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Topic 15 : Hydrocarbon SMK Sacred Hart, Sibu

Mechanism: Initiation, Propagation, Termination


Substitution
Excess CH4 CH3Cl
Alkane Excess Cl2 CCl4 1. Extra and high
Alkene grade petrol
Cracking Thermal (600oC 800oC)
Alkane 2. Petrochemicals
Catalytic (Al2O3, SiO2, ) H 3. Source of
2
alkenes

Substitution Excess Cl
Cycloalkane
Excess Cl2

Combustion
Catalytic oxidation (O2, Ag, )
Oxidation , 2
CH2=CH2 + O2

Alkene Cold : CO2


by KMnO4/H+ +
Hot : H2O

X2 (g)
+
X2 (aq) minor
+ major
Addition H2, Ni, 180oC
HX, ZnCl2,
H2O(g), H3PO4, 300oC, 60atm Alcohol
2
Cold conc H2SO4 + H2SO4

Polymerisation LDPE , 1200atm, 200oC, O2


HDPE, Zieglar-Natta catalyst, 60oC, 1 atm
Ozonolysis (i) O3 + H2O2
(ii) Zn/H+,

(Only benzylic hydrogen


KMnO4 /H+ can be oxidized)
Cl2, UV light

Cl2, dry AlCl3 +


(yellow oily liquid
Nitration (Conc HNO3 , conc H2SO4, <55oC) NO2
with almond smell)
Sulphonation (Conc H2SO4, ) SO3H
Alkylation (RX, dry AlCl3, ) R

Acylation (RCOX, dry AlCl3, )


H2, Ni, 180oC
EDG (Ortho and para activator)
Attached to benzene ring Halogen (Ortho and para activator)
EWG (meta activator)