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Welcome to your Digital Edition of

Aerospace & Defense Technology and


Aerospace Manufacturing and Fabrication
Included in This June 2017 Edition:
Aerospace & Defense Technology Aerospace Manufacturing & Fabrication
www.aerodefensetech.com June 2017 www.aerodefensetech.com June 2017

Technicians perform
Technicians perform final
final
assembly on
assembly on aa Pratt
Pratt &
&
Whitney geared
Whitney geared turbofan
turbofan
demonstrator jet
demonstrator jet engine.
engine.
(Photo courtesy
(Photo courtesy of
of
Pratt &
Pratt & Whitney)
Whitney)

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Making Laser Weapons a Reality & Fabrication
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Aerospace & Defense Technology

Contents
FEATURES________________________________________ DEPARTMENTS___________________________________
6 Rugged SFF Computing 50 Application Briefs
6 Small Form Factor Embedded Systems 54 New Products
12 Lasers & Optics 58 Advertisers Index
12 Making Laser Weapons a Reality
20 Digital Design Tools
20 Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT___________________________
30 Rotorcraft Developments
30 Rotorcraft Anti-Icing Systems
33 RF & Microwave Technology Aerospace Manufacturing and Fabrication
33 Redundant Transmitting System in Aircraft (RTSA) (Selected editions only)
34 Cassini Stays in Touch with NASAs Radio Science Subsystem

TECH BRIEFS_____________________________________
38 Laser Integration on Silicon Photonic Circuits Through ON THE COVER___________________________________
Transfer Printing Rugged small form factor (SFF) computers are find-
40 High Energy Computed Tomographic Inspection of Munitions ing their way into a variety of military applications
41 Terahertz (THz) Radar: A Solution for Degraded Visibility from manned aircraft and drones to shipboard radar
Environments (DVE) and communications systems. They are particularly
useful for developing powerful distributed signal
43 Imaging Detonations of Explosives acquisition and pre-processing subsystems. To learn
44 Development of Photoacoustic Sensing Platforms more about this technology, read the feature story
on page 6.
46 Determining Detection and Classification Potential of Munitions
Using Advanced EMI Sensors in the Underwater Environment (Image courtesy of Pentek)

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Small Form Factor
Embedded Systems
New Technologies Drive Diverse Solutions

Small form factor sys-


tems mounted up on the
mast are extremely
effective in handling digi-
tized radar and communi-
cations signals to and from
shipborne antennas by elimi-
nating signal degradation through
long RF cables. Digital optical links
between the equipment room and the
mast provide immunity to EMI from pow-
erful transmitters and other noise sources
commonly found on large ships.

A
s sensor processing hardware choose standard boards, backplanes and split up into smaller distributed sub-sys-
like data converters, FPGAs chassis from several different vendors to tems, each handling a portion of the sys-
and CPUs evolve to handle create each application. These benefits, tem tasks. These two trends are gaining
more channels with higher along with easier system upgrades, new momentum and changing the landscape
signal bandwidths, designers can develop technology insertion, and simpler of embedded system offerings from tra-
powerful distributed signal acquisition maintenance, are all fully consistent ditional full size rack mount chassis.
and pre-processing subsystems in small with the COTS philosophy. For these distributed systems, several
form factor (SFF) enclosures located right However, a large, diverse, and growing business factors drive make-or-buy deci-
next to the sensors. They connect to cen- class of highly-effective solutions, collec- sions for each element:
tral processing or storage resources using tively, and often arbitrarily, dubbed If the required technology is outside
wideband gigabit serial links, now often small form factor, have largely foiled the scope of the prime contractors
exploiting low cost, standardized optical traditional standardization efforts. Al- capabilities, he may not want to invest
cables and interfaces. Major benefits in- though several VITA and PICMG stan- in developing internal engineering
clude high signal quality over long dis- dards have emerged, each is supported skills and expertise. A good example is
tance, improved maintainability, and eas- by only a small handful of different ven- a compact high-speed recording sub-
ier insertion of new technology. Since dors, even after many years. Indeed, SFF system, capable of storing wideband
these same benefits apply across many system enclosures come in all shapes and analog or digital output signals from
different applications and installations, sizes, with a variety of backplanes, inter- the signal processing system.
SFF system vendors now offer a bewilder- connect schemes, circuit board defini- Even if the prime contractor does
ing array of enclosures targeting the tions, and environmental specifications. have engineers capable of a complex
unique requirements of each customer. As a result, SFF systems are often pro- or technically challenging sub-system,
prietary architectures that satisfy a sin- he may decide to purchase an SFF
What Are SFF Systems? gle, well-defined function with limited solution to reduce risk or time to mar-
In the existential struggle to maintain availability from multiple vendors. ket, even if the estimated cost to
military and aerospace superiority, em- Compared to traditional open architec- develop it himself might be a bit
bedded systems must constantly evolve ture systems, SFF systems are smaller, lower. An example might be a sensi-
to counter new threats, deal with new less expensive, lighter, lower power, eas- tive RF receiver small enough to fit
constraints, embrace the latest tech- ier to install, and capable of supporting within the confines of a UAV.
nologies, and develop new implementa- tough operating environments all sig- Customers are increasingly willing to
tion strategies. Together, these man- nificant and often critical advantages! accept compact SFF enclosures and
dates invariably steer systems engineers boards that do not follow embedded
towards designs that deliver effective Gaining Popularity system standards. This is especially
solutions. After early adoption and user Customers are naturally attracted to true for distributed systems if the ven-
validation, the best solutions survive to SFF systems for two major reasons. Obvi- dor can successfully argue that the
become industry standards. ously, any embedded system with im- main portion of the system is a stan-
Standard open architecture embed- proved SWaP metrics opens up new ap- dards-based platform, while the SFF
ded systems such as VME, VPX, and plication spaces and markets where sub-systems are just peripherals.
CompactPCI, offer flexibility and mod- those factors are critical. In addition, For larger distributed architectures, SFF
ularity so that systems integrators can larger embedded systems are now being sub-systems make it much easier for

6 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


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Rugged SFF Computing

systems integrators to replace these SSF with radar dishes poses no problem. Op-
peripherals to easily accommodate tical cables are smaller in diameter and
new requirements for a similar system, much lighter in weight compared to cop-
but installed in a completely different per, offering a significant advantage for
platform with different sensors, aircraft and small unmanned vehicles.
topologies, and environments. Again, the message here is that the
host can be a standards-based COTS sys-
SFF and Optical Links tem using OpenVPX and VITA 66.4,
Apart from the business reasons while a standard MT optical cable con-
above, SFF systems can significantly im- nects it to the MT optical interface of a
prove performance levels, simplify in- remote SFF, which otherwise follows no
stallations, and reduce maintenance Figure 1. Pentek Model 5973 3U OpenVPX FMC car- open architecture standards.
costs. Whether for radar, communica- rier with VITA 66.4 optical backplane interface
supports 12 GBytes/sec of traffic in and out of the
tions, or telemetry, overall system per- module over 24 optical fibre lanes to a remote SFF SFF Systems Whats Inside?
formance is limited by the dominant subsystem. Although they lack a common me-
source of noise or interference at any chanical form factor, successful SFF em-
point in the signal path. group. Several flavors of the standard ac- bedded system implementations draw
Embedded systems have traditionally commodate different mechanical upon the latest silicon devices, system
used the same system chassis to house arrangements, but VITA 66.4 defines links and interfaces, industry standard
the processing boards and the sensor in- housings and connectors for 24 lanes of software tools and protocols, all inte-
terface boards. Many of these must sup- optical I/O for 3U and 6U VPX modules grated with proven packaging and ther-
port analog I/O using RF circuitry and and mating connectors for backplanes. mal management strategies.
precision data converters to maintain Optical emitters and detectors located A typical SFF system contains a con-
the highest levels of signal fidelity and within the modules are connected to gi- troller to manage its resources and to
dynamic range. Isolating and shielding gabit serial pins of an FPGA, which im- communicate with peripherals and the
these sensor interfaces from conducted plements a suitable protocol for the re- host system. Popular choices today are
and radiated emissions from powerful quired traffic. Figure 1 shows the VITA PC/104-Express, ComExpress, Mini-
signal processor boards, graphic proces- 66.4 optical backplane circuitry for a 3U ITX and derivatives. These small PCs
sors, and switching power supplies op- VPX FMC carrier, capable of serving as usually include an Intel or AMD
erating at several hundreds of watts is the host interface to a remote SFF system processor with SDRAM and FLASH
extremely challenging. Analog signals connected by optical cable. memory, and a limited collection of
flowing from remote antennas or sen- By incorporating this same optical standard peripheral interfaces includ-
sors suffer degradation from cable losses technology within the SFF package, digi- ing PCIe, USB, Ethernet, SATA, parallel,
and susceptibility to interference from tal signals can be easily delivered and serial ports. Some SFF controllers
transmitters and power generation through optical cables with baud rates use FPGAs with embedded ARM
equipment. These chronic problems can exceeding 10 GHz over distances of hun- processors or soft processor IP cores
be largely eliminated using the latest dreds of meters. These cables are com- built from FPGA fabric. Windows and
SFF strategies. pletely immune to electromagnetic in- Linux are the most popular SFF operat-
Removing the sensor interfaces from terference, so running them down the ing systems, with Linux dominating in
the chassis by using a SFF subsystem to antenna mast of a large ship equipped the smaller and simpler products.
relocate them as close as possible to the
sensors solves the first problem of system Analog RF
noise contamination. With sensitive RF I/O to sensors
circuitry and data converters inside the (antennas)
SFF enclosure, the link to the main sys-
RF Sensor 10 GbE Optical
tem is now digital. This is a good first Optical
Interface Cable to Host
step, but digital copper cables still suffer Transceivers
Control + Data
from loss and interference, both of
which only get worse over distance. New
optical interfaces are often an excellent FPGA Analog PCIe PCIe 10 GbE
solution to this second problem. I/O Module Interface
Based on existing industry standards System
Memory SATA
for MT optical cables and connectors and PCIe PCIe
System RAID
new technology for optical transceivers,
CPU & OS Controller
the embedded community has now stan-
dardized optical backplane I/O interfaces Figure 2. Remote SFF system for communications or radar with real-time recording capability. Optical 10 GbE
for VPX within the VITA 66 working connection to host supports control, status and wideband data transfer. A well-defined API simplifies operation.

8 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


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Rugged SFF Computing

The SFF application drives require- optical interfaces, RAID controllers, require custom circuitry to these inter-
ments for the rest of the hardware. Spe- wireless network adapters, and a long faces, and FPGAs are a popular choice
cialized peripherals include A/D and list of many others. for implementation. Rounding out the
D/A converters, RF tuners and upcon- Many of these peripherals are already system is the power supply, enclosure,
verters, power amplifiers, GPS receivers, equipped with standard system inter- mounting provisions, cooling struc-
accelerometers, power meters, video faces like PCIe and USB, ready for con- tures, and suitable connectors, all de-
adapters, high-speed Ethernet adapters, nection to the system controller. Others signed for compliance with the de-
ployed environment.

