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EXPERIMENT No.

03 (A)
OBJECTIVE: - Study of Half wave and Full wave rectifier. Measurement of V rms,
V dc and ripple factor. Also study use of filter-ripple reduction (RC Filter).

APPARATUS REQUIRED: - C.R.O, Multimeter, Trainer kit, Bread board,


Connecting wires, resistance, voltmeter, ammeter, diode, power supply.

THEORY
HALF WAVE RECTIFIER:- A diode is a unidirectional conduction device. It
conducts only when its anode is at a higher voltage with respect to its cathode. In a
half-wave rectifier circuit, during positive half-cycle of the input, the diode gets
forward biased and it conducts. Current flows through the load resistor R L and
voltage is developed across it. During negative half-cycle of the input, the diode gets
reverse biased. Now no current (except the leakage current which is very small) flow.
The voltage across the load resistance during this period of input cycle is zero. Thus
a pure ac signal is converted into a unidirectional signal. It can be shown that
(i)
V dc = V m

Where, V DC is the output DC voltage and Vm is peak AC voltage at the input the
rectifier circuit
(ii)
Ripple Factor = ac voltage at o\p = 1.21
dc voltage at o\p

A A

T T

Half wave rectifier without filter


FULL WAVE RECTIFIER
FULL WAVE RECTIFIER: - In full wave rectifier, both the half cycles of input AC
voltage are utilized to give a continuous unidirectional load current. There are two
types of rectifier one is center tap rectifier using two diodes & other is bridge rectifier
using four diodes

CENTRE TAP RECTIFIER: - In a full-wave rectifier circuit there are two diodes,
a transformer and a load resistor. The transformer has a centre-tap in its secondary
winding. It provides out-of-phase voltages to the two diodes. During the positive half-
cycle of the input, the diode D2 is reverse biased and ti does not conduct. But diode
D1 is forward biased and it conducts. The current flowing through D1 also passes
throught the load resistor, and a voltage is developed across it. During the negative
half-cycle, the diode D2 is forward biased and D1 is reverse biased. Now, current
flows through diode D2 and load resistor. The current flowing through load resistor
R L passes in the same direction in both the half-cycles. The dc voltage obtained at
the output is given as
(i).
Vdc = 2Vm

Where Vm is the peak value of the ac voltage between the centre tap points & one of
the diodes.
( ii ) . Ripple factor = ac voltage at o / p = 0.482
dc voltage at o / p

Center-Tap Full-Wave Rectifier without filter Center-Tap Full-Wave Rectifier with


filter

BRIDGE TYPE FULL WAVE RECTIFIER:-


BRIDGE RECTIFIER:- In a bridge rectifier circuit there are four diodes, a
transformer and a load resistor. When the input voltage is positive at point. A diodes
D2 and D4 conduct. The current passes through the load resistor R L. During the
other half of the input signal, the point A is negative with respect to the point B. The
diodes D1 and D3 conduct. The current passes through the load resistor in the same
direction as during the positive half-cycle. DC voltage is developed across the load. It
can be proved that the output dc voltage is given by
Vdc = 2Vm /
Where Vm is the peak ac voltage at the input of the rectifier.

Bridge type full wave without filter Bridge type full wave with
filter

Use of Filter:- The output of a half-wave or full-wave rectifier contains an


appreciable amount of ac voltage in addition to dc voltage. But, what we desire is
pure dc without any ac voltage in it. The ac variations can be filtered out or smoothed
out from the rectified voltage. This is done by filter circuits.
In a shunt capacitor filter, we put a high value capacitor in shunt with the load. The
capacitor offers a low impedance path to the ac components of current. Most of the
ac current passes through the shunt capacitor. All the dc current passes through the
load resistor. The capacitor tries to maintain the output voltage constant at V m . This
is shown in rectifiers.

