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com

Chemical, Civil and Mechanical Engineering Tracks of 3rd Nirma University International Conference

on Engineering (NUiCONE-2012)

Analysis and Design of Diagrid Structural System for High Rise Steel

Buildings

Khushbu Jania , Paresh V. Patelb*

a

Postgraduate Student , Department of Civil Engineering, Nirma University, Ahmedabad 382481, India

b

Professor , Department of Civil Engineering, Nirma University, Ahmedabad 382481, India

Abstract

Advances in construction technology, materials, structural systems and analytical methods for analysis and design facilitated the growth

of high rise buildings. Structural design of high rise buildings is governed by lateral loads due to wind or earthquake. Lateral load

resistance of structure is provided by interior structural system or exterior structural system. Usually shear wall core, braced frame and

their combination with frames are interior system, where lateral load is resisted by centrally located elements. While framed tube, braced

tube structural system resist lateral loads by elements provided on periphery of structure. It is very important that the selected structural

system is such that the structural elements are utilized effectively while satisfying design requirements. Recently diagrid structural system

is adopted in tall buildings due to its structural efficiency and flexibility in architectural planning. Compared to closely spaced vertical

columns in framed tube, diagrid structure consists of inclined columns on the exterior surface of building. Due to inclined columns lateral

loads are resisted by axial action of the diagonal compared to bending of vertical columns in framed tube structure. Diagrid structures

generally do not require core because lateral shear can be carried by the diagonals on the periphery of building. Analysis and design of 36

storey diagrid steel building is presented. A regular floor plan of 36 m 36 m size is considered. ETABS software is used for modeling

and analysis of structural members. All structural members are designed as per IS 800:2007 considering all load combinations. Dynamic

along wind and across wind are considered for analysis and design of the structure. Load distribution in diagrid system is also studied for

36 storey building. Similarly, analysis and design of 50, 60, 70 and 80 storey diagrid structures is carried out. Comparison of analysis

results in terms of time period, top storey displacement and inter-storey drift is presented in this paper.

2013

2012ThePublished

Authors.by ElsevierbyLtd.

Published Selection

Elsevier and/or

Ltd. Open peer-review

access under responsibility

under CC BY-NC-ND license. of the Institute of Technology Nirma

University,

Selection andAhmedabad.

peer-review under responsibility of Institute of Technology, Nirma University, Ahmedabad.

1. Introduction

The rapid growths of urban population and consequent pressure on limited space have considerably influenced the

residential development of city. The high cost of land, the desire to avoid a continuous urban sprawl, and the need to

preserve important agricultural production have all contributed to drive residential buildings upward. As the height of

building increase, the lateral load resisting system becomes more important than the structural system that resists the

gravitational loads. The lateral load resisting systems that are widely used are: rigid frame, shear wall, wall-frame, braced

tube system, outrigger system and tubular system. Recently, the diagrid Diagonal Grid structural system is widely used

E-mail address: paresh.patel@nirmauni.ac.in

1877-7058 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Institute of Technology, Nirma University, Ahmedabad.

doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2013.01.015

Khushbu Jani and Paresh V. Patel / Procedia Engineering 51 (2013) 92 100 93

for tall steel buildings due to its structural efficiency and aesthetic potential provided by the unique geometric configuration

of the system [5].

Diagrid is a particular form of space truss. It consists of perimeter grid made up of a series of triangulated truss system.

Diagrid is formed by intersecting the diagonal and horizontal components. The famous examples of diagrid structure all

around the world are the Swiss Re in London, Hearst Tower in New York, Cyclone Tower in Asan (Korea), Capital Gate

Tower in Abu Dhabi and Jinling Tower in China as shown in Fig 1. The new headquarter for Central China Television

(CCTV) in Beijing is one of the examples of utilization of diagrid structural system to support the challenging shape [4].

Fig. 1. Diagrid buildings (a) Swiss Re in London (b) Hearst Tower in New York (c) Cyclone Tower in Asan (Korea) (d) Capital Gate Tower in Abu Dhabi

and (e) Jinling Tower in china.

Diagrid has good appearance and it is easily recognized. The configuration and efficiency of a diagrid system reduce the

number of structural element required on the faade of the buildings, therefore less obstruction to the outside view. The

structural efficiency of diagrid system also helps in avoiding interior and corner columns, therefore allowing significant

flexibility with the floor plan. Perimeter diagrid system saves approximately 20 percent of the structural steel weight

when compared to a conventional moment-frame structure [4].

The diagonal members in diagrid structural systems can carry gravity loads as well as lateral forces due to their

triangulated configuration. Diagrid structures are more effective in minimizing shear deformation because they carry lateral

shear by axial action of diagonal members. Diagrid structures generally do not need high shear rigidity cores because lateral

shear can be carried by the diagonal members located on the periphery [2].

In this paper analysis and design of 36 storey diagrid steel building is presented. A regular floor plan of 36 m 36 m size

is considered. ETABS software is used for modeling and analysis of structural members. All structural members are

designed as per IS 800:2007 considering all load combinations. Dynamic along wind and across wind are considered for

analysis and design of the structure. Similarly, analysis and design of 50, 60, 70 and 80 storey diagrid structures is carried

out. Comparison of analysis results in terms of time period, top storey displacement and inter-storey drift is presented.