EVANSCAPS
Figure 2 shows a remote SFF system
for a communications transceiver or
radar transponder, which incorporates
RF circuitry and data converters, a sys-
tem controller, a RAID controller and
SSD array for recording, and a 10 GbE
interface to the host. Located very close
to the antennas, it eliminates signal
degradation from long analog cables.
All of the real-time operations take
place within the sub-system, controlled
by the host through the 10 Gb Ethernet
link, which is also fast enough to sup-
port wideband data transfers.

Beating the Heat A Major Challenge


Integrating the diverse collection of
hardware above requires highly creative
mechanical design, and one of the most
difficult aspects is thermal management.
In most SFF systems, fewer than ten com-
ponents produce 90% of the heat. Vari-
ous structures pull heat away from the
hottest components to deliver it effi-
ciently to internal airflow or the side wall
of the chassis, but they also consume in-
ternal space and add metal and weight.
Heat pipes can be extremely effec-
tive at moving heat from otherwise in-
$GYDQFHG&DSDFLWRUVIRU'HPDQGLQJ$SSOLFDWLRQV accessible components to the side
wall. Peltier effect thermoelectric de-
High Power 9WR9 Low ESR !$PS'LVFKDUJH+HUPHWLF vices extract heat from hot devices
8QOLPLWHG&\FOH/LIH8QOLPLWHG6KHOI/LIH/RZ:HLJKW9ROXPH and deliver it elsewhere. Flex circuits
+LJK6KRFNDQG9LEH!0LOOLRQ+RXU07%)&WR&2SHUDWLRQ allow repositioning of the boards for
optimal cooling and easier assembly.
As an added benefit, flex circuits can
save weight and replace a maze of in-
terconnecting cables not only between
boards, but also to the I/O connectors
on the chassis. Flex circuits and heat
TDD4080123 pipes require custom engineering and
9)FF
fabrication, but can yield large payoffs
in environmental performance, assem-
bly cost and reliability.
Several successful techniques serve
the diverse range of applications and
environments:
Fan cooled, through chassis. Intake air
LQIR#HYDQVFDSFRPZZZHYDQVFDSFRP flows around internal components,

10 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-897 Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


Intro Cov ToC + A

Rugged SFF Computing

with finned heat sinks on the hottest Putting It All Together


ones. Internal baffles channel airflow Because of the many benefits they
to the exhaust vents. offer, SFF systems will continue to play
Fan-cooled, around chassis. Chassis is an ever-increasing and important role
sealed and heat is conducted from in embedded systems. A high percent-
internal components to the chassis age of them are well served by topolo-
wall using heat exchangers, metal gies of distributed SFF sub-systems
structures, heat pipes, or thermal with local sensor interfaces, data con-
pads. External fan-cooled jacket forces verters, pre-processors, and high-speed
air across external chassis wall. digital ports to a remote host. This
Convection-cooled, external fins. modular approach sustains itself by
Chassis is sealed as above with heat simplifying upgrades to boost perform-
removed through fins attached to the ance by adding new capabilities, with-
external case of the chassis by convec- Figure 3. Conduction cooled SFF recorder sub- out having to replace an entire system.
tive airflow. system with A/D converters, digital down con- The absence of any dominant standard
Liquid-cooled. Chassis is sealed as verters, and removable 15-TB SSD storage sup- for SFF systems, while somewhat un-
ports recording rates up to 4 GB/sec. Removable
above with liquid pumped through air cooling jackets are installed on each side for
settling to some, is highly justifiable
internal or external chambers to lab operation. for the reasons discussed and will be-
remove heat to an external heat come more widely accepted as the mul-
exchanger. Combinations and variations of these titude of benefits accrue.
Conductioncooled. Chassis is sealed strategies will continue to evolve as SFF This article was written by Rodger Hosk-
as above with heat removed by con- vendors pack more and more compo- ing, Vice President, Pentek, Inc. (Upper
duction from the external case by a nents with higher complexities in very Saddle River, NJ). For more information,
metal cold plate or mounting surface. cramped spaces. visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-500.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-898 11


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Making Laser
Weapons a
Reality

Figure 1. The Boeing HEL MD


has demonstrated the ability to
destroy a 60 mm mortar round
in flight. (Photo courtesy of
Boeing Defense)

D
irected energy weapons first took a step towards reality in the 1980s
under President Reagans Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), dubbed Star
Wars by the media. But, the technology didnt really materialize at that
time and the cessation of the Cold War largely removed the immediate im-
petus to develop it. Since then, lasers have become widely used in military appli-
cations, particularly for target designation and aircraft countermeasures, but
there is still no significant deployment of lasers as offensive weapons. Now, ad-
vances in high power fiber laser technology, particularly in the efficiency, compact-
ness and weight of their pump diode lasers, are poised to make laser weapons a
practical reality.

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Lasers & Optics

Figure 2. A Coherent | DILAS T-Bar chip contains


five emitters, outputs about 50 W, and is 5 mm wide.

Laser Weapons Overview


The concept behind Reagans SDI was
to protect the United States behind a
missile shield that would prevent nu-
clear weapons, delivered via either inter-
continental or submarine-launched bal-
listic missiles, from reaching North
America. Part of the SDI was to be lasers,
or other directed energy weapons, placed
in permanent orbit, which could rapidly
knock out a nuclear missile already in
flight towards its target. Lasers, in partic-
ular, were a promising technology for
this application because they can be
quickly charged up (i.e. be made ready
to fire), and their output can reach a fast- Figure 3. Progression from a single T-Bar die to an 80-emitter stack. The light from all these emitters can
moving target nearly instantaneously. be efficiently coupled into a single 225 m core fiber with a 0.22 NA.
Because these lasers were intended to
be deployed primarily in space, or in High Energy Laser Mobile Demonstrator mobile and self-contained (meaning
fixed locations, and used either never (HEL MD). This consists of a 10 kW solid they may not have ready access to an
(hopefully) or just once, there wasnt state laser installed on an Oshkosh Tacti- external source of power). This gives
much concern about their cost, physical cal Military Vehicle, along with all the rise to several design imperatives.
size, weight or operational efficiency. necessary targeting and control systems. First, they must deliver a low cost per
The key goal was simply that they HEL MD has proven the ability to lock engagement; its simply not economi-
would work when needed, delivering on to and destroy a mortar round of cally feasible to employ an expensive
the required knock-out punch. about 10 inches in length, traveling at weapon (such as a missile costing over
The offensive laser weaponry under de- hundreds of miles per hour, from several $100,000) to knock out a drone which
velopment today is intended to serve al- miles out. The system is also effective costs $1,000, or a mortar round which
most the exact opposite purpose than the against Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs might cost less than $100. The laser
SDI, and therefore has very different or drones); in this case, it may be suffi- weapon must also be capable of rapid
goals in terms of its design and function- cient to damage the drones navigation fire so that it cant just be over-
ality. For example, one major laser and targeting systems, rather than com- whelmed by a large number of simul-
weapons initiative is for C-RAM (Counter pletely destroy it. Similarly, other offen- taneous incoming rounds. Also, rapid
Rocket, Artillery and Mortar). These are sive laser weapons systems are being de- fire reduces the number of individual
systems intended to be deployed in the signed to deliver swarm defense, that laser weapons systems needed to pro-
battlefield to protect troops and equip- is, to protect a ship or base from attack tect a given number of troops. But, the
ment from incoming projectiles. Cur- by a large number of inexpensive drones. ability to deliver rapid fire also neces-
rently, these are envisioned to be single, Thus, todays laser weapons are sitates that the system be electrically
vehicle mounted lasers, with output pow- meant to defend against swarms of in- efficient. Otherwise the laser weapon
ers in the 10 kW to 50 kW range. expensive mortar rounds, drones and will require access to a large quantity
Boeing has already successfully proto- other projectiles, and are intended to of fuel, which is difficult (and danger-
typed such a system, which they call the be mounted on platforms which are ous) to transport into a battlefield. Fi-

14 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


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Welcome
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Manufacturing
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UNBOUND
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Lasers & Optics

nally, its desirable that laser weapons


be physically compact, especially for
airborne use.

SWaP Optimization
The push to optimize the size, weight
and power (called SWaP in military parl-
ance) of field deployed laser weapons
has driven a progression in the technol-
ogy of the gain material used from
chemical (e.g. deuterium fluoride), to
solid state, and, most recently, to fiber.
One reason for this is because fiber lasers
offer inherently higher efficiency, in
terms of converting input pump energy
to usable output, than nearly any other
laser type, except diode lasers. However,
diode lasers by themselves dont provide
the necessary brightness or beam qual- Figure 4. Four T-Bars mounted on a macrochannel cooler with collimating optics.
ity, while diode-pumped fiber lasers can.
And, beam quality is critical because it And, because the optical efficiency of For military applications, four of
determines the distance over which the their pumping is already so high (~85%), these T-Bar dies are mounted on to a
laser can be focused to a spot size small theres not much room for improvement single substrate, yielding a total of 20
enough to reach the power density nec- there. So, the focus is on raising the emitters. Then, up to four of these sub-
essary to damage its target. pump power itself, without increasing strates are stacked vertically, bringing
Fiber lasers offer other advantages in package size and weight, as well as on the total number of individual emitters
terms of SWaP optimization. Chemical methods for low loss beam combining of in this compact assembly to 80, with a
and lamp pumped solid state lasers re- multiple single mode lasers, all while still total output of about 800 W.
quire a significant overhead in terms of maintaining good beam quality. The key optical characteristic of the T-
the equipment and power supplies re- Bar design is that the combination of
quired to run them. In contrast, both Pumping Technology Advances wide emitter spacing, low divergence
solid state (e.g. slab and rod) and fiber In terms of SWaP optimization of and relatively low beam parameter prod-
lasers can be diode pumped, and diode pump diodes for laser weapons, a cur- uct (in both fast and slow axes) is tailored
power supplies and pump modules them- rent benchmark is to achieve a weight to enable the light from all 80 of these
selves are electrically efficient and lend to output power ratio of 1 kg/kW. Co- individual emitters to be efficiently co-
themselves to miniaturization. This effi- herent | DILAS has developed several linearized and coupled into a single 225
ciency, in turn, reduces the cooling re- advances in diode laser technology to m core fiber having a numerical aper-
quirements, and all its attendant equip- reach this goal, and, in fact, is already ture of only 0.22. This, in turn, permits
ment (pumps, heat exchangers, etc.). working on devices that will attain the highly efficient coupling into the pump-
But, as laser weapons evolve towards next level of performance 0.5 kg for 1 ing mode volume of the gain fiber. And,
ever higher powers, fiber laser technol- kW of output. this light collection can be accomplished
ogy becomes increasingly attractive over One key to reaching the SWaP bench- using a relatively simple and compact
solid state. Currently, individual fiber mark has been the companys introduc- optical system. This is how output power
lasers can deliver up to about 2 kW of tion of T-Bar (for tailored bar) con- per unit volume is maximized.
power, but multiple units can be com- struction, a design approach intended In contrast, the high divergence and
bined to deliver around 10 kW in a sin- to combine the high total output power poor mode quality of traditional diode
gle beam with extremely good mode of traditional diode laser bars with the laser bars necessitate the use of complex
quality. Its a bit more difficult to scale relaxed cooling requirements of single optics for light collection, and still
up the power of a solid-state laser, espe- emitters. The basic unit of the T-Bar is a make it impossible to couple all their
cially while maintaining good mode diode laser mini-bar having five emit- output into a single, low numerical
quality. This is because scaling up and/or ters on a single, 5 mm wide substrate aperture fiber. Furthermore, high power
increasing the pump power to a tradi- which outputs about 50 W total. In diode laser bars often suffer from a
tional solid state laser typically excites contrast, traditional diode laser bars are problem called smile. This is a sagging
higher order modes, and introduces usually 10 mm wide, contain at least 19 or bending alignment error in emitter
other issues related to thermal lensing. emitters, and can output over 200 W, position along the bar which makes it
Of course, there are also challenges to depending on the number of emitters quite difficult to collimate and co-lin-
increasing the power of a fiber amplifier. and type of heatsink. earize its output.

