+12VDC

FUEL LOCK-OFF
VR SENSOR

A
2

B
1

+12VDC
MIL-

FUEL TRIM VALVE


A
COOLANT SENSOR

B
B
A

+12VDC

+12VDC
+12VDC

A B C D 1 2 3 4 A B C D E 1 2 3 4 5 6
OXYGEN SENSOR TMAP SENSOR SMART COIL ELECTRONIC THROTTLE

Figure E2

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 61 Electrical Connections


Resistance Checks
NOTE
All resistive checks are made with the sensor or device disconnected from the harness.

SENSOR POINT TO POINT EXPECTED RANGE


TMAP TMAP PIN 1 (GND) TO PIN 4 2.4k - 8.2k
(PRESSURE SIGNAL KPA)
TMAP PIN 3 (PWR) TO PIN 4 3.4k - 8.2k
(PRESSURE SIGNAL KPA)
TMAP PIN 1 (GND) TO PIN 2 *SEE TMAP IAT TABLE FOR
(TEMPERATURE SIGNAL) PROPER RANGE

TMAP SENSOR IAT TABLE

Temperature in F Temperature in C Resistance in (OHMS)


+/-1 +/-1 MINIMUM NOMINAL MAXIMUM
-4 -20 14.0K 15.6K 17.3K
32 0 5.4K 5.9K 6.5K
68 20 2.3K 3.0K 3.3K
104 40 1.1K 1.2K 1.3K
140 60 572 612 655
176 80 309 329 351
212 100 176 186 197
248 120 103 110 116

SENSOR POINT TO POINT EXPECTED RANGE


TPS TPS PIN 2 (GND) TO PIN 6 (TPS1 1.25K +/-30%
(ELECTRONIC THROTTLE) SIGNAL)
TPS PIN 3 (PWR) TO PIN 6 (TPS1 1.25K +/-30%
SIGNAL)
TPS PIN 1 (+DRIVER) TO PIN 4 (- ~3.0 +/-30%
DRIVER)

SENSOR POINT TO POINT EXPECTED RANGE


ECT ECT PIN A (SIGNAL) TO PIN B 2.8K AT 25 C (77 F)
(COOLANT TEMPERATURE) (GND) +/- 8 C

SENSOR POINT TO POINT EXPECTED RANGE


O2 O2 PIN C (HEATER GND) TO PIN 2.1 +/- 0.4 ohms
(OXYGEN SENSOR) D (HEATER PWR)

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 62 N2001 Regulator/Converter


SENSOR POINT TO POINT EXPECTED RANGE
VR SENSOR VR PIN 1 (+) TO PIN 2 (-) ~320

SMART COIL COIL PIN A (SIGNAL) TO PIN B ~10K


COIL PIN A (SIGNAL) TO PIN D ~34K
COIL PIN A (SIGNAL) TO PIN E ~15K
(PWR)
COIL PIN B TO PIN D ~44K
COIL PIN B TO PIN E (PWR) ~26K
COIL PIN D TO PIN E (PWR) ~17K

CONNECTOR POINT TO POINT EXPECTED RANGE


FTV FTV PIN A (SIGNAL) TO PIN B (~26 +/-2)
(FUEL TRIM VALVE) (PWR)

CONNECTOR POINT TO POINT EXPECTED RANGE


FUEL LOCK-OFF LOCK-OFF PIN A (PWR) TO PIN B ~20-25
(GND SIGNAL)

Voltage Checks

SENSOR POINT TO POINT EXPECTED RANGE


ACCELERATION PEDAL ANGLE APP1: PIN B (SIGNAL A) TO PIN C 0.4 +/- 0.1V AT LOW IDLE
SENSOR (GND) 3.6 +/- 0.15V AT FULL ACCEL
APP2: PIN E (SIGNAL B) TO PIN 4.5 +/- 0.1V AT LOW IDLE
D (GND) 1.4 +/- 0.15V AT FULL ACCEL

Note: When you check the output voltage of acceleration pedal angle sensor, it must be connected to SECM so
that SECM can supply 5V to the angle sensor.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 63 N2001 Regulator/Converter