The 36 storey tall building is having 36 m 36 m plan dimension. The storey height is 3.6 m. The typical plan and

elevation are shown in Fig 2. In diagrid structures, pair of braces is located on the periphery of the building. The angle of

inclination is kept uniform throughout the height. The inclined columns are provided at six meter spacing along the

perimeter. The interior frame of the diagrid structures is designed only for gravity load. The design dead load and live loads

on floor slab are 3.75 kN/m2 and 2.5 kN/m2 respectively. The dynamic along wind loading is computed based on the basic

wind speed of 30 m/sec and terrain category III as per IS:875 (III)-1987 (Gust factor method) [6]. Across wind load is

computed as discussed by Gu and Quan [1].The design earthquake load is computed based on the zone factor of 0.16,

medium soil, importance factor of 1 and response reduction factor of 5 [7]. Modeling, analysis and design of diagrid

structure are carried out using ETABS software [9]. For linear static and dynamic analysis the beams and columns is

modeled by beam elements and braces are modeled by truss elements. The support conditions are assumed as hinged. All

structural members are designed using IS 800:2007[8]. Secondary effect like temperature variation is not considered in the

design, assuming small variation in inside and outside temperature.

94 Khushbu Jani and Paresh V. Patel / Procedia Engineering 51 (2013) 92 100

The analysis results in terms of Time period, Storey shear, Displacement, Inter-storey Drift are presented in this section.

The time period of 36 storey diagrid structure is shown in Fig 3. The first mode time period of diagrid system is 3.14

seconds. The summary of lateral loads due to earthquake and wind is shown in Table 1. The distribution of storey shear

along the height of 36 storey diagrid structure due to dynamic along wind and earthquake is shown in Fig 4. It is observed

that storey shear in x-direction and y-direction due to dynamic wind load is higher compared to earthquake load.

(a) (b)

Fig. 2. Typical (a) Floor Plan and (b) Elevation of 36 Storey Buildings.

The displacement of 36 storey diagrid structure is shown in Fig 5. It is observed that displacement in x-direction and y-

direction due to dynamic wind load is higher compared to earthquake load. The inter-storey drift of 36 storey diagrid

structure is shown in Fig 6. It is observed that inter-storey drift in x-direction and y-direction due to dynamic wind load is

higher compared to earthquake load.

Khushbu Jani and Paresh V. Patel / Procedia Engineering 51 (2013) 92 100 95

Table 1. Lateral load due to earthquake and wind on 36 storey diagrid system

Earthquake load in Y-direction 1816.24

Static Along wind load (as per IS:875-III:1987) 3231.26

Dynamic Along wind load (as per IS:875-III:1987) 3227.60

Across wind load 721.87

96 Khushbu Jani and Paresh V. Patel / Procedia Engineering 51 (2013) 92 100

Mainly two type of loading act on the building i.e. gravity load and lateral load due to earthquake or wind. The base

shear of wind load is higher compared to earthquake load for 36 storey diagrid structure considered in this study. Thus, wind

load is governing for the design of structure.

Table 2. shows the gravity load and lateral load distribution in exterior frame and interior frame. The percentage of total

load resisted by exterior frame and interior frame are shown in Fig.7. It is observed that, 97.68 % and 2.31 % lateral load is

resisted by exterior and interior frame respectively. While 51.62 % and 48.38 % gravity load is resisted by exterior and

interior frame respectively. Thus, lateral load is mainly resisted by exterior frame (Diagonal Columns) and gravity load is

resisted by both the exterior frame (Diagonal Columns) and interior frame. From the results, it can be observed that interior

frame is mainly resisting gravity loading.

system (kN) diagonals (kN) columns (kN)

Gravity loading 3,51,264.24 1,81,332.12 1,69,932.12

Lateral loading 3227.60 3152.92 74.68

As discussed in previous section, structural design of 50, 60, 70 and 80 storey buildings is carried out. Comparison of

analysis results of 36, 50, 60, 70 and 80 storey in terms of time period, top storey displacement and inter-storey drift is

presented in this section. Allowable lateral displacement of top storey is limited to Height/500.

The first mode time periods of 36, 50, 60, 70 and 80 storey diagrid structure are shown in Table 3.

Table 3. First mode time period of 36, 50, 60, 70 and 80 storey digrid structure

(sec)

36 storey 3.16

50 storey 4.46

60 storey 5.01

70 storey 5.09

80 storey 5.86

The maximum top displacements of 36, 50, 60, 70 and 80 storey diagrid structure in X-direction and Y-direction due to

dynamic wind load are shown in Table 4.