16 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


Intro Cov ToC + A

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Lasers & Optics

Besides the advantage of producing nificant thermal crosstalk between the small bore of the microchannels (tens of
the largest amount of fiber coupled light individual emitters, and a very high effi- microns) makes it easy for them to be
out in a given system volume, T-Bar con- ciency cooling system must therefore be clogged by particulates. Thus, the water
struction also offers significantly im- employed. This is usually in the form of must be stringently conditioned and fil-
proved cooling characteristics over tradi- a so called microchannel cooler, in tered, and large, heavy, high pressure
tional bars. In a traditional diode laser which water is rapidly circulated through pumps must be employed to circulate it
bar, the small emitter spacing causes sig- channels within the heatsink. But the rapidly enough to achieve the required
level of cooling in these traditional bars.
Furthermore, traditional diode bars are
usually placed directly on the heatsink in
order to achieve good thermal contact.
However, this makes the microchannel
cooler part of the electrical circuit, thus
necessitating the use of deionized water
in order to avoid a short circuit. This im-
poses yet another requirement that in-
creases cost and complexity.
The larger emitter spacing of the T-Bar
largely eliminates this thermal crosstalk,
and greatly relaxes the attendant cooling
requirement. As a result, Coherent |
DILAS has been able to introduce a
macrochannel cooler. This is a system
which uses substantially larger bore chan-
nels, thus allowing the use of less strin-
gently filtered tap water, and eliminating
ISO 9001:2008/AS9100C the need for high pressure pumping.
Also, the reduced cooling requirement
Prototype to full production enables the laser bar to be placed on a
Wide range of exotic materials submount, rather than in direct electrical
contact with the cooler, which avoids the
,7$5&HUWLHG necessity of using deionized water.
Integrated Attachments T-Bar construction also delivers better
cooling characteristics than single emit-
Custom design & Manufacturing ter diode lasers. This is because single
emitters are typically supplied already
packaged. Since the diodes are mounted
within the package, there is an extra
thermal interface which makes it more
difficult to efficiently cool them.
In conclusion, after decades of imag-
ining, offensive laser weapons are
nearly ready for deployment on the bat-
tlefield. Advances in diode laser pump-
ing technology are proving to be a key
enabling factor in this development.
And, these military grade pump diode
lasers can be constructed using the same
automated, high volume fabrication
equipment used for industrial product
manufacturing, meaning they can be
readily delivered at competitive prices.
This article was written by Chris Ebert,
Ph.D., Director, Business Development, Co-
Mac hi nedSpri ngs.c om herent | DILAS, (Tucson, AZ). For more in-
formation, visit http://info.hotims.com/
65852-501.

18 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-902 Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


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Modelling and Simulation
Tools for Systems
Integration on Aircraft

T
he provision of integrated ment. Standardized multi-domain mod-
modeling, simulation and op- eling languages (e.g. Modelica) and in-
timization tools to effectively terfacing with other common tools used
support all stages of aircraft in Aerospace industry, e.g. via the Func-
design remains a critical challenge in tional Mockup Interface (FMI), are key
the aerospace industry. While several aspects to reach those goals.
breakthroughs have been achieved in
this area, costly iterations are still often Goals
necessary to successfully design, de- The aim of the MISSION (Modelling
velop, integrate, validate and verify the and Simulation Tools for Systems Inte-
components and subsystems of modern gration on Aircraft) project is to develop
aircraft. The high level of system inte- and demonstrate an integrated model-
gration that is characteristic of new air- ing, simulation, design and optimiza-
craft designs is dramatically increasing tion framework based on MBSE and ori-
the complexity of both design and veri- ented to the Aerospace industry. This
fication - in particular for fault condi- framework will holistically support the
tion analysis and the implementation entire design, development and valida-
of defect-free software (Figure 1). tion process of an aircraft, starting from
Simultaneously, the multi-physics in- conceptual aircraft-level design, toward
teractions between structural, electrical, capture of key requirements, system de-
thermal, and hydraulic components have sign, integration, validation and verifi-
become more significant as the systems Figure 1. Increase in electrical power and software cation. In the development of this tool,
become increasingly interconnected (e.g. complexity on aircraft. the following objectives are pursued:
the interaction among thermal load due
to increased cabin electrical power usage, In order to address such needs, Objective 1: Improve integrated de-
an electrically-powered environmental Model-Based Systems Engineering sign capabilities at aircraft- and
control system, and electrically powered (MBSE) has emerged as an alternative system-level through integrated
flight control actuation). design approach. MBSE can be defined multi-physics modelling and multi-
This complex interaction between as the formalized application of mod- objective optimization, and to trade
subsystems is difficult to capture elling to support system requirements, multiple design metrics including
through a traditional document-based design, analysis, verification and valida- emissions (CO 2 , NO x ), fuel burn,
systems engineering requirements-dri- tion activities, beginning in the concep- weight, and cost.
ven design approach, which often pre- tual design phase and continuing Objective 2: Achieve significant re-
vents the discovery of novel subsystem throughout development and later life ductions in development time, cost
architectures that may achieve multi- cycle phases. Despite the significant and rework throughout the design,
objective optimization across subsys- advances in modeling, simulation, de- development and validation process
tems. This occurs due to the one-way sign and virtual testing that have been through the extensive use of model-
hierarchical requirements derivation achieved, there is still a lack of inte- based-design techniques for controls
from the whole aircraft down to indi- grated frameworks enabling multi- and algorithms, and advanced virtual
vidual components, and leads to over- physics modeling and simulation, testing capabilities.
costing and suboptimal solutions that multi-objective optimization, model- Objective 3: Support technology inte-
often require substantial rework to ad- based design of algorithms, and virtual gration and demonstration within
dress performance shortfalls where top- testing, which can support all of the dif- Clean Sky 2 through a common, open
level decisions cannot be modified. ferent design and development phases. and neutral environment for integra-
New methodologies and tools are there- It has been demonstrated that a lack of tion of various technologies devel-
fore required to enable better coordina- integration in the toolset can be a major oped in ITD Systems.
tion between different design disci- cause for delays in the case of complex Objective 4: Achieve wide dissemina-
plines, so that appropriate requirements new designs. tion of the developed framework to
are specified at different design phases, A new integrated modeling, simula- strengthen its exploitation plan. The
and design trades and potential prob- tion and optimization framework is MISSION project will regularly seek
lems are identified before physical pro- therefore required by Aerospace indus- feedback and commitment from
totypes are built and tested through ex- try to incorporate effectively MBSE in groups of stakeholders including ITD
pensive test campaigns. all stages of aircraft design and develop- partners, scientific aerospace and

20 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


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Digital Design Tools

technological communities/academia,
regulation and standardization bod-
ies, as well as, industrial end-users.

Overview of MISSION Platform


The platform envisioned in MISSION
project is depicted in Figure 2. It is com-
posed of the following elements:
An integrated modeling and simula-
tion environment: A common, neu-
tral and open environment based on
the Modelica multi-domain modeling
language containing the platforms
and common tools of the MISSION
framework.
An aircraft-level optimization plat-
form: A platform for computer-aided
design of aircraft architecture, enabling
trade-offs of design metrics from a
multi-objective perspective, including
metrics such as CO2, NOX emissions,
fuel consumption, weight, and cost.
System-level optimization plat-
forms: Dedicated platforms for sys-
tem-level design and optimization of
electrical architecture, thermal archi-
tecture, landing gear, actuation sys-
tems, wings and cockpit. It will sup-
port integration of technologies being Figure 2. Overview of MISSION platform
developed in Clean Sky 2.
Model-based-design tools for con- for virtual testing. Furthermore, since integrated with data-management solu-
trol and prognostics & health man- the framework is required to be based tions, which enables safe and traceable
agement algorithms: Model-based on open standards offering links to engineering processes. Workflows will
design tools for systems controls and other modeling tools and design envi- be automated either by connection to
health monitoring algorithms sup- ronments, it will be built upon the stan- workflow definition and optimization
porting robust design and strong ver- dardized multi-domain modeling lan- tools or by utilizing the SimulationX
ification of safety critical systems. guage Modelica, while using FMI to scripting capabilities. Other function-
Virtual testing platforms: Platforms provide the interconnections with com- alities of the SimulationX framework in-
enabling validation and verification mon industry-standard tools. clude, but are not limited to, evaluation
of designs at multiple levels of abstrac- With this respect, SimulationX frame- of model fidelity against physical re-
tion, including partial virtual certifica- work from ITI will be utilized since it sults, verification of the input & output
tion of aircraft components, including supports key features such as the multi- behavior in the time domain, and asser-
computation and communication ar- domain modeling language Modelica tion-based verification techniques.
chitectures. The platforms will sup- and FMI for Model Exchange and Co- Ongoing initiatives for optimization
port PC-based testing in early devel- Simulation. Furthermore, DESYRE from platforms embedded in Modelica will
opment phases and lab-based ALES, a tool for simulation of distributed also be taken into consideration, as well
real-time testing of simulated control embedded systems, will be integrated as optimization engines coming from
units and real control units. with SimulationX, since it supports FMI the Operations Research and Constraint
for plant and control modeling, and Programming communities that are suit-
Modeling and Simulation Environment C++/TLM for software/hardware and able for embedding in a number of soft-
The open modeling and simulation communication functional and per- ware environments. Moreover, state-of-
environment provided in MISSION re- formance modeling (Figure 3). the-art techniques for data analytics and
quires a number of functionalities rang- SimulationX will be customized and model reduction capabilities will also be
ing from model development and vali- extended in terms of various functional- incorporated in the tool. In addition, a
dation, analysis functions with ities to meet the requirements of aero- functionality to define and manage work
optimization capabilities to efficient space industries. Through its open in- processes will be incorporated. This will
data management, and the capability terfaces, the tool can be seamlessly enclose a scripting facility and a user

22 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


Intro Cov ToC + A

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Digital Design Tools

friendly graphical user interface for man- On the other hand, MISSION will pro- Aircraft Level and System-Level
agement of the different processes. vide a platform for SiL simulation that Design and Optimization Platforms
Specific data management functional- enables the evaluation of the impact of At the top-level of the design chain, the
ity and IP protection will provide easy to the communication network and soft- aircraft-design will enable optimization of
use storage and organization of data and ware middleware on the embedded con- the aircraft architecture starting from
will facilitate the interaction of different trols and will support virtual testing. high-level requirements defined by the
users of the framework. Since modern The implementation of the SiL proposal expected aircraft operations, linking with
aircraft systems are composed of thou- will be based on the DESYRE simulation the so-called conceptual design phase.
sands of components, the management environment, developed by ALES. Embedded multi-objective optimization
of large amounts of documentation with DESYRE will be integrated with the core capabilities will allow trading multiple air-
different requirement specifications is environment through the FMI standard craft-level design metrics such as emis-
demanded. In line with MBSE approach, interface. Besides these technical devel- sions, fuel consumption and lifecycle cost.
functionalities for automatic documen- opments, MISSION will also work to- Outcomes of the design serve as require-
tation of requirements and version con- wards the establishment of modeling ments for the system design platform.
trol for different subsystems and systems standards to ensure harmonization of The use of standard multidisciplinary
will be incorporated in the framework. modeling activities by different partners design optimization tools can be pro-
Finally, MISSION environment will in- and successful implementation of the hibitive in terms of complexity and
corporate a requirements modeling and virtual testing functionalities. Physical cost. In order to enable the evaluation
executable specifications functionality. modeling often requires the introduc- of aircraft-level architecture designs
To this end, MISSION aims to develop in- tion and resolution of Differential Alge- from a multi-domain perspective, tak-
terfaces between the framework and re- braic Equations (DAE). MISSION will ing into account interactions between
quirements management tools that are propose extensions to the FMI 2.0 stan- systems, an aircraft-level modeling li-
well established and widely used by dard to fully support model exchange brary will be developed. The level of
Aerospace industry. for simulation of physical models. granularity and fidelity used will ensure

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24 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-906 Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


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LICENS
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Digital Design Tools

vant parts of the aircraft, including the


means to model multi-domain interac-
tions between components (e.g. thermal
dissipation of electrical components).