CHAPTER 7 N2001 PRESSURE REGULATOR
/CONVERTER
Propane is a by-product of crude oil and natural gas.
In the extraction process various hydrocarbons such
Removal and Installation of
as gasoline, kerosene, propane and butane are N2001 LP
separated. Each of these carry a certain amount of
by-product residue, commonly called heavy ends.
Regulator/Converter
Under normal circumstances these residues remain
WARNING
suspended in liquid and pass through the system
undetected.
z LP gas is highly flammable. To prevent
personal injury, keep fire and flammable
Engine coolant flows through the regulator/converter
materials away from the lift truck when work
assisting in the propane vaporization process. As the
is done on the fuel system.
coolant temperature rises, the regulator/converter
z Gas vapor may reduce oxygen available for
temperature also rises. The gas becomes hot and
breathing, cause headache, nausea,
expands to the point where it cannot carry the heavier
dizziness and unconsciousness and lead to
hydrocarbons or heavy-ends through the system.
injury or death. Always operate the forklift in
Because of this, the heavy-ends are deposited
a well ventilated area
(dropped out) into the regulator/converter, the vapor
z Liquid propane may cause freezing of tissue
line from the regulator to the mixer and even in the
or frostbite. Avoid direct contact with skin or
mixer itself. When these heavy-ends cool they form
tissue; always wear appropriate safety
a wax-like deposit or sludge. HD5 grade propane is
protection including gloves and safety
recommended for motor fuel use, however HD5
glasses when working with liquid propane.
propane will carry a certain amount of heavy-ends.
A fuel filter cannot remove this because it is not dirt or
debris but part of the liquid propane. As these
CAUTION
deposits build up over time regulator fuel ports and
The regulator/converter and mixer are
valve seats can be affected, reducing the
part of a certified system complying with
performance of the regulator. All propane systems
EPA and CARB 2004 requirements. Only
incorporating a regulator/converter are subject to
trained certified technicians should
heavy-end fouling over time. Because of this it may
perform disassemble, service or
be necessary for the certified technician to
replacement of the regulator/converter or
disassemble, clean and service the
mixer.
regulator/converter after long periods of operation.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 64 N2001 Regulator/Converter


Hose Connections
Proper operation of the closed loop control greatly depends on the correct vacuum hose routing and fuel line
lengths. Refer to the connection diagram (Figure R1) for proper routing and maximum hose lengths when
reinstalling system components.

A
Liquid Propane From
Fuel Tank

Balance Line From


Mixer Air Intake To
Regulator Vent Fitting

C C
Coolant Inlet Coolant Return
B From Engine
Breather
Vapor Fuel Line From D
Regulator Outlet To
Mixer Inlet

Control Line From


Regulator Vent Fitting F Control Line From
To Fuel Trim Valve FTV To Air Valve
(FTV) Vacuum (AVV)

Figure R1

Hose Type
A. High-pressure fuel line.
B. 5/8 I.D. Vapor Hose-Wire Reinforced (15 inch maximum length)
C. 3/8 I.D. Hose-Coolant
D. 1/2 I.D. Hose -Breather
E. 7/32 I.D. Vacuum Hose (10 inch recommended maximum length)
F. 7/32 I.D. Vacuum Hose (11.5 inch recommended maximum length)
G. 7/32 I.D. Vacuum Hose (18 inch recommended maximum length)

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 65 N2001 Regulator/Converter


N2001 Removal Steps:
1. Close the liquid outlet valve in the fuel storage
container.

2. Purge the system of fuel by starting the engine


and running until all trapped fuel in the system is
exhausted and the engine shuts down.

3. Remove the fuel inlet line (1) from the lock-off, the
two vacuum lines (2) from the branch-tee fitting in
the regulator vent and disconnect the lock-off
connector (3).

4. Remove the two rear-mounting bolts that hold the


regulator to the support bracket. This will allow
you easier access to the remaining hose clamps.

5. Remove the two cooling lines (4) from the


regulator.

NOTE: It will be necessary to either drain the


coolant system or clamp off the coolant lines as
close to the regulator as possible to avoid a
coolant spill when these lines are disconnected.

6. Remove the fuel vapor outlet hose (5) from the


regulator.

7. If it is necessary to fully disassemble the N2001


regulator, you will need to remove the fuel lock-off
at this time.

3 2

5
4

Figure 24

(1) Fuel inlet line (2) Vacuum line (3) Fuel Lock-off
(4) Cooling line (5) Fuel vapor outlet hose

NOTE
For installation of the N2001 reverse the
removal steps.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 66 N2001 Regulator/Converter


N2001 Regulator
Disassembly Steps:

Figure R5
1

Figure R3

3
Figure R5

3. Remove the six primary diaphragm cover screws


(4) and the primary cover assembly (5).
Figure R4

1. Remove the six secondary cover screws (1), the


secondary cover (2) and the secondary
diaphragm (3).

