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210 210 Bahan ajar ini dibuat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan bahan bacaan bagi para
mahasiswa Jurusan Teknik Mesin Universitas Andalas yang berdasarkan
kepada pengalaman penulis serta merujuk kepada beberapa buku standar
seperti tercantum berikut ini:

ENGINEERING MECHANICS
/1/. Beer, F.P.; Johnston, E.R.
DYNAMICS Mechanics for Engineer: Dynamics, 5th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008
/2/. Meriam, J.L.; Kraige, L.G.
5 5 Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 6th. Ed., John Wiley, 2008.
/3/. Hibbeler, R.C.
Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 12 Ed., Prentice Hall, New Jersey,
Mulyadi Bur
2010.

Bahan ajar ini dipakai di lingkungan sendiri dan disediakan secara gratis bagi
Structural Dynamics Laboratory
peserta kuliah Dinamika Partikel TMS-210 yang dapat diunduh dari portal
ANDALAS UNIVERSITY akademik.
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210 210 Angular Momentum of a Particle
Contents
r r r
H O = r mV = moment of momentum or
Angular Momentum of a Particle the angular momentum of the particle
Equations of Motion in Radial & Transverse Components about O.
Conservation of Angular Momentum
r
Newtons Law of Gravitation H O is perpendicular to plane containing
r r
Sample Problem 12.7 r and mV
5 Sample Problem 12.8 5
Trajectory of a Particle Under a Central Force r
H O = rmV sin r r
Application to Space Mechanics i j k
= rm v r
Sample Problem 12.9 HO = x y z
Keplers Laws of Planetary Motion = mr 2& mv x mv y mv z

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210 Angular Momentum of a Particle 210 Equations of Motion in Radial & Transverse
Components
Consider particle at r and , in polar
Derivative of angular momentum with coordinates,
respect to time,
r r r r r r r r r Fr = mar = m(&r& r& 2 )
H& O = r& mV + r mV& = V mV + r ma
5 r 5 F = ma = m(r&& + 2r&& )
= rF
r
= MO This result may also be derived from
conservation of angular momentum,
It follows from Newtons second law that the
sum of the moments about O of the forces
H O = mr 2&
acting on the particle is equal to the rate of
change of the angular momentum of the
particle about O.
r F =
d
dt
(
mr 2& )
(
= m r 2&& + 2rr&& )
F = m(r&& + 2r&& )
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210 Conservation of Angular Momentum 210 Conservation of Angular Momentum
When only force acting on particle is
directed toward or away from a fixed point Radius vector OP sweeps infinitesimal area
O, the particle is said to be moving under a
dA = 12 r 2 d
central force.
Since the line of action of the central force
passes through O, dA 1 2 d 1 2 &
r r Define = r = r = areal velocity
M O = H& O = 0 and dt 2 dt 2
5 5
r r r
r mV = H O = constant Recall, for a body moving under a central force,
Position vector and motion ofrparticle are
in a plane perpendicular to H O . h = r 2& = constant
Magnitude of angular momentum, When a particle moves under a central force, its
H O = rm V sin = constant areal velocity is constant.
= r0 m V0 sin 0
or H O = mr 2& = constant
HO angular momentum
= r 2& = h =
m unit mass
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210 Newtons Law of Gravitation 210 Sample Problem 12.7

Gravitational force exerted by the sun on a


planet or by the earth on a satellite is an SOLUTION:
important example of gravitational force.
Write the radial and
Newtons law of universal gravitation - two transverse equations of
particles of mass M and m attract each other motion for the block.
with equal and opposite force directed along the
5 line connecting the particles, 5 Integrate the radial equation
A block B of mass m can slide freely on to find an expression for the
Mm
F =G 2 a frictionless arm OA which rotates in a radial velocity.
r horizontal plane at a constant rate & .
0 Substitute known information
G = constant of gravitation
Knowing that B is released at a distance into
m3 9 ft
4
r0 from O, express as a function of r the transverse equation to
= 66.73 10 12 = 34 . 4 10 find an expression for the
kg s 2 lb s 4 a) the component vr of the velocity of B force on the block.
along OA, and
For particle of mass m on the earths surface,
b) the magnitude of the horizontal force
MG m ft
W =m 2
= mg g = 9.81 2
= 32.2 exerted on B by the arm OA.
R s s2
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210 210 Sample Problem 12.8
Sample Problem 12.7
Integrate the radial equation to find
SOLUTION:
an expression for the radial velocity.
Since the satellite is
dvr dvr dr dv
&r& = v&r = = = vr r moving under a central
dt dr dt dr force, its angular
dv dv dr dv momentum is constant.
&r& = v&r = r = r = vr r Equate the angular
5 dt dr dt dr 5 momentum at A and B and
vr dvr = r dr = r 0 dr
& 2 & 2
solve for the velocity at B.
SOLUTION:
vr r
vr dvr = &0 r dr
Write the radial and transverse 2
equations of motion for the
( )
0 r0 A satellite is launched in a direction
block.
vr2 = 02 r 2 r02 parallel to the surface of the earth
Fr = m ar : 0 = m(&r& r& 2 ) with a velocity of 30155 km/h from an
altitude of 385 km. Determine the
F = m a : F = m(r&& + 2r&& )
Substitute known information into the
transverse equation to find an velocity of the satellite as it reaches it
expression for the force on the block. maximum altitude of 3749 km. The

( )1 2
radius of the earth is 6345 km.
F = 2m 02 r 2 r02
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210 Sample Problem 12.8 210 Trajectory of a Particle Under a Central Force