Model Based Design of Algorithms


and Controls
MISSION will deliver an integrated de-
velopment framework, a set of function-
alities and generic library models for
controls and management, health mon-
itoring and fault detection functions for
aircraft systems and subsystems.
The MISSION framework will allow de-
velopment of specifications and models
for algorithms and controls across differ-
ent abstraction layers throughout the air-
craft design process. Specifications and
standard library models will support the
design of the following functions:
Controls and management functions:
generic models to develop and test con-
trols and management functions of sys-
tems such as the electrical system, air
management system or flight control
system for the aircraft-level and system-
level platforms.
Fault detection functions: functionali-
ties to detect faults in the aircraft sys-
tems. MISSION framework will enable
the simulation of such scenarios and
therefore it will enable the possibility of
evaluating system resilience and fault
tolerance, as well as system reconfigura-
tion capabilities.
Health monitoring functions: these
are a matter of development in the aero-
space industry in order to improve
maintenance processes, targeting to
evolve from existing preventive mainte-
nance approaches toward predictive
maintenance.
The design supported by standard li-
braries will enable the system manufac-
turer to deliver functions according to the
specifications and will ensure both hori-
Figure 3. Multi-domain modeling and simulation platform SimulationX, and multi-level software-in-the-loop zontal consistency across modeling envi-
simulation environment DESYRE. ronments and vertical consistency across
multiple layers of abstraction.
accurate evaluation of power flows rele- trical architecture, thermal architecture, The design of control systems will ben-
vant for aircraft-level design studies ap- wing architecture, landing gear, actuation efit from a number of analysis tools sup-
plied over entire aircraft operations. systems and cockpit. In regard to the ported by Matlab/Simulink and steady
At the next hierarchical level, a system- modeling library, a Modelica based hierar- state control verification will be sup-
level design platform will incorporate a chical building-block library structure ported by off-the-shelf solutions in Simu-
comprehensive multi-domain library of will be developed. MISSION will be based lationX environment.
subsystems and components, as well as on existing Modelica environments and The interactions of the algorithms
tools for design and optimization of elec- available libraries and incorporate all rele- for system management, health mon-

26 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


Intro Cov ToC + A

Digital Design Tools

itoring and fault detections with the of design models and generated plant (relevant parts of the vehicle) or
system controls will be analyzed up to source code. even the whole vehicle. With the use of
the level of the impact of the embed- Certification & qualification of code. models for the verification of the sys-
ded HS/SW platform, with the goal of Regulatory organizations in avionics tem under test and maybe even models
improving the overall robustness of recently recognized model-based ap- for the controller, the verification tasks
the system during the design phase. proaches as first class citizens for the can also profit from the already devel-
Additionally, the efficiency of the development of avionics SW. The DO- oped models or the generated code
design-to-implementation flow will 178C and DO-331 annex provide di- from the early development phases.
be increased by: rect guidance on the role and the Another benefit of simulation based
Automatic Code Generation usage of models and model-based verification methods is the possibility of
(ACG): to guarantee the maximal ex- technologies for certification of Air- test automation. Automated tests in-
ploitation of the potential benefits borne Software. MISSION model- crease test coverage and shorten testing
of the models, MISSION will enable based process & methods will be de- times by running complete test suites
ACG from the developed models veloped and designed to leverage the and overnight tests. HIL systems for ex-
through the deployment of the com- opportunities given by the recent ample testing 24 hours, 7 days per week
mercially available tools. standards such as ARP 4754A, DO- independent from work periods or per-
Automatic Test Generation (ATG): 178C/DO-331 with the objective of re- sonal resources. Another measure taken
ATG techniques consist on the elab- ducing certification costs & time. by the OEMs is to transfer testing re-
oration of models for the automatic sponsibility to the suppliers. Nowadays
synthesis of test vectors. In MIS- Virtual Testing suppliers are more and more forced to
SION, last advances on ATG tech- For virtual testing, the controller perform early HIL tests far ahead of sys-
niques will be used providing a (ECU or just the control algorithm) is tem integration. With the simulation
framework for the automatic genera- connected to a real-time or non-real- based methods the share of compo-
tion of test cases for the verification time simulation system simulating the nents, models, scripts, test cases etc. is

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Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-908 27


Intro Cov ToC + A

Digital Design Tools

more efficient to manage and plan. This such as EASA will be conducted to iden- tem correct operations. For virtual
not only includes function tests during tify and define, where appropriate, the testing purposes, it is therefore neces-
function design but also complete inte- regulatory requirements to enable sary to model such interactions and
gration and acceptance tests. The need model qualification for certification. quantify uncertainties with respect to
for suppliers and OEMs to exchange The following developments will be their physical counterpart.
tests, test results, models, etc., is impor- required: Other areas that will require develop-
tant in this context. Physical components: For virtual test- ments are the following:
In addition to these measures it is im- ing, the models of the physical compo- MISSION will enable the use of FMI in
portant to optimize and streamline test nents will be required to include the the virtual testing platform. However,
processes in combination with appropri- definition of its validity domain, e.g. despite the benefits of a standard like
ate non-real time test tools, HIL technol- in terms of ranges of variables and pa- FMI there may be also a need to run
ogy, and software tools required to man- rameters, and the quantification of the models on different operating systems
age and operate these, to manage all test model uncertainties with respect to running at the same time on an inte-
artefacts and to enable simple traceabil- the physical world, e.g. in terms of gration and test platform. To address
ity of test results to requirements by in- variability distribution of the model this, MISSION make use of such a
cluding test management and data man- parameters. Validity domain and un- multi OS capability when if required.
agement to get a centralized monitoring certainties will be required to be vali- Another requirement is to emulate
and planning of the overall process. dated against physical data. very early in the development phase
MISSION will put efforts on promot- Software middleware: For virtual control units including parts of the
ing the testing and conformance checks testing purposes, the models of soft- basic software component of a control
of the developed prototype towards cer- ware middleware will be required to unit. The aim of MISSION is to develop
tification. To achieve that purpose, it is include the quantification of the un- this capability for the virtual testing
important to define requirements using certainties with respect to the coun- platform. As part of this effort, MIS-
system agnostic specification languages terpart software middleware. The re- SION will define requirements for such
that will enable a good predictability quired uncertainties will be identified models in order to prepare their use as
and reliability of the developed models by the project and may include vari- models on real-time test platforms. An-
throughout the systems design. Such a ability distribution of scheduling la- other aim is to enable the reuse of tools
fact will provide the foundation of the tencies and jitter, average and worst required for testing (e.g. test automa-
virtual testing capabilities to be imple- execution time, memory limitations, tion tools) seamlessly from running
mented within the MISSION platform etc. A strategy for the validation of the tests with emulated control units up to
providing evidence about whether re- software middleware models and their integration tests on HIL systems.
quirements are respected at the end of uncertainty quantification with re- Another key task of MISSION is the op-
each coding phase till the prototyping. spect to their actual implementation timization of testing processes in the
Part of the strategy of MISSION is to en- will be developed and specifications overall verification process of OEMs
able virtual testing relying on model qual- will be provided. and Suppliers in the aerospace domain
ification for certification. MISSION will Communication network: As for the by providing a framework which is
engage with regulatory organizations software middleware, the models of the suitable and qualified for these work-
such as EASA to investigate routes towards communication network will be re- flows and processes. By identifying the
the certifiability of systems that have been quired to include the quantification actual processes which are currently
partially virtually tested and show valida- with respect to the counterpart physical used in this domain like cooperation
tion of critical regulatory properties of the communication network. The required of suppliers and OEMs, the use of tool
developed models, in order to build a case uncertainties will be identified by the chains, models, interfaces and of
for systems partial certification and dis- project and may include variability dis- course testing systems including the
cussions with regulatory organizations. tribution of message latencies, message demanded work packages and stake-
To this end, a hierarchical Modelica loss probabilities, etc. A strategy for the holders the MISSION framework will
modeling library for virtual validation validation of the communication net- be optimized for this tasks, e.g. provid-
will be available following a similar ap- work models and their uncertainty ing open interfaces and automatic test
proach as in previous Clean Sky activi- quantification with respect to their system configurations to increasing
ties. However, further developments physical counterpart will be developed the share of automation and with that
will be required. To ensure that models and specifications will be provided. make the processes more efficient.
can be used as substitutes of the physi- Interactions between software, com- This article was adapted from SAE Tech-
cal world for testing purposes it is neces- munication and physical compo- nical Paper 2016-01-2052. To obtain the
sary to quantify the uncertainties and nents: The interactions between the full technical paper and access more than
the validity domain of the models with software middleware, communication 200,000 resources for the aerospace, auto-
respect to their physical, hardware or network and physical components motive, and commercial vehicle industries,
software counterpart. Moreover, inter- represent another important factor visit the SAE MOBILUS site at: http://
actions with regulatory organizations that has significant impact in the sys- saemobilus.sae.org.