PROCEDURE :-
(A) HWR:-
1. First connect the primary side of the transformer to the AC main as shown in
fig
2. Connect the C.R.O. probes to the output points. By proper setting of C.R.O.,
a good &stable wave shape can be seen on its screen .Plot this wave form
& also observe the wave shape at the o\p points.
3. Using multimeter measure the AC voltage at the secondary terminals of the
transformer. This gives the RMS value, also measure AC & DC voltage at
output points.
4. Multiply this RMS value by 2 to get the peak value Vm calculate the
theoretical value of DC voltage using formula
Vdc = Vm /
Compare this theoretical value with practically measured value of output dc
voltage.
5. Using the measured value of DC & AC output voltages, calculate
Ripple factor .It should be near about 1.21.
6. Measure the peak inverse voltage across diode which should be Vm.
(b) FWR (CENTRE TAP):-
1. Connect the primary of center tapped transformer to main supply. At the
output points of full wave rectifier ckt, connect the vertical plates of CRO & by
adjusting its knob, get a stationary pattern on the screen. Now touch the CRO
probes at the centre tap & one of the diodes. Observe the wave shapes on
CRO compare the two wave shapes.
2. By multimeter, measure the AC voltage at the input & output points. Also
measure the dc voltage at the output point.
3. Multiply the ac input voltage by 2 to get peak value & calculate the dc
voltage by Vdc = 2Vm /
Compare this theoretical value with the practical value.
4. Calculate the ripple Factor by using formula
Ripple Factor = (AC voltage at o\p) = 0.482
(DC voltage at o\p)
5. Measure the PIV across the diode. It should be 2Vm.
(c) FWR (BRIDGE TYPE):-
1. First, connect the full or half wave rectifier circuit to the high value capacitor c
as shown in fig. & load R L also.
2. Connect the CRO at the output of rectifier terminals and note down the wave
shape. Now connect the CRO at the output of filter see i.e. across R L .
3. Measure the input ac voltage at the input of T secondary to get the peak
value, multiply it by 2.
Measure the output dc voltage when shunt capacitor is used in the circuit.
OBSERVATION TABLE:-
S. No. Applied Input Voltage Observe Output Voltage Remark

CALCULATION:-

(a) RESULTS HWR:-


1. Input & output wave shapes are seen on CRO.
2. Practical value of DC voltage is little less then the theoretical value the
difference is only ..V.
3. The practical value of ripple factor is more than its theoretical value the
difference is

(b) RESULTS FWR (CENTRE TAP):-


1. The output dc voltage is little less than the theoretical value.
2. There is little difference between theoretical & measured value of ripple factor.

(c) RESULT FWR (BRIDGE TYPE):-


1. With the use of shunt filter in half or full wave rectifier, ripple voltage is
reduced.
2. If no load is used across the capacitor, the output waveform will ideally be a
constant dc level equal in value to the peak voltage (Vm) from the rectified
circuit & if load is connected across capacitor C, the output voltage will be
Vdc as shown in fig. 7 (b).
3. The ripple voltage can be calculated from the given formula.

Vr (rms) = Idc = 2.4 Idc = 2.4 Vdc


4 3. fc C RLC
Where Idc is in milliamps, C is in farads R L is in K.
POINTS FOR DISCUSSION:-
1. What does ripple factor tell about rectifiers?
2. How to find regulation.
3. What is the significance of transformer utility factor (TUF).
4. Give relation between TUF and efficiency?
5. Which is the better rectifier HWR or FWR?

EXPERIMENT No. 3(b)


OBJECTIVE: - To study Clipper and Clamper circuits.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: Clipper trainer kit, Clamper trainer kit, CRO,


function generator, connecting probes.

THEORY: Clipper: A clipper is a circuit with which the waveform is shaped by


removing or clipping a portion of the applied input signal waveform without distorting
the remaining part. Clipper can remove signal voltages above or below a specified
level. A Positive clipper removes the positive half cycles of the input voltage
waveform as shown in fig 3(b).(a). According to the given circuit, if the input voltage
is positive, the diode will be reversed biased and it will not conduct. Therefore it will
work as an open circuit and hence the positive half cycle does not appear across the
output. When the input signal is negative, the diode is forward biased and it
conducts. In this condition, the diode acts as short-circuit. Therefore, the voltage
drop across the diode is zero and all the negative cycle voltage appears at the
output.

Similarly, a Negative clipper clips the negative half cycles of the input waveform as
shown in fig 3(b).(b).

Clamper: Clamping circuit shifts or clamps a signal to a different dc level i.e. it


introduces a dc level to an ac signal. Here, in fig 3(b).(c)., a positive clamper circuit is
shown. This clamps the input signal waveform positively. The charging time of a
capacitor is made quite small as compared to its discharging time. This implies that
the voltage across the capacitor will not discharge during the interval when the diode
is not conducting. During the negative half cycle of the input signal, the diode is
forward biased and acts as a short circuit. Since the charging time is quite small, the
capacitor is charged to V volts very quickly. Hence the output across diode is zero.
During positive half cycle, the diode is reversed biased and acts as an open circuit.
Now the capacitor works as a battery and it should discharge through resistor R. But
since the discharging time constant is quite large, the capacitor remains almost fully
charged to V volts during the OFF time of the diode.
Applying KVL to the circuit, V + V V0 = 0
Therefore, V 0 = 2V
Hence, the output is positively clamped.

PROCEDURE: -
1. Connect the circuit as per the given figure.
2. Set the ac input voltage to V volts.
3. Observe the output waveform on the CRO.
4. Plot the graph of the input and output waveform.

RESULT:- The clipper and clamper circuits are studied and waveform is plotted
on the graph.

POINTS FOR DISCUSSION:-


1. What are the different types of clipper and clamper?
2. How the output will be change, if the ideal diode is replace by a silicon diode?
3. Write practical applications of clipper and clamper?
4. Distinguish between clipper and clamper circuit?