2. Remove the six primary diaphragm cover screws


(4) and the primary cover assembly (5).

Figure R6

4. Remove the primary diaphragm by sliding the


diaphragm to one side, releasing the primary
valve pin (Figure R6).

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 67 N2001 Regulator/Converter


10
3

11

Figure R7 Figure R8

6. Remove the body gasket (10), body o-ring seal


(11) and the fuel inlet plate, exposing the fuel inlet
expansion chamber and the coolant passage.

NOTE
For re-assembly of the N2001
regulator/converter, reverse the steps for
8 disassembly. Tighten all fasteners to
recommended torque values and test the
regulator before installing in the vehicle.
9 Torque primary cover screws to (40-50
inch lbs.), secondary cover screws to (15-
Figure R8
18 inch lbs.).

Figure R9

5. Turn the regulator body over with the rear fuel


inlet plate facing up. Remove the primary valve
access plug (7), the primary valve (8) and the
primary valve o-ring seal (9). The primary valve
goes through the inlet plate, then through the
body assembly and is retained by the primary
diaphragm (Figure R9).

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 68 N2001 Regulator/Converter


N2001 Disassembled Service

Figure R11

1. Clean the primary and secondary valves with


soap and warm water to remove heavy-end
deposits. Inspect the valve seats and o-rings for
wear. Replace worn components as necessary.

2. Clean the primary and secondary diaphragms with


soap and warm water. Inspect for wear, tears or
pinholes and deformations that may cause leaks
or poor performance of the regulator/converter.
Replace components as necessary.

3. Replace the body gasket of the coolant chamber


and body o-ring seal when servicing the N2001 to
avoid coolant leaks from the fuel expansion
chamber to the coolant passage.

4. Clean the regulator body (casting) with a parts


cleaning solvent. Be sure to remove all seals and
gaskets before cleaning the casting with solvent.

5. Make sure all parts (Figure R11) are completely


dry before re-assembly.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 69 N2001 Regulator/Converter


CHAPTER 8 N-CA55-500TR AIR/FUEL MIXER
Propane is a by-product of crude oil and natural gas.
In the extraction process various hydrocarbons such
Removal and Installation of
as gasoline, kerosene, propane and butane are the N-CA55-500TR Mixer
separated. Each of these carry a certain amount of
by-product residue, commonly called heavy ends.
Under normal circumstances these residues remain WARNING
suspended in liquid and pass through the system
undetected. z LP gas is highly flammable. To prevent
personal injury, keep fire and flammable
Engine coolant flows through the regulator/converter materials away from the lift truck when work
assisting in the propane vaporization process. As the is done on the fuel system.
coolant temperature rises, the regulator/converter z Gas vapor may reduce oxygen available for
temperature also rises. The gas becomes hot and breathing, cause headache, nausea,
expands to the point where it cannot carry the heavier dizziness and unconsciousness and lead to
hydrocarbons or heavy-ends through the system. injury or death. Always operate the forklift in
Because of this, the heavy-ends are deposited a well ventilated area
(dropped out) into the regulator/converter, the vapor z Liquid propane may cause freezing of tissue
line from the regulator to the mixer and even in the or frostbite. Avoid direct contact with skin or
mixer itself. When these heavy-ends cool they form a tissue; always wear appropriate safety
wax-like deposit or sludge. HD5 grade propane is protection including gloves and safety
recommended for motor fuel use, however HD5 glasses when working with liquid propane.
propane will carry a certain amount of heavy-ends.
A fuel filter cannot remove this because it is not dirt or CAUTION
debris but part of the liquid propane. As these The regulator/converter and mixer are
deposits build up over time regulator fuel ports and part of a certified system complying with
valve seats can be affected, reducing the EPA and CARB 2004 requirements. Only
performance of the regulator. All propane systems trained certified technicians should
incorporating a regulator/converter are subject to perform disassemble, service or
heavy-end fouling over time. Because of this it may replacement of the regulator/converter or
be necessary for the certified technician to mixer.
disassemble, clean and service the
regulator/converter after long periods of operation.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 70 N-CA55-500TR Mixer


N-CA55-500TR Mixer
Removal Steps: O-Ring

Spacer
1
4

3
2 Figure M3

NOTE
There will be a plastic o-ring spacer and
Figure M3
an o-ring inside this adapter, be careful
not to lose these items when removing
1. Close the liquid outlet valve in the forklift cylinder the mixer/adapter assembly from the
or fuel storage container. throttle (Figure M3).