28 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


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Rotorcraft
Anti-Icing Systems

F
lying anytime, anywhere, in all- North Pacific Ocean and Sakhalin Is- ural ice, verifying flight characteristics
weather conditions is one of the land (Russia). Swiss Air Rescue Rega and system performance, gathering
most challenging technology stated that over 600 missions are data, and testing the effectiveness of
and capability goals across the aborted every year, also due (but not the system, which includes electrically
rotorcraft industry to meet a growing only) to icing conditions. heated main and tail rotor blades,
demand for reliability, safety and the Leonardo Helicopters was the first heated windscreens and an ice detec-
ability to allow platforms and their op- OEM to introduce ice protection sys- tion system. Trials were performed
erators to deliver whenever needed. tems onto intermediate to medium cat- with the support of a US Army CH-47
Countering the detrimental and dan- egory helicopters (on AW139 and HISS (Helicopter Icing Spray System)
gerous effects of ice on rotorcraft is part AW189 respectively, between 2010 and simulating ice clouds, under the super-
of this mission and Leonardo Helicop- 2016) and will be the first one to intro- vision and with the involvement of the
ters has devoted significant efforts over duce such a system onto light helicop- appropriate certification authorities
the years to design, develop, test and in- ters (AW169) and commercial tiltrotors such as EASA, FAA and TCAA.
tegrate ice protection systems onto its (AW609). The AW101, which can also Leonardo Helicopters developed two
current generation production aircraft be provided with an ice protection sys- different types of ice protection system:
models. tem, is currently being used in Canada the Full Ice Protection System (FIPS)
A range of applications can benefit for SAR (search and rescue) purposes, al- and the Limited Ice Protection System
from ice protection systems including lowing it to fly in temperatures down to (LIPS), both available as options. The
onshore/offshore transport and short- minus 20 Celsius and ice accretion of FIPS and LIPS keep performance and
to long-range rescue duties. The mili- up to 80 mm. More than 70 AW139s procedures for Cat. A operations un-
tary market is no exception. Depending and over 20 AW189s are ice protected changed, and generate no restrictions
on geographies and missions, customers with a dedicated system worldwide for a during IFR operations.
can require different kinds of dedicated range of missions including offshore
systems ensuring varying degrees of transport, SAR, and passenger transport. Full Ice Protection System
protection stemming from the various The development of ice protection The FIPS allows the AW139 and
levels of icing condition severity. Al- systems for the AW139 intermediate AW189 to fly into more extreme,
though it can be hard to determine the twin and the AW189 super medium known icing conditions that would
number of missions lost by operators involved test aircraft performing icing confine other helicopters in their cate-
globally during winter months due to trials in North Europe and North gories to the ground or in the hangar.
ice, customers estimates indicate 10- America for up to three years during The FIPS system includes ice detectors,
15% operations lost in the North Sea, the winter months. Certification cam- an automatic activation system with
while around 8% of operations cant be paigns were launched that saw the air- manual back up, electrical power gener-
carried out for the same reason in the craft flying both into artificial and nat- ators, engine intake protection grids,

30 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


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ELECTRONIC
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Intro Cov ToC + A

Rotorcraft Developments

and heated windshield and blades


(main and tail rotor). The standard
AW189 helicopter already includes an
engine air intake heating system. The
system is fully automatic once switched
on by the pilot, allowing the crew to
concentrate on other flying activities.
The anti-icing system prevents ice
accretion on the engines by means of
valves circulating hot air through the
compressor blades and the particle
separator. The air vents and wind-
shield are also heated. An ice and
snow detection system allows the crew
to assess the harshness of the icing
conditions and heats the main rotor
and tail rotor blades.
Core to the FIPS is the Ice Control
Box (ICB), which manages the whole
system, manually or automatically,
with appropriate cockpit controls. The
detection system provides the pilot
with info on the ice severity level, help-
ing to determine when the heating sys- Redstone Test Centers icing team uses a HISS-equipped CH-47 to create an artificial ice cloud for testing.
tem has to be activated. The system ar- (Photo: RTC)
chitecture includes an air data system
through OAT sensor and Pitot tube, part of the Rega vision fly every- heated windshield. The system does not
while an AC/DC power generation sys- where, anytime, in any weather the require heated rotor blades and associ-
tem powers the blades. operator is developing, together with ated equipment/electrical generator
Another icing condition detection Leonardo Helicopters, a highly cus- (like for the FIPS). The aircraft with LIPS
system that is part of the FIPS is the tomized rescue configuration of the has only limited restrictions in terms of
Super-Cooled Large Droplet marker new generation AW169 light interme- low temperature and ice presence dur-
(SLD). This system consists of a diate twin which will be provided with ing IFR operations, therefore expanding
black/yellow/red colored sphere visually a FIPS system. This will require over- the all-weather operating capability.
indicating whether the aircraft is flying coming some challenges due to the The next iteration of ice protection
in normal ice accretion conditions small size of the aircraft. systems at Leonardo will include the
(black), or if they are becoming too AW609 TiltRotor and advanced re-
harsh to continue (red), so that the crew Limited Ice Protection System search on a totally new approach. The
understands when those conditions The LIPS is a variant of the FIPS that, third prototype of the AW609 started
have to be abandoned and the craft thanks to its cost-effectiveness and re- icing trials in North America in March
moved towards a safer status. Actually, duced weight, is optimal for flight in 2017. As far as new technology
the only conditions suggesting no fly- limited ice conditions, typical, for ex- demonstrators conceived for future ro-
ing activities should be carried on for ample, of the North Sea. The LIPS per- torcraft, Leonardo also developed and
safety reasons are ice accretion on the mits flight within a known and defined successfully tested a new system in re-
red side of the SLD sphere and over envelope of icing conditions (up to cent years designated De-Light (De-
10,000 ft. The FIPS is particularly useful minus 10 Celsius), provided that the Icing System for Light-Intermediate
for operators flying in Northern Europe, capability to descend into a known Helicopters). Shape Memory Alloys-
Canada, Russia and the northern band of positive temperature is avail- based technology has been imple-
United States where icing conditions able throughout the intended route. mented and incorporated into a main
are common during the winter months. This is typical of conditions encoun- rotor blade segment leveraging me-
The FIPS can be a preferred option tered, as mentioned above, over the chanical actuation able to remove ice
for SAR/EMS operators who need to de- North Sea. Thanks to its reduced accretion on the leading edge.
liver 24H, 7 days a week and need the weight, LIPS is optimal for flight in lim- This article was written by Matteo
greatest level of versatility and avail- ited icing conditions for various opera- Ragazzi, Head of Airworthiness, Leonardo
ability with no weather forecast and al- tions. The LIPS system includes ice de- Helicopters (Boston, MA). For more infor-
titude reduction limits. Under the so tectors, Super-Cooled Larger Droplet mation, visit http://info.hotims.com/
called Project Icebird, an essential (SLD) marker, Ice Accretion Meter and 65852-502.

32 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


Intro Cov ToC + A

RF & Microwave Technology

Redundant Transmitting System in Aircraft (RTSA)

I n air navigation, a flight transponder


(transmitter-responder) is a device
that emits an identifying signal in re-
sponse to an interrogating received Transponder
signal. Transponders are used as Iden- 1 0
(Digital
tification of Friend or Foe (IFF) sys- (ON) Pulse signal) (OFF) Time delay
tems in military aviation, and also in
Air Traffic Control (ATC) Secondary can be
Surveillance Radar (beacon radar) sys- accounted
tems for general aviation and commer- depending
cial aviation. on
Primary radar is limited by terrain requirement
and weather, and also detects un- ELT ELT
wanted objects such as automobiles, (OFF) (ON)
hills, and trees. It also cannot esti-
mate the attitude of an aircraft. Sec-
ondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) over- When the transponder pulse is high (1), the ELT remains off, and when the transponder pulse is low (0), the
comes these limitations, but it de pends ELT gets switched on.
on a transponder in the aircraft to re-
spond to interrogations from the broadcasts it, enabling it to be A traditional radar system and ADS-B
ground station in order to make the tracked. ADS-B is automatic in that it cannot be independent from an aircraft
plane more visible. Depending on requires no pilot or external input. or from the flight crew. The primary
the type of interrogation, the trans - 2. Global Navigation Satellite System radar blip is not completely reliable
ponder sends back a transponder (GNSS) aircraft tracking solutions: since it also detects unwanted objects.
code (or squawk code) or altitude Such systems can transmit the GNSS can cause interference problems,
information to maintain separation GNSS position of the aircraft to a which can only be solved using robust
between planes. Mode S (Mode Se- server on the ground via a commu- receivers, making the system more com-
lect) is designed to help avoid over- nication network. The server col- plex. A technical malfunction/power
interrogation of the transponder lects the data and makes it available loss or a voluntary disconnection will
(having many radars in busy areas), to aircraft operators. render an air traffic controller com-
and to allow automatic collision 3. Transponder killing (shutdown): pletely blind. In such a situation, RTSA
avoidance. This will not necessarily make a will prove reliable.
Transponders automatically trans- flight invisible. Coverage will lapse Parameters such as minimal power
mit a unique four-digit code when and vary, but ATC radar can often consumption for actuation, and resist-
they receive a radio signal sent by portray a transponder-less plane as a ance to vibration, shock, and radiation
radar. The code gives the planes iden- primary target a blip that pro- were considered. With the incorpora-
tity, and radar stations establish speed vides the aircrafts position and tion of the RTSA system, a significant
and direction by monitoring succes- speed, but not its altitude. drop is expected in loss of life, search
sive transmissions. This data is then Redundant Transmitting System in operation costs, and aircraft damage.
relayed to air traffic controllers. But Aircraft (RTSA) can effectively trans- Recent incidents of aircraft disappearing
when the transponder shuts down due mit an emergency signal during without a trace necessitate an auto-con-
to a technical glitch or other reason, mishaps occurring due to lack of trol redundant system that can avoid
unpredictable loss of human lives, na- proper safety systems. The proposed such mishaps.
ture, and economy may occur. These RTSA system uses NOT Gate and The RTSA system is designed to main-
conditions have necessitated active re- Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) tain independence from external influ-
search to design a better and more ef- at a frequency that is readily available ences. It provides simplicity in design,
fective system. (121.5, 243, or 406 MHz). The figure installs easily, is free from signal interfer-
Presently, other parallel systems to shows that the digital pulse of the ence, and is comparatively cost-effective.
track an aircraft in case of transponder transponder when high (1) does not This article was adapted from SAE Tech-
failures are: actuate the ELT, but when the digital nical Paper 2015-01-2443. To obtain the
1. Automatic Dependent Surveillance - pulse is low (0), the ELT is actuated. full technical paper and access over
Broadcast (ADS-B): A cooperative sur- The system is completely automated 200,000 resources for the aerospace, auto-
veillance technology in which an air- by actuation, and is independent of motive and commercial vehicle industries,
craft determines its position via any type of human interference and visit the SAE MOBILUS site at: http://
satellite navigation and periodically control. saemobilus.sae.org.

Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017 www.aerodefensetech.com 33


Intro Cov ToC + A

RF & Microwave Technology

Cassini
Stays in
Touch with
NASAs
Radio
Science
Subsystem For the radio science instrument, the radio signals that Cassini transmits to Earth are the experiment, and
the NASA Deep Space Network complexes in Australia, Spain, and the U.S. are part of the instrument.