SOLUTION: For particle moving under central force directed towards force center,

Since the satellite is moving ( )


m r&& r& 2 = Fr = F m(r&& + 2r&& ) = F = 0
under a central force, its angular
momentum is constant. Equate Second expression is equivalent to r 2& = h = constant, from which,
the angular momentum at A and
B and solve for the velocity at B. h h2 d 2 1
5 5 & = and &r& = 2
r2 r d 2 r

rm v sin = H O = constant After substituting into the radial equation of motion and simplifying,
rA m v A = rB m v B
r d 2u F 1
vB = v A A +u = where u =
rB d 2 2 2
mh u r
= (30155 km/h )
(6345km + 385 km )
(6345km + 3749km ) If F is a known function of r or u, then particle trajectory may be
found by integrating for u = f(), with constants of integration
determined from initial conditions.
v B = 20105 km/h
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210 Application to Space Mechanics 210 Application to Space Mechanics
Consider earth satellites subjected to only gravitational pull Trajectory of earth satellite is defined by
of the earth,
1 GM Ch 2
= (1 + cos ) = = eccentricity
d2u F 1 r h2 GM
+u = where u =
d 2 2 2
mh u r hyperbola, > 1 or C > GM/h2. The radius vector
2
GMm d u GM becomes infinite for
5 F= = GMmu 2 + u = 2 = constant 5
r 2
d 2
h 1 GM
1 + cos1 = 0 1 = cos 1 = cos 1
C h2
Solution is equation of conic section,
parabola, = 1 or C = GM/h2. The radius vector
1 GM Ch2
u = = 2 (1 + cos ) = = eccentricity becomes infinite for
r h GM
1 + cos 2 = 0 2 = 180
Origin, located at earths center, is a focus of the conic
section. ellipse, < 1 or C < GM/h2. The radius vector is
finite for and is constant, i.e., a circle, for < 0.
Trajectory may be ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola depending
on value of eccentricity.
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210 Application to Space Mechanics 210 Application to Space Mechanics
Integration constant C is determined by
conditions at beginning of free flight, =0, r
= r0 , Recall that for a particle moving under a
1 GM Ch 2 central force, the areal velocity is constant,
1 +
= 2 cos 0
r0 GM i.e.,

h
1 GM 1 GM dA 1 2 & 1
C= 2 = = r = 2 h = constant
5 r0 h r0 (r0 v0 )2 5 dt 2
Periodic time or time required for a satellite to
Satellite escapes earth orbit for
complete an orbit is equal to area within the
1 or C GM h 2 = GM (r0 v0 )2 orbit divided by areal velocity,
2GM
vesc = v0 = ab 2 ab
r0 = =
h2 h
Trajectory is elliptic for v0 < vesc and
becomes circular for = 0 or C = 0, where a = 12 (r0 + r1 )

vcirc =
GM b = r0 r1
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210 Sample Problem 12.9 210 Sample Problem 12.9
SOLUTION:
SOLUTION:
Trajectory of the satellite is described by
Trajectory of the satellite is
1 GM described by
= + C cos
r h2 1 GM
= 2 + C cos
Evaluate C using the initial conditions at r h
5 = 0. 5
Evaluate C using the initial
A satellite is launched in a
r0 = (6370+ 500)km conditions at = 0.
Determine the maximum altitude by
direction parallel to the surface
of the earth with a velocity of
finding r at = 180o. = 6.87106 m 1 GM
km 1000m/km C= 2
36,900 km/h at an altitude of v0 = 36900 r0 h
With the altitudes at the perigee and h 3600s/h
500 km. 1 397.6 1012 m 3 s 2
apogee known, the periodic time can = 10.25103 m s =
Determine: be evaluated. (
h = r0v0 = 6.87106 m 10.25103 m s)( 6.87 10 6 m
9 ) (70.4 m 2 s)2
a) the maximum altitude = 65.3 10 m -1
= 70.4 109 m2 s
( )( )
reached by the satellite, and 2
b) the periodic time of the GM = gR2 = 9.81m s 2 6.37106 m
satellite. = 397.6 10 m s
12 3 2

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210 Sample Problem 12.9 210 Sample Problem 12.9

5 5
Determine the maximum altitude by finding With the altitudes at the perigee and apogee
r1 at = 180o. known, the periodic time can be evaluated.
1 GM 397.6 1012 m 3 s 2 1
= 2 C = 65.3 109 a= (r0 + r1 ) = 12 (6.87 + 66.7 ) 10 6 m = 36.8 10 6 m
( )
1
2
r1 h 70.4 m s2 m 2

b = r0 r1 = 6.87 66.7 10 6 m = 21.4 10 6 m


r1 = 67.1106 m = 67100 km
max altitude= (67100 - 6370)km = 60730 km =
( )(
2 ab 2 36.8 10 6 m 21.4 10 6 m
=
)
h 70.4 10 9 m 2 s

= 70.3 10 3 s = 19 h 43 min
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210 Keplers Laws of Planetary Motion

Results obtained for trajectories of satellites around earth may also be


applied to trajectories of planets around the sun.

Properties of planetary orbits around the sun were determined


astronomical observations by Johann Kepler (1571-1630) before
5 Newton had developed his fundamental theory.
1) Each planet describes an ellipse, with the sun located at one of its
foci.
2) The radius vector drawn from the sun to a planet sweeps equal
areas in equal times.
3) The squares of the periodic times of the planets are proportional to
the cubes of the semimajor axes of their orbits.

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