2. Purge the system of fuel by starting the engine


and running until all trapped fuel in the system is
exhausted and the engine shuts down.

3. Remove the air horn air inlet adapter and hose


(Figure M1-1).

4. Mark the two vacuum lines to the mixer and


throttle adapter for identification; they must be
installed correctly for proper operation. Remove
the two vacuum lines (Figure M1-2).

Figure M2

5. Remove the vapor fuel inlet line (Figure M1-3).

6. Remove the electronic throttle connector (Figure


M1-4).

7. Remove the four bolts that mount the throttle


adapter to the electronic throttle body (Figure M2-
5).

8. Remove the mixer/adapter assembly from the


throttle by gently pulling upwards.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 71 N-CA55-500TR Mixer


N-CA55-500TR Disassembly
and Service

14
Figure M4
1
7 1. With the mixer/adapter assembly removed, and
the Air Horn removed from the mixer, remove the
12 four adapter retaining screws from the bottom of
the mixer (Figure M4).
11

13 3

5 Figure M5
6

2. Gently remove the throttle adapter from the


bottom of the mixer (Figure M5).
9

10

(1) BODY (2) SCREW (3) VALVE (4) SPRING


(5) ASSEMBLY (6) GASKET (7) GASKET (8) SCREW
(9) WASHER (10) SCREW (11) ORIFICE FITTING
(12) LABEL (13) LABEL (14) CAP
Figure M6

3. Components of the N-CA55-500TR and the mixer


body are shown in (Figure M6).

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 72 N-CA55-500TR Mixer


Figure M7 Figure M10

4. Replace the air-valve sealing ring as shown 7. After the air valve spring install the check valve
(Figure M7). The ring is similar to a piston ring plate (Figure M10).
and forms a seal from the air valve assembly to
the mixer main body. Small raised circular
formations can be found on one side of this ring.
Place the ring so that these circular markings face
upward toward the fuel-metering pin for proper
sealing.

Figure M11

8. Place the mixer to throttle body gasket over the


check valve plate (Figure M11). To properly install
the gasket the hole for the idle port in the throttle
adapter must be aligned with the idle port in the
Figure M8
gasket.

5. Insert the air valve assembly into the main body


(Figure M8).

Figure M12

9. Align the check valve notch in the throttle adapter


Figure M9
with the mixer check valve and the adapter idle
port with the mixer idle port. Install the throttle
6. Next, install the air valve spring (Figure M9). adapter tamper-resistant screws to the mixer
(Figure M12).

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 73 N-CA55-500TR Mixer


N-CA55-500TR Disassembled
Service
1. Clean the air valve assembly with soap and warm
water to remove heavy-end deposits. Inspect the
fuel metering valve and sealing ring for wear.
Replace worn components as necessary.

2. Clean the check valve plate with soap and warm


water. Inspect for wear, tears or pinholes in the
Figure M13
check valve and deformations that may cause
leaks or poor performance. Replace components
10. Check for binding of the air valve assembly by as necessary.
pressing down with two fingers on opposite sides
of the air valve assembly (Figure M13). The air 3. Replace all gaskets before assembly.
valve assembly should move freely without
binding and have full travel. If the air valve is 4. Clean the mixer body (casting) with a parts
binding, loosen the four adapter retaining screws, cleaning solvent. Be sure to remove all seals and
re-check the air valve for binding and re-tighten gaskets before cleaning the casting with solvent.
the adapter retaining screws. Make sure all parts are completely dry before re-
assembly.
11. Clean and check the orifice fitting (Mixer hose
barb) for obstruction. NOTE
For re-assembly of the N-CA55-500TR
reverse the disassembly steps.
CAUTION
The 1/8 NPT X hose barb fitting that
is installed in the mixer housing uses a WARNING
specific machined orifice size through the DO NOT spray carburetor cleaner or
fitting. This orifice fitting is part of the solvent into the mixer while installed on
mixer assembly and an integral part of the engine. These chemicals may damage
the MI-04 control. DO NOT replace this the oxygen sensor and cause pre-mature
fitting with a standard hose barb fitting or failure of the catalytic muffler.
use a drill bit to clean out the fitting
passage way. If this fitting is damaged the
mixer will need to be replaced.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 74 N-CA55-500TR Mixer