A
fter almost 20 years in space, tenna. En route, the radio signal interacts Cassini is the only deep space mission
NASAs Cassini spacecraft be- with Saturns moons, rings, or Saturns to transmit to Earth at three radio wave-
gins the final chapter of its re- atmosphere. When the signals reach lengths about 14 cm wavelength,
markable story of exploration. Earth, scientists study how the signals designated S-band; 4 cm, designated X-
From now until September, Cassini will were altered, which helps them learn band; and 1 cm, designated Ka-band)
undertake a set of orbits that is, in many about gravity fields, atmospheric struc- simultaneously.
ways, like a whole new mission. Follow- ture, composition, ring structure, particle
ing a final close flyby of Saturns moon sizes, surface properties, and more. Cassini Radar
Titan, Cassini will leap over the planets The spacecrafts high-gain antenna The Cassini Radio Detection and
icy rings and begin a series of 22 weekly must be pointed toward Earth in order to Ranging (RADAR) will be used to in-
dives between the planet and the rings. send its data, but often the spacecraft vestigate the surface of Titan by taking
Launched in 1997, Cassini arrived at must face a different direction because four types of observations: imaging,
Saturn in 2004. Following its last close one or more of its instruments is observ- altimetry, backscatter, and radiometry.
flyby of Titan in April, Cassini began ing a specific target. Sometimes a moon In the imaging mode of operation, the
what mission planners are calling its or the planet is between the spacecraft RADAR instrument will bounce pulses
Grand Finale. The spacecraft is on a tra- and Earth, so Cassini must store its data of microwave energy off the surface of
jectory that will eventually plunge into until it can be beamed to Earth later. Titan from different incidence angles,
Saturns atmosphere and end Cassinis Researchers have no choice but to wait and record the time it takes the pulses
mission on September 15. for hours, or sometimes days, before get- to return to the spacecraft. These
Cassini is beaming back science and ting data thats been sitting on the space- measurements, when converted to dis-
engineering data collected during its craft waiting to be transmitted. This is tances (by dividing by the speed of
passage via the Radio Science Subsystem not the case for Cassinis RSS; as soon as light), will allow the construction of
(RSS) and Radio Detection and Ranging its data is collected, its already on Earth. visual images of the target surface.
(RADAR) system. For the radio science instrument, the Radar will be used to image Titan be-
radio signals that Cassini transmits to cause the moons surface is hidden
Radio Science Subsystem Earth are the experiment, and the from optical view by a thick, cloud-in-
Radio waves are altered as they travel NASA Deep Space Network complexes fested atmosphere; radar can see
through a gas, bounce off a surface, or in Australia, Spain, and the U.S. are part through such cloud cover.
pass near a massive object. By sending of the instrument. And despite the Radar altimetry similarly involves
radio signals through, near, or even more than 900-million-mile journey bouncing microwave pulses off the
bouncing off objects in the Saturn sys- the signal takes from Cassini to Earth, surface of the target body and measur-
tem, the RSS can help scientists learn the instrument is extremely sensitive. ing the time it takes the echo to re-
about the objects with which the radio According to Cassini radio science team turn to the spacecraft. In this case,
waves interact. member Essam Marouf of San Jose State however, the goal will not be to create
The RSS sends radio signals from University, Even if you place a sheet of visual images, but rather to obtain nu-
Cassini to Earth using the spacecrafts paper in its path, we could sense the merical data on the precise altitude of
large radio dish the high-gain an- change in the Earth-received signal. the surface features of Titan. In the

34 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


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Intro Cov ToC + A

RF & Microwave Technology

backscatter mode of operation, the face features inevitably reflect the ment, simply recording the energy em-
RADAR will act as a scatterometer; that pulse in more than one direction. anating from the surface of Titan. This
is, it will bounce pulses off Titans sur- From the backscatter measurements, information will tell scientists the
face and then measure the intensity of scientists can infer the composition of amount of latent heat (i.e., moisture) in
the energy returning. This returning the surface of Titan. the moons atmosphere, a factor that
energy, or backscatter, is always less Finally, in the radiometry mode, the has an impact on the precision of the
than the original pulse, because sur- RADAR will operate as a passive instru- other measurements taken by the in-
strument. During imaging, altimetry,
and backscatter operations, the RADAR
instrument will transmit linear fre-
quency-modulated Ku-band pulsed sig-
nals toward the surface of Titan using
Ultra-durable Optical Coatings for the high-gain antenna (HGA). These
signals, after reflection from the sur-
Aerospace and Defense Applications face, will be captured by the same an-
tenna and detected by the RADAR
Whether in space, on land, or at sea, your program cant afford an optical system Radio Frequency Electronics Subsys-
failure due to a compromised thin lm coating. Thats why DSI is dedicated to tem. During radiometry operations, the
instrument will not transmit any radar
designing, developing, and providing coatings that meet the rigorous demands
signals, but the HGA will again be used
of aerospace, military, and defense applications.
for radiometric observations.
To improve the surface coverage by
Featuring Dual Band Filters, Coated Domes and IR Filters, these are a DSI specialty radar imaging, a switched, multiple Ku-
for the following reasons: band antenna feed array structure is
part of the HGA, and permits the forma-
tion of five antenna beam patterns.
Each of these beams will have a differ-
ent pointing angle relative to the an-
tenna reflectors focal axis.
The major functional components of
the RADAR Subsystem are the Radio Fre-
quency Electronics Subsystem (RFES),
DUAL BAND DOMES IR the Digital Subsystem (DSS), and the
Energy Storage Subsystem.
VIS, NIR, SWIR, MWIR, LWIR Uniform Coatings over MWIR, LWIR, VLWIR The RFES has three principal func-
Steep Edges, High complex surfaces High Transmission, tions: the transmission of high-power
Transmission, High Transmission Levels Steep Edges, frequency-modulated and unmodulated
Deep Blocking Deep Blocking
pulses, the reception of both reflected
energy from the target and passive ra-
diometric data, and the routing of cali-
bration signals. The RFES has a fully en-
In addition to offering industry standard products, we work in close collaboration with closed structural housing and Faraday
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our customers to develop innovative coatings that achieve specic requirements for
RFES electronics units are individually
real-world applications. Contact us today.
enclosed and are mounted to the RFES
housing wall opposite the wall that
mounts to the spacecraft. For thermal
control, heat flows conductively from
the units to the housing wall and is
3300 Coffey Lane
then radiated away from the RFES.
Santa Rosa, CA 95403 The RFES digital chirp generator (DCG)
Tel (707) 573-6700 generates the low-power, baseband-fre-
866-433-7724 quency, modulated pulse upon request
email: solutions@depsci.com from the RADAR Digital Subsystem. Both
the bandwidth and the pulse width of this
pulse can be varied in accordance with
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36 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-912 Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


Intro Cov ToC + A

RF & Microwave Technology

an antenna switch module. The echo


returns, and radiometric signals are
routed from one of the five antenna
ports to the RFES microwave receiver.
The FEE also steers the selected calibra-
tion signal to the microwave receiver
(MR) during periods of calibration
mode operation.
The MR receives signals at Ku band
and down-converts these to baseband
so that they can be properly sampled.
The sources of these signals are the echo
returns, radiometric signals, and cali-
bration signals routed through the FEE.
The MR receives the re-routed chirp cal-
ibration signal from the CUCA and
passes that signal to the FEE for proper
The Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR) sensing instruments are the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) routing. The MR is also the source of the
imager, the altimeter, and the radiometer. noise diode calibration signal that is
provided to the FEE for routing. MR
The chirp up-converter and amplifier Front-end electronics (FEE) receive gain and bandwidth information is pro-
(CUCA) converts the baseband chirp pulse the high-power pulse from the HPA vided to the MR from the DSS.
to Ku-band and provides the up-converted and route the signal to one of five dif- For more information, visit http://
pulse to the high-power amplifier (HPA). ferent antenna ports on the RFES via saturn.jpl.nasa.gov.

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20 David Road, North Attleboro MA 02761-0069
SINCE 1968

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Laser Integration on Silicon Photonic Circuits Through


Transfer Printing
New fabrication approach allows the massively parallel transfer of III-V coupons to a silicon photonic
target wafer.
Air Force Research Laboratory, Arlington, Virginia

T he purpose of this project was to de-


velop a transfer printing process for
the massively parallel integration of III-
a)
III-V Device Layer
b)
Patterned device
c)
Tethers

Patterned device
Release layer Patterned release layer Patterned release layer
V lasers on silicon photonic integrated
circuits. Silicon has long offered prom- Substrate Substrate Substrate
ise as the ultimate platform for realizing
compact photonic integrated circuits
(PICs). That promise stems in part from Stamp
Stamp
the materials properties: the high re- d) e) f)
fractive-index contrast of silicon allows Patterned device
strong confinement of the optical field, Release Printed device
increasing light-matter interaction in a Substrate Substrate Silicon
compact spacea particularly impor-
tant attribute for realizing efficient
modulators and high-speed detectors. Figure 1: Transfer printing process flow
To date, silicon-photonics applica-
tions have had to rely on external laser
sources that feed the optical chip
through optical fiber, or on flip-chip in-
tegration of separately fabricated laser
400 nm Si rib waveguide
diodes. Neither of those approaches is
scalable to very large wafer volumes or 220 nm Si waveguide
to more complex laser designs. Over the
last few years, however, the research
community has made tremendous
strides toward realizing fully integrated
laser diodes on silicon, both through
wafer-bonding techniques that inte-
grate direct-bandgap III-V epitaxial ma- III-V waveguide
terials into prefabricated silicon circuits,
and through direct epitaxy of III-V
semiconductors on silicon. BOX
The goal of this project was to develop
a new approach: the integration of high Si substrate
quality III-V epitaxial material (an attrib-
ute of wafer bonding) and the possibility
to only very locally deposit III-V mate- Figure 2: Schematic of a transfer printed III-V-on-silicon distributed feedback laser
rial on a photonic integrated circuit (an
attribute of direct epitaxy). This ap- V source wafer to a silicon photonic tar- the sacrificial layer, such that the III-V
proach is coined transfer printing. get wafer using an automated tool. The device layer is released from the growth
Wafer bonding, while an established method is illustrated in Figure 1. substrate. Using a patterned PDMS
integration method, can lead to ineffi- The process starts with a III-V source stamp such coupons can then be picked
cient use of the III-V material, and can wafer that carries a sacrificial layer (In- up (Fig. 1e) and printed (Fig. 1f) to a sil-
make co-integration of different III-V GaAs) and a III-V device layer. The III-V icon photonic target wafer. While this
semiconductor layer stacks difficult. wafer is patterned into a dense array of process can be done one coupon at a
The transfer printing process tackles coupons as shown in Fig. 1(b) after time, the true value of the transfer
these issues. The process rests on trans- which the coupons are covered with a printing approach is that it allows the
fer printing of micrometer-size semi- polymer tether structure. This structure massively parallel transfer of III-V
conductor chips, or coupons, from a III- has openings to selectively etch away coupons to a silicon photonic target

38 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


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wafer. Using multiple and different After developing the III-V transfer
Etchant Observations
source wafers, different III-V epitaxial printing process, Si photonic integrated
H2SO4:H2O2:H2O (1:1:18) Partial undercutting
layer structures can be intimately inte- H3PO4H2O2:H2O (1:1:20) Partial undercutting circuits comprising silicon gratings and
grated. Chromium etchant Partial undercutting spot-size converters were designed and
A critical step in the transfer printing HF:H2O2:H2O (1:1:10) Full undercutting fabricated to realize a III-V-on-silicon
process is the release of the sacrificial Poor selectivity distributed feedback laser that is cou-
Encapsulation delaminate
layer InGaAs layer with good selectivity pled to the silicon waveguide layer. A
Citric acid : H2O2 (1:10) Full undercutting
with respect to the InP cladding layers. Slow etching speed schematic view of such a device is
Table 1 shows the solutions that were Anchors delaminate shown in Figure 2. In this case the III-V
evaluated. Tartaric acid : H2O2 (1:1) Full undercutting material is transfer printed onto the pla-
The first three options failed to un- Selectivity in InP>500 narized silicon waveguide circuit after
FeCl3:H2o (3 mol/1) @RT Full undercutting
dercut the complete structure of 40m which the III-V coupon is processed,
Selectivity in InP>500
wide. This is because of anisotropic lithographically aligned to the underly-
FeCl3:H2o (3 mol/1) @RT Full undercutting
etching, where a slow etching crystal Selectivity in InP>2000 ing SOI waveguide circuit. A 50nm DVS-
plane is being exposed when the BCB layer is used as an adhesive bond-
coupons are aligned along the crystal Table 1.Chemicals tested for undercutting and the ing layer.
axes. The HF-based and citric-acid-based observerd etching behavior This work was done by Gunther Roelkens
etch mixtures rendered a full undercut, of Universiteit Gent VZW for the Air Force
but attacked the photoresist based an- were discarded as well. Excellent results Research Laboratory. For more informa-
chors and encapsulation layer. While were obtained with the FeCl3:H2O solu- tion, download the Technical Support
this could be resolved by using other tion at 5C. Using this etchant, it takes 2 Package (free white paper) at
encapsulation layers, because of the hours to undercut the 40m wide www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp under
poor selectivity and slow etching speed coupons, with only an InP thickness the Photonics category. AFRL-0252
respectively, these etching solutions variation of 20 nm.