Khushbu Jani and Paresh V. Patel / Procedia Engineering 51 (2013) 92 100 97

Table 4. Top displacement of 36, 50, 60, 70 and 80 storey digrid structure

direction due to DYWLX direction due to DYWLY

(m) (m)

36 storey 0.048 0.048

50 storey 0.102 0.102

60 storey 0.136 0.136

70 storey 0.143 0.143

80 storey 0.192 0.192

Storey displacements along the height of 50, 60, 70 an 80 storey building are shown in Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 respectively.

(a) (b)

(a) (b)

The maximum inter-storey drifts of 36, 50, 60, 70 and 80 storey diagrid structure in X-direction and Y-direction due to

dynamic wind load are shown in Table 5.

98 Khushbu Jani and Paresh V. Patel / Procedia Engineering 51 (2013) 92 100

Table 5. Inter-storey drift of 36, 50, 60, 70 and 80 storey digrid structure

direction due to DYWLX direction due to DYWLY

(m) (m)

36 storey 0.000224 0.000232

50 storey 0.000480 0.000492

60 storey 0.000561 0.000572

70 storey 0.000566 0.000574

80 storey 0.000717 0.000725

The variation of inter-storey drift along the height of 50, 60, 70 and 80 storey buildings are shown in Fig. 10 and Fig. 11

respectively.

(a) (b)

(a) (b)

The gravity load and lateral load due to wind are combined and assigned to structure in ETABS software. From the

analysis results design of diagonal members, floor beams and interior columns is carried out as per IS:800-2007. The yield

Khushbu Jani and Paresh V. Patel / Procedia Engineering 51 (2013) 92 100 99

strength of steel is considered as 250 N/mm2. The sizes of typical members of 36, 50, 60, 70 and 80 storey diagrid structure

are shown in Table 6 [10].

Table 6. Size of typical members of 36, 50, 60, 70 and 80 storey digrid structure

Storey Diagonal Columns Interior Columns Beams (same for all storey)

12 mm thickness (from B2 = ISWB 600 with top

19th to 36th storey)

and bottom cover plate of

450 mm Pipe sections with 220 50 mm

25 mm thickness (from 1st

to 18th storey)

50 storey 525 mm Pipe sections with 1650 mm 1650 mm

25 mm thickness

60 storey 750 mm Pipe sections with 1800 mm 1800 mm

25 mm thickness

70 storey 675 mm Pipe sections with 2000 mm 2000 mm

50 mm thickness

80 storey 825 mm Pipe sections with 2200 mm 2200 mm

50 mm thickness

The details of internal column resisting mainly gravity loads is shown in Fig. 12 and Fig.13. The sizes of members can be

reduced by considering higher yield strength of structural steel. Typical junction detail of diagrid columns and floor beam

for 36 storey structure is shown in Fig. 14.

Fig. 12.Details of internal columns of (a) 36 storey (b) 50 storey and (c) 60 storey.

(a) (b)

100 Khushbu Jani and Paresh V. Patel / Procedia Engineering 51 (2013) 92 100

5. Concluding Remarks

In this paper, analysis and design of 36 storey diagrid steel building is presented in detail. A regular floor plan of 36 m

36 m size is considered. ETABS software is used for modeling and analysis of structure. All structural members are

designed using IS 800:2007 considering all load combinations. Load distribution in diagrid system is also studied for 36

storey building. Also, the analysis and design results of 50, 60, 70 and 80 storey diagrid structures are presented.

From the study it is observed that most of the lateral load is resisted by diagrid columns on the periphery, while gravity

load is resisted by both the internal columns and peripherial diagonal columns. So, internal columns need to be designed for

vertical load only. Due to increase in lever arm of peripherial diagonal columns, diagrid structural system is more effective

in lateral load resistance. Lateral and gravity load are resisted by axial force in diagonal members on periphery of structure,

which make system more effective. Diagrid structural system provides more flexibility in planning interior space and facade

of the building.

References

[1] Gu M.and Quan Y., Across-Wind Loads of typical Tall Buildings", Journal of Wind engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 2004, pp.1147-1165.

[2] Kim J., Jun Y. and Lee Y.H., Seismic Performance Evaluation of Diagrid System Buildings", 2nd Specialty Conference on Disaster Mitigation,

Manitoba, June 2010.

[3] Moon K.S., Material-Saving Design Strategies for Tall Building Structures", CTBUH 8th World Congress, Dubai, March 2008.

[4] Leonard J., Investigation of Shear Lag Effect in High-Rise Buildings with Diagrid System", M.S. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007.

[5] Moon K.S., Dynamic Interrelationship between Technology and Architecture in Tall Buildings", Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Architecture,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2005.

[6] IS: 875(Part-3)-1987. Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and structures, wind loads. Bureau of Indian Standard,

New Delhi.

[7] IS: 1893(Part-I)-2002. Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures. Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.

[8] IS: 800-2007. General Construction in Steel - Code of Practice. Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.

[9] ETABS Nonlinear Ver. 9, Extended Three Dimensional Analysis of Building Systems, Computers and Structures Inc. Berkeley, CA USA, 2006

[10] Jani Khushbu, Analysis and Design of Diagrid Structural Syatem for High Rise Steel Buildings, M. Tech. Dissertation, Nirma University,

Ahmedabad, 2012.

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