Installing the
Mixer/Throttle Assembly

22(2.2 Nm)
21
23
Figure M15
20
19
1. Align the Mixer-Throttle Adapter gasket between
the mixer and the throttle adapter (Figure M15),
and then attach the mixer to the adapter using the
18 four tamper-resistant retaining screws.
13
(2.2 Nm) 15
12
(8.6 Nm) 17 14
16 11 24
10
4
7 3 (41.6
(4.2 8 6
Nm)
Nm)
9
CHECK VALVE IDLE PORT
2
1 Figure M16

CAUTION
The mixer must be installed with the idle
5 (0.8 Nm) INTAKE
port aligned with the idle port in the
MANIFOLD
adapter, and the mixer check valve
aligned with the valve recess in the
adapter to operate properly (Figure M16).
(1) GASKET-INTAKE MANIFOLD
(2) ADAPTER-INTAKE MANIFOLD (3) BOLT-ADAPTER
(4) BRACKET-TMAP (5) BOLT-TMAP BRACKET
(6) TMAP SENSOR (7) WASHER-TMAP MTG
(8) BOLT-TMAP MTG (9) GASKET-ITB(32MM)
(10) ITB(32MM) (11) O-RING (12) APOLLO ADAPTER-ITB
(13) FITTING (14) PLUG (15) BOLT-APOLLO ADAPTER
(16) WASHER-ITB (17) BOLT-ITB
(18) MIXER(CA55) (19) FITTING (20) AIR HORN ADAPTER,
(21) WASHER-AIR HORN (22) BOLT-AIR HORN,
(23) FITTING-VENTILATION (24) O-RING SPACER

The mixer/throttle assembly consists of a manifold


adapter, electronic throttle, mixer-throttle adapter and
air horn adapter. The manifold adapter is designed to Figure M17
mount the mixer/throttle assembly to a two-bolt intake
manifold. The air horn adapter allows the intake hose
2. Tighten the four tamper-proof retaining screws to
from the air cleaner to be attached to the mixer air
the specified torque (Figure M17).
intake, along with the vent line from the engine PCV
valve.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 75 Test And Adjustments


O-Ring

Spacer

Figure M18 Figure M19

3. Check for free travel of the mixers piston 6. Place the O-ring Spacer over the outside throat of
diaphragm assembly by pushing the piston the throttle. This spacer is necessary to assure
diaphragm downward (Figure M18). If you detect that the O-ring, which seals the throttle to the
any binding, loosen the retaining screws, re-align adapter, properly seats against the throttle adapter.
the gasket and re-tighten the retaining screws.
Check for binding again, if the piston assembly 7. Place the throttle adapter O-ring over the outside
moves freely, re-torque the fasteners and continue. throat of the throttle, below the throttle bore
retaining lip and on top of the O-ring Spacer
4. Install the manifold adapter by placing the (Figure M19). Apply a generous amount of
manifold gasket between the manifold and the lubricating grease (vacuum grease) to the O-ring
manifold adapter. The manifold adapter should be and fully seat it against the machined surface.
mounted with the TMAP sensor ports facing the
thermostat housing. Tighten the two internal 8. Carefully slide the pre-assembled mixer/throttle
socket bolts to specified torque values. adapter assembly over the throat of the throttle
using a rocking motion, aligning the mounting
5. Place the throttle bottom gasket between the holes of the adapter with the mounting holes of
electronic throttle assembly and the manifold the throttle Face the fuel inlet of the mixer toward
adapter. Place the throttle assembly on top of the the plastic motor assembly cover of the electronic
gasket aligning the four mounting holes with the throttle assembly.
threaded holes in the manifold adapter. The
plastic motor assembly cover, of the electronic NOTE
throttle assembly should be facing opposite of the Avoid pinching the O-ring in the cutaway
TMAP sensor mounting holes. of the throttle adapter. This will damage
the O-ring and cause a manifold leak in
the system.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 76 Test And Adjustments


9. Tighten the four mounting bolts hand tight using a
crossing pattern from one side of the adapter to
the other. This prevents the adapter O-ring from
misaligning against the throttle, which may cut the
O-ring and cause an intake leak. Finally, tighten
the four throttle adapter fasteners to the specified
torque values.

Figure M20

10. Install the TMAP sensor mounting-bracket to the


manifold adapter. Apply a small amount of
vacuum grease to the TMAP sensor O-ring and
install the sensor into the manifold adapter, tighten
the fasteners to specified torque values.