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Tech Briefs

High Energy Computed Tomographic Inspection of Munitions


Inspection system provides additional level of quality assurance for R&D, reverse engineering, and
malfunction investigations.
Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey

A n advance computed tomography


(CT) system was recently built for
the U.S. Army Armament Research,
cameras into one single field of view
(FOV). Other major distinguishing
characteristics include its processing
the cameras, shielding, scintillation
screen, and rotational fixture. The
general layout is comparative to a
Development and Engineering Cen- functions to digitally piece the two common 16-bit CCD camera radi-
ter, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, for the in- cameras together, use of advanced ar- ographic imaging system. The x-ray
spection of munitions. The system is a tifact reduction principles, perform- photons pass through the inspection
charged coupled device (CCD) camera ing reconstruction simultaneously piece and impinge onto a scintilla-
based CT system designated with the during acquisition, and its develop- tion/phosphor screen where the en-
name eXperimental Imaging Media ment in accurate beam hardening cor- ergy is converted into visible light.
(XIM). The design incorporated rections through digital means. From there, the light is redirected off
shielding for use up to 4MeV x-ray The overall setup of the system, as a series of mirrors that allow the cam-
photons and integrated two separate shown, depicts the internal layout of eras to be out of the direct line of
sight of the main radiation beam. The
light is then focused through the cam-
turntable
(shown for era lens and into a cooled CCD chip.
location only) mirror & At this point, the information is
bracket
(2X) converted and digitized into a radi-
scintillator shielded
frame enclosure
ographic image. This process is re-
(2X) peated for multiple planes/projections
as the part is rotated, acquired, and ro-
Incoming tated again until enough information
X-rays
is obtained to achieve a volumetric file
upper base
with a specified resolution. Figure 1a is
Visible
Light the internal drawing of the XIM, Fig-
upper base ure 1b is a photograph of the layout of
riser (2X)
the XIM CT system, and Figure 1c is a
photograph of the shielded camera
housing inside the XIM CT system.
The radiation source matched with
the XIM is a Varian M3A dual energy
linear accelerator (LINAC) with a
1.2MeV and 3MeV setting. For the
main purposes of this research, all of the
base
imaging was performed at 3MeV. This
enclosure
bottom was mainly a result of a lower dose
(a) rate produced by the accelerator, a
loss in conversion efficiency, lower
Camera
Locations
Mirror
Location
phosphorescence of the conversion
screen, and an overall reduction in
the signal received by the cameras at
1.2MeV. This issue could have been
Scintillator
Screen
adjusted for by reducing the source to
detector distance (SDD), but to sus-
tain consistent spatial relationships, a
Incoming
X-rays Turntable fixed SDD was used.
The overall techniques used within
this discussion were performed using
(b) (c) 360- degree rotation, a SDD of 162.4
in. (4.1 m), a fixed spot size of
Overall setup of the system roughly 2 mm in diameter, and a

40 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


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source to object distance of 152.7 in. was more than 4008 length by 2672 related to the use of a central process-
(3.9 m). The useable FOV, collimation, width. The limitation on the resolu- ing unit based computer.
exposure/pulse settings, and the posi- tion was primarily a factor of the final This work was done by Stephan C. Zuber
tioning of the inspection piece in rela- file size of the volume reconstruction of Army ARDEC, ESIC Quality Engineering
tion to the floor were optimized as and not a general limitation of the & System Assurance Directorate (QESA).
needed in relation to the part under imaging portion of the system. The For more information, download the
investigation. The achieved spatial images were acquired with 540 to 720 Technical Support Package (free white
resolution ranged from 0.033 in. projections and varied with the use- paper) at www.aerodefensetech.com/
(0.883 mm) to 0.011 in. (0.279 mm). able FOV to sustain a consistent vol- tsp under the Photonics category. ARL-
The number of pixels for each camera ume size to prevent processing issues 0202

Terahertz (THz) Radar: A Solution For Degraded Visibility


Environments (DVE)
Operating at higher frequencies than other types of radar produces tighter beams and finer resolution.
Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama

A n accurate view of the physical


world is frequently vital. For exam-
ple, rotary wing aircraft pilots must
to safely fly their aircraft. Therefore, sys-
tems capable of generating images of
the environment of sufficient quality to
sary. The product of such a system is il-
lustrated in Figure 1.
Radar systems are often employed to
have knowledge of the terrain in order facilitate the decision process are neces- provide an accurate image; however,

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in several types of DVE. On the other


hand, MMW radars must have a high
SWaP in order to produce similar
quality images, resulting in degrada-
tion of image quality in order to meet
the limits of the platform on which
the radar will be used.
To overcome the limitations of lidar
and MMW solutions, a Terahertz (THz)
radar was developed as a potential solu-
tion for DVE imaging. Although the
THz band is not thoroughly explored, it
offers several advantages for an imaging
solution. To test the potential of a THz
imager, the Active Covert Terahertz Im-
ager (ACTI) was designed and built by
Mustang Technology, now a subsidiary
of L3, Inc. Operating at 300 to 330 giga-
hertz (GHz), the ACTI is among the
worlds highest frequency radars (lidar
Figure 1. Terrain Map Generated From Radar Data excluded). By operating at higher fre-
quencies relative to MMWs, the ACTI
can employ higher gain antennas at rea-
sonable SWaP, thereby producing
tighter beams and finer resolution. The
higher frequencies also offer easy uti-
lization of higher bandwidth compo-
nents, allowing for finer range resolu-
tion. The increase in frequency and
corresponding decrease in wavelength
also decreases the minimum size re-
quired for an object to be detectable. In
addition, while the frequency is high
for a true radar, the frequency is suffi-
ciently low for the radiation to pene-
trate obscurants, such as dust storms.
The ACTI is a Frequency-Modulated
Continuous-Wave Radar (FMCW). The
beam is mechanically steered by a rotat-
ing mirror, thus providing real beam
imaging and an imaging time in single-
Figure 2. Brownout digit seconds. The beam width is 0.5 de-
grees (), and the field of view is 45 hor-
the performance of radar systems in a tem must be capable of overcoming the izontal by 30 vertical. With its output
given environment is dependent upon visual obscurants and providing high- power of 5 milliwatts (mW) and an-
the frequencies at which they operate. resolution images of the environment tenna gain of 50 decibels relative to
Since objects appear different when in order to facilitate the decision isotropic (dBi), the ACTI is safe for im-
using different observation systems, de- process. aging humans even at a range as close
velopment of new approaches for view- Currently, lidar, a radar-like system as 1 meter.
ing the world would offer new informa- that utilizes frequencies in the visual This work was done by Henry O. Everitt,
tion that could prove critical in spectrum and millimeter wave Willie D. Caraway, and Jonathan T.
situations where currently standard (MMW) radar are the most common Richard of the Army Research, Develop-
techniques are inadequate. One such solutions to DVE. However, while ment, and Engineering Command. For
situation occurs in Degraded Visual En- lidar can produce useful images at rea- more information, download the Tech-
vironments (DVE), such as the sonable Size, Weight, and Power nical Support Package (free white
brownout illustrated in Figure 2. In this (SWaP), lidars relatively lower obscu- paper) at www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp
type of situation, the observation sys- rant penetration produces problems under the Imaging category. ARL-0200

42 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


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Imaging Detonations of Explosives


Using high-speed camera pyrometers to measure and map fireball/shock expansion velocities.
Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

A n effort has been made within the


US Army Research Laboratory (ARL)
to extract quantitative information on
culate shock energy on a target.
Results of these measurements are
used to construct maps of temperature,
explosives are made using a full-color
single-camera pyrometer where wave-
length resolution is achieved using the
explosive performance from high-speed pressure, reactant species, and shock en- Bayer-type mask covering the sensor
imaging of explosions. Explosive fireball ergy on a target. This information is chip and a 2-color imaging pyrometer
surface temperatures are measured using valuable to evaluate explosive perform- employing 2 monochrome cameras fil-
imaging pyrometry (2-color 2-camera ance, models of performance, and barri- tered at wavelengths of 700 and 900
imaging pyrometer; full-color single- ers designed to enhance protection and nm, respectively, (wavelength regions
camera imaging pyrometer). Framing survivability. These techniques and in- adjustable). Each rig operates on the
cameras are synchronized with pulsed struments were developed, in part, to assumption of gray body behavior, but
laser illumination to measure improve productivity by lowering test- each is specific to the type of explosive
fireball/shock expansion velocities, en- ing costs, allowing a single event to being investigated.
abling calculation of peak air-shock yield temperature, pressure, chemical For many CHNO- based explosives
pressures. Multicamera filtering at differ- species, and performance data. (e.g., TNT [C7H5N3O6], the formula-
ent wavelengths enables visualization of Pyrometry is the method of estimat- tion C-4 [92% RDX, C3H6N6O6]), hot
light emission by some reactant species ing temperature of incandescent bod- detonation products are mainly soot
participating in energy release during an ies from standoff, or noncontact meth- and permanent gases, presenting an ap-
explosion. Measurement of incident and ods. In this project, time-resolved proximation of a gray body emitter. For
reflected shock velocities is used to cal- temperature maps of detonations of these systems, the single-camera rig