NOTE
Be careful not to over tighten the sensor
retaining screw or damage to the sensor
housing may result.

11. Place mixer intake gasket on top of the mixer


(Figure M20), then place the air horn adapter on
top of the mixer with the intake tube facing the
valve cover (air cleaner side of the engine).
Tighten the air horn retaining bolts to specified
torque values.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 77 Test And Adjustments


CHAPTER 9 TEST AND ADJUSTMENTS

WARNING
N2001 Service Testing
After overhaul or for simply checking the N2001
z LP gas is highly flammable. To prevent
regulator/converter operation, the following tests can
personal injury, keep fire and flammable
be performed (See Chapter 7 for removal/installation
materials away from the lift truck when work
of the N2001). To check the secondary regulation
is done on the fuel system.
(output) a simple vacuum hand pump can be used to
z Gas vapor may reduce oxygen available for
simulate the vacuum signal transmitted from the
breathing, cause headache, nausea,
air/fuel mixer when the engine is running. You will
dizziness and unconsciousness and lead to
need the following hardware:
injury or death. Always operate the forklift in
a well ventilated area
z Liquid propane may cause freezing of tissue Secondary Stage Test Hardware
or frostbite. Avoid direct contact with skin or
tissue; always wear appropriate safety 1. Hand vacuum pump.
protection including gloves and safety
glasses when working with liquid propane. 2. Regulator vapor outlet test fitting NPT X
hose barb.
CAUTION
The regulator/converter and mixer are 3. Union Tee NPT with three NPT X hose
part of a certified system complying with barb.
EPA and CARB 2004 requirements. Only
trained certified technicians should 4. Vacuum hose.
perform disassemble, service or
replacement of the regulator/converter or 5. 0-3 in W.C. Magnehelic Gauge (inches of water
mixer. column).

Secondary Stage (Break-Off) Test

1. Connect the vacuum pump, the Magnahelic


gauge and the regulator vapor outlet to the Union
Tee fitting (Figure R11). Make sure there is no
leakage at any of the fittings.

2. Using the vacuum pump slowly apply enough


vacuum to measure above -2 in WC on the gauge.
This vacuum signal opens the secondary valve in
the N2001 regulator/converter.

3. Release the vacuum pump lever and you will see


the gauge needle start falling back toward zero.
When the pressure drops just below the specified
break-off pressure (-1.2 in WC) of the secondary
spring, the needle should stop moving.

4. At this point the secondary valve should close. If


the secondary valve seat or the secondary
diaphragm is leaking the gauge needle will
continue to fall toward zero (proportional to the
leak size). An excessively rich air/fuel mixture can
be caused by a secondary valve seat leak, repair
as necessary (See Chapter 7 for disassembly of
the N2001).

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 78 Test And Adjustments


Secondary Stage Test Connection Primary Stage Test Hardware
1. Hand vacuum pump.
Magnahelic
Gauge 2. Regulator Fuel Inlet test fitting ( NPT standard
air coupling).

3. Test Gauge fitting (1/4 NPT X 1/4 Hose Barb).

4. Vacuum hose or vinyl tubing.


Vacuum
Hand Pump
Union Tee
5. 0-60 in W.C. Magnehelic Gauge (inches of water
Vapor Outlet
Test Fitting column).
Figure R11

Primary Stage Pressure Test


1. Remove the primary test port plug from the side of
the regulator and install the NPT hose barb
fitting.

2. Connect a compressed air line (shop air ~100psi)


to the liquid propane fuel inlet of the N2001
Regulator (Figure R12).

Test Port

Fule Inlet
Figure R12

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 79 Test And Adjustments


NOTE
The N2001 Primary stage pressure can
also be tested at idle on a running engine.
The N-2001 primary pressure should be
between 40" and 55" water column at 700
RPM, idle.

WARNING

z LP gas is highly flammable. To prevent


Figure R13
personal injury, keep fire and flammable
materials away from the lift truck when work
3. Apply compressed air, wait for air to exit the hose is done on the fuel system.
barb in the test port, and then connect the
Magnahelic gauge (Figure R13) to the hose barb z Gas vapor may reduce oxygen available for
using the vacuum hose or vinyl tubing. This breathing, cause headache, nausea,
prevents the gauge from reading maximum dizziness and unconsciousness and lead to
pressure due to the large velocity of compressed injury or death. Always operate the forklift in
air entering the primary chamber. a well ventilated area

4. Make sure there is no leakage at any of the z Liquid propane may cause freezing of tissue
fittings. The static pressure should read between or frostbite. Avoid direct contact with skin or
40-60 inches of water column on the Magnahelic tissue; always wear appropriate safety
gauge and maintain a constant pressure for 60 protection including gloves and safety
seconds. glasses when working with liquid propane

5. If the pressure reading begins to increase, a leak


is most likely present at the primary valve, either
the primary valve o-ring or the valve itself. If a leak
is present you will need to disassemble the
primary side of the regulator, repair the cause of
the leak, re-assemble the regulator and test the
primary stage again (See Chapter 7 for
disassembly of the N2001).

6. If the pressure begins to decrease, the secondary


seat is probably not making an adequate seal and
is leaking. If a leak is present you will need to
disassemble the secondary cover of the regulator,
repair the cause of the leak, re-assemble the
regulator and test the primary and secondary
stage again (See Chapter 7 for disassembly of the
N2001).

7. Once the test is successful, re-install the primary


test port plug and check the fittings for leaks (See
Chapter 7 for installation of the N2001).

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 80 Test And Adjustments


NOTE
N-CA55-500TR Service AVV If the measured water column is
(Air Valve Vacuum) Testing excessively high, check for a sticking or
binding piston diaphragm assembly
AVV Test Hardware inside the mixer. (See Chapter 8 for
removal, installation and disassembly of
1. Mixer AVV test fitting NPT X hose barb. the N-CA55-500TR mixer).

2. Union Tee NPT with three NPT X hose


barb. WARNING
DO NOT spray carburetor cleaner or
3. Vacuum hose. solvent into the mixer while installed on
the engine. These chemicals may damage
4. 0-20 in W.C. Magnehelic Gauge (inches of water the oxygen sensor and cause pre-mature
column). failure of the catalytic muffler.

AVV Test

1. Install the Union Tee fitting between the FTV and


the AVV fitting.

2. Connect the vacuum hose from the Union Tee


fitting to the Magnahelic gauge (Figure T1). You
should now have the gauge inline between the
FTV and the mixer to throttle adapter.

3. With the engine running at idle (700 RPM) the


AVV should be between 5" and 10" water column.

Gauge
Fitting

AVV Fitting

Figure T1

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 81 Test And Adjustments


Ignition Timing Adjustment Distributor with Rotor Cap Removed

With the MI-04 system both mechanical and vacuum


advance are no longer inside the distributor. All
ignition timing advance is controlled by the SECM.
The only timing adjustment that can be made by a
technician is the mechanical alignment of the
distributor. The SECM uses a 40-degree timing
window from 5 degrees BTDC to 35 degrees BTDC.
Because of this an accurate adjustment cannot be
made with a standard timing light since the SECM will
maintain the correct timing even if the distributor is
moved (as long as the distributor setting remains
within the 40-degree window). Therefore the ignition
timing setting of the distributor becomes very
important and is described in the following steps. Firing Order
1-3-4-2

Timing Wheel at 0
degrees TDC

Figure G2

2. Remove the distributor rotor cap and verify that


the distributor rotor is lined up with number 1
cylinder on the distributor cap (Figure G2).

View of Distributor Rotor Cap


Distributor View of Internal VR Sensor

Internal
#1 Cylinder
VR Sensor

Signal
Rotor

3. Remove the distributor rotor and dust cover so


that the internal VR sensor and signal rotor gear
are visible (Figure G3). The internal VR sensor
inside the distributor is not used by the SECM for
a speed reference with the G420E/G424E engine
and its wiring harness does not connect to the
system. The distributors internal VR sensor is only
used as an alignment reference point for setting
the correct distributor position.

Figure G1

1. Using the timing indicator on the crankshaft pulley,


set the engine on 0 degrees Top Dead Center
(TDC) of number 1 cylinder (Figure G1).

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 82 Test And Adjustments


Incorrect
Alignments
#1 Tooth
Flat Side
of Shaft

Figure G4

4. Loosen the distributor hold down nut and rotate


the distributor so that the signal rotor gear tooth of Correct Alignment
the #1 cylinder (tooth opposite the flat side of the
distributor shaft) lines up with the sensor pickup.
(Figure G4). 1

Figure G5

5. To correctly set the distributor, align the center of


the #1 cylinder tooth with the leading edge of the
VR sensor pickup (Figure G5). Keep in mind that
the distributor rotates in a clockwise direction.

6. Once the proper alignment is obtained, lock the


distributor in place by tightening the hold down nut
to the specified torque value and re-install the
rotor, dust cover and rotor cap.

WARNING
Improper alignment of the distributor may
cause system ignition problems resulting
in ignition misfires or backfires.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 83 Test And Adjustments


Figure G6 Figure G8

7. After you have completed setting the distributor 9. Using a feeler gauge (Figure G8), loosen the
alignment you will need to adjust the VR sensor sensor retaining bolts and adjust the gap between
used by the SECM for speed reference. This the sensor and the gear tooth from 1.25mm to
sensor is mounted near the crankshaft pulley 1.5mm. Re-tighten the sensor retaining bolts
wheel (Figure G6). when complete.

10. Rotate the crankshaft pulley 180 degrees and


align a timing gear tooth in the center of the VR
sensor pickup as you did in step 8. Verify that the
sensor gap is still within 1.25mm to 1.5mm. This
step is to check timing gear run out and insures
proper speed signal amplitude.

11. If the VR sensor gap is not within the specification


repeat steps 9 & 10 and continue adjusting the
sensor gap until you are within tolerance. This
completes setting ignition timing and sets the
center of the SECM ignition control range at 15
Figure G7 degrees BTDC.

8. Rotate the crankshaft pulley so that one of the


gear teeth on the timing wheel aligns in the center
of the VR sensor (Figure G7).

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 84 Test And Adjustments


Idle Mixture Adjustment

Figure G9

Figure G7 5. Launch the MotoView program on your computer


and open the Service Tool display.
The method for making the idle mixture adjustment to
6. Start the engine; you should now see the idle
a running engine is to use the Service Tool software
RPM on your Service Tool display Run Screen
by connecting a laptop computer to the SECM. If you
(Figure G9).
do not have the Service Tool proceed to (step 12). A
USB (Universal Serial Bus) to CAN (Controller Area
NOTE
Network) communication adapter by Kavaser will be
Service Tool software (MotoTuneViewer)
required along with a Crypt Token (Figure G7). The
and the security Crypt Token is
Crypt Token acts as a security key allowing the laptop
obtainable by certified technicians
to retrieve the necessary data from the SECM.
through authorized dealers.

Crypt
Token

Figure G8

1. Install the Crypt Token in an available USB port in


the computer (Figure G8).

2. With the ignition key in the OFF position, connect


the Kavaser communication cable from a second
USB port on the computer to the CAN
communications cable on the engine. (*If your
laptop computer does not have a second USB
port an appropriate USB Hub will need to be
used).

3. Connect a timing light to the engine.

4. Turn the ignition key to the ON position (Do Not


Start the Engine).

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 85 Test And Adjustments


Idle Mixture
Screw

Tamper Proof
Cap
Figure 10 Figure 11

7. While on the Run Screen adjust the idle mixture 13. Install the tamper proof cap on the idle mixture
screw on the mixer until a reading of 25-50% is screw adjustment port so that no further
reached for the FTV Duty Cycle (Figure G10). adjustments can be made (Figure G11).

8. To make this adjustment you will need to adjust NOTE


the nylon screw all the way inward and then back If the FTV Duty Cycle reading is cannot
out the screw turn. be adjusted between 25-50%, check for
possible vacuum leaks, manifold leaks or
9. Use the accelerator pedal to increase RPM above a faulty mixer.
idle momentarily (Rev the engine) then release
the pedal to return to idle RPM. The duty cycle
setting should remain within the adjustment range
(25-50%).

10. To obtain an accurate FTV Duty Cycle reading


when the tamper proof is not installed, place your
thumb over the idle screw port so that no air will
leak past the screw threads.

11. If the FTV Duty Cycle reading is above 50% back


the idle adjustment screw out again and re-check
your duty cycle reading. Continue to do this until
the FTV Duty Cycle reading is within the proper
range (25-50%)

12. Turn the ignition key to the OFF position to shut


down the engine.

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 86 Test And Adjustments


CHAPTER 10 SERVICE TOOL KIT

A343079
USB (Universal Serial Bus) to CAN (Controller Area
Network) Converter Assembly

A343080
Service Tool Software (includes CD and Crypt Token
(License Dongle))

Crypt
Token

A334071
Extension Cable

G420E/G424E Tier LP Engine 87 Service Tool Kit