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may be appropriate. For metalized ex- balls may present a significant source of mately 400 500 pixels with an expo-
plosives, narrow-band light emission error. For each measurement approach, sure per frame of one to tens of mi-
from gas phase molecular and atomic it is mandatory to measure a time-re- croseconds. Each system is temperature
species (e.g., AlO near 484 nm, BO2 near solved emission spectrum during the calibrated using a standard blackbody
560 nm, and K near 760 nm) necessi- event to ensure the absence of discrete source (Omega Engineering), and
tates the use of the 2-camera rig to make emission in the spectral window used checked for accuracy using an air/acety-
measurements in spectral regions free of for temperature measurement. lene diffusion flame.
discrete features. For each pyrometer rig, framing A schematic of the ARL imaging py-
Additionally, strong C2 or CH emis- speeds are 20,00040,000 frames per rometer rig (showing the 2-camera rig
sion from nonsooting explosive fire- second (fps) at a resolution of approxi- and the full-color rig as described) is
shown, as employed for temperature
measurements of exploding 227-gram
Apertured,,
armored enclosure (g) spheres of the explosive formulation
C-4. Also shown in this figure are a
spectrograph capable of measuring
2-color imaging
time-resolved emission spectra and a 3-
pyrometer 10 m color spatially integrating pyrometer
used as a check of the imaging devices.
The 3-color spatially integrating pyrom-
eter (700, 850, and 1,000 nm; 10-nm
bandpass) can provide submicrosecond
Full color imaging time resolution but is biased toward
0.5 pound C-4
pyrometer
measuring the hottest portion of an
emitting medium because of the T4 de-
25 inches pendence of intensity.
3-color integrating Steel This work was done by Kevin L. Mc-
table
pyrometer Nesby, Matthew M. Biss, Barrie E. Homan,
Richard A. Benjamin, Vincent M. Boyle Sr,
Concrete deck and John M. Densmore of the Army Re-
search Laboratory. For more informa-
Integrating tion, download the Technical Support
spectrograph
Package (free white paper) at www.
A schematic of the ARL imaging pyrometer rig as employed for temperature measurements of exploding aerodefensetech.com/tsp under the Im-
spheres of the explosive formulation C-4. aging category. ARL-0199

Development of Photoacoustic Sensing Platforms


Research focuses on sensor miniaturization and detection of chemical targets both
proximally and at range.
Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland

I n recent years, photoacoustic spec-


troscopy (PAS) has emerged as an at-
tractive and powerful technique well
ination of numerous molecules of inter-
est. Successful applications of PAS in
gases and condensed matter have made
uid, or solid phases. The underlying prin-
ciple that connects these various spectro-
scopic methods is the measurement of
suited for sensing applications. The de- this a notable technique and it is now physical changes (i.e., temperature, den-
velopment of high- power radiation studied and employed by scientists and sity, or pressure) as a result of a photo-in-
sources and more sophisticated electron- engineers in a variety of disciplines. duced change in the thermal state of the
ics, including sensitive microphones and PAS is a detection technique under the sample. Other photothermal techniques
digital lock-in amplifiers, have allowed umbrella of photothermal spectroscopy. include photothermal interferometry
for significant advances in PAS. Further- Photothermal spectroscopy encompasses (PTI), photothermal lensing (PTL), and
more, photoacoustic (PA) detection of IR a group of highly sensitive methods that photothermal deflection (PTD).
absorption spectra using modern tunable can be used to detect trace levels of opti- All photothermal processes consist of
lasers offers several advantages, includ- cal absorption and subsequent thermal several linked steps that result in a
ing simultaneous detection and discrim- perturbations of the sample in gas, liq- change of the state of the sample. In

44 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


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general, the sample undergoes an opti- In order to generate acoustic waves pulsed excitation sources. The pres-
cal excitation, which can take various in a sample, periodic heating and sure waves detected in PAS are gener-
forms of radiation, including laser radi- cooling of the sample is required to ated directly by the absorbed fraction
ation. This radiation is absorbed by the produce pressure fluctuations. This is of the modulated or pulsed excitation
sample placing it in an excited state accomplished using modulated or beam. Therefore, the signal generated
(i.e., increased internal energy). Some
portion of this energy decays from the Calibration
excited state in a nonradiative fashion. Gas
Flow Meter Generator
This increase in local energy results in
a temperature change in the sample or
Photoacoustic
the coupling fluid (e.g., air). The in-
Cell
crease in temperature can result in a
density change and, if it occurs at a
Laser Tunable Power
faster rate than the sample or coupling
Controller Laser Meter
fluid can expand or contract, the tem-
perature change will result in a pressure Lens
Microphone
change. As mentioned, all photother-
mal methods attempt to key in on the
changes in the thermal state of the sam-
ple by measuring the index of refraction Lock-In
Amplifier PC
change as with PTI, PTL, and PTD; tem-
perature change as with photothermal
calorimetry and photothermal radiome-
try; or pressure change as with PAS. Simplified schematic diagram of the ARL laser-based photoacoustic gas sensor system

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Tech Briefs

The Clear Choice from a PA experiment is directly proportional to the ab-

for Optical Sapphire sorbed incident power. However, depending on the type of
excitation source (i.e., modulated or pulsed), the relation-
ship between the generated acoustic signal and the ab-
sorbed power at a given wavelength will differ. There are 2
main categories of light sources used for PAS: broadband
sources and narrowband laser sources. Although lamp-
HEM SAPPHIRE based PAS is still common, modern PAS research has been
mainly performed using laser sources.
Highest quality In 1994 the introduction of the quantum cascade laser (QCL)
by Bell Labs changed the prospects of laser PA and, in general, IR
22 Diameter spectroscopy. Since that time, continuing and aggressive evolu-
Superior homogeneity tion has been occurring. The QCL has matured to a level at
which numerous companies can produce gain material for laser
No thickness restrictions systems both in the United States and abroad. Along with this
production, several companies have produced laser systems that
1/10 wave PV TWE and better
are suitable for spectroscopic purposes, allowing for continuous
wavelength tuning ranges of greater than or equal to 200 cm1.
The resolution of well-constructed systems can tune continu-
40+ YEARS OF HEM GROWTH EXPERTISE ously and without mode-hopping over the whole tuning band
with a nominal resolution of approximately 1 cm1. Power out-
GTAT.com | 978-745-0088 | sapphiresales@gtat.com put of spectroscopic sources has generally been moderate; 10s of
milliwatt average power and on the order of 100s of milliwatt
peak pulsed power. Furthermore, QCLs, operating in low duty
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-918
cycles, have demonstrated that PAS based on lock-in amplifica-
tion can still be performed and indeed shows great promise.
This work was done by Ellen L Holthoff and Paul M Pellegrino
Rod Ends and of the Army Research Laboratory. For more information, down-
Spherical load the Technical Support Package (free white paper) at
Bearings designed www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp under the Photonics category.
ARL-0201
and manufactured to
Auroras exacting
standards for quality
and durability. Determining Detection and
Classification Potential of
Munitions Using Advanced
Registered and Certied EMI Sensors in the
to ISO_9001 and AS9100. Underwater Environment
From economy commercial Electromagnetic induction could be used to
to aerospace approved, locate and characterize potentially dangerous
weve got it all! sunken metallic objects.
Strategic Environmental Research and Development
Program, Alexandria, Virginia


Aurora Bearing Company


H azardous ordnance items are present along coastlines and
in rivers and lakes in waters shallow enough to cause con-
cerns for human recreational and industrial activities. The
901 Aucutt Road
Montgomery IL. 60538
presence of water makes it difcult to detect and remove these
hazardous legacies induced from wars, military training and
complete library of CAD drawings and 3D models available at:
deliberate disposal. Various techniques have been proposed to
w w w. a u r o r a b e a r i n g . c o m detect and characterize Unexploded Ordnances (UXO) and

46 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-919 Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


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discarded military munitions (DMM) in


the underwater environment including
acoustic waves, magnetometery, and
electromagnetic induction (EMI).
In recent years, terrestrial munitions
response has seen signicant improve-
ments in our capability to discriminate
Munitions and Explosives of Concern
(MEC) from benign metallic clutter.
These advances have been primarily
driven by the development of next-gen-
eration EMI sensors designed to interro-
gate small, near-surface targets. This re-
search concerns underwater sensing
using EMI which is distinct from the ter-
restrial setting in several respects includ-
ing positioning requirements and tech-
niques, noise environment, and practical
constraints on deployment of sensor sys-
tems. In terrestrial settings, conduction
currents can be ignored in most soil
types (conductivity 0.01 S/m). The meas-
ured magnetic elds from a subsurface
metallic object in the low-frequency EMI Frame built for the underwater tests, comprising two receive cubes and a 2 m x 1 m transmitter coil.

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Whats On Tech Briefs

M A T E R I A L S C H A N N E L

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regime can be modelled as if the object were in free-space. In
contrast, marine environments are generally highly conductive
with an average seawater conductivity of around 4 - 5 S/m.
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applications in his latest Tech Talk. He both the background and scattered eld response from a
introduces EP42HT-2LTE, a two-part epoxy highly conducting and permeable sphere for dipole and loop
with an exceptionally low coefficient of transmitters and receivers. A series of synthetic experiments
thermal expansion, superior dimensional was carried out by considering various factors that might in-
stability, and a high-strength profile. uence EMI signals, including current channeling effects, sea
depth, the size of a loop, lateral offset of the receiver, host
techbriefs.com/tv/EP42HT-2LTE
conductivity, excitation waveform and antenna insulation.
For the marine measurements, a 2m x 1m x 1m berglass frame
Electrick Spray Paint Turns was built to encase two receiver cubes in epoxy to make them wa-
Any Surface into a Sensor terproof. The transmitter loop comprised 12 turns of wire
Created at Carnegie Mellon University, arranged in a 2m by 1m rectangle. A 24V power-supply was used
Electrick is a low-cost sensing technique to provide a maximum current of 11.4A using a 25 Hz base-fre-
that enables touch input on a wide variety quency with a 50% duty cycle waveform. A series of measure-
of objects and surfaces. Compatible with ments were conducted in sea-water depths of between 2 and 14m.
many common manufacturing methods, like The response from a metallic body immersed in a conduc-
tive medium is a combination of the eddy current response
spray/brush coating, the technique can bring
(ECR) due to currents generated in the target and the galvanic
touch interactivity to rapidly fabricated
coupling of currents through the body (the current channel-
objects.
ing response, CCR). In terrestrial environments only the ECR
techbriefs.com/tv/Electrick-paint is important. Simulations showed that the CCR from a highly
conducting and permeable sphere embedded in the air-sea-
Rapid Liquid Printing Lets sediment is far smaller than the ECR and decays much faster
You Draw in Suspended Gel than the ECR at a rate of t3. For the time range of 0.1 ms -
25 ms, the CCR contributes little to the target signals and thus
MIT researchers have introduced an
can be ignored. At times beyond several hundred microsec-
experimental process theyre calling Rapid onds, the ECR response approaches the value for the same ob-
Liquid Printing, which lets users physically ject embedded in free space. These numerical observations
draw in 3D space within a gel suspension. were conrmed by measurements of an insulated and non-in-
The process could enable the creation of sulated 105 mm projectile at a range of different receiver,
large-scale, customized products made of transmitter and object offsets.
real-world materials like rubber, foam, or When considering a survey close to seaoor, it was found
plastic. that the decay rate of the background response is affected by
techbriefs.com/tv/liquid-print the sea depth, or equivalently by the distance of the sensor
from the air-sea interface. Results showed that the background
responses in shallow water decay faster than in deeper water. In
Future Lunar Colonists Could deeper water where the sensor is far away from the air-sea inter-
Build with 3D-Printed Moon face, the corresponding background responses asymptotically
Bricks approach the response of a half-space. Simulations demon-
ESA engineers have 3D-printed bricks out strated that sea depths dont impact the scattered eld response
of simulated Moon dust, using concentrated from a buried metallic object. Measurements conducted in
sunlight. The engineers used simulated lunar water depths between 2 and 14m showed the response in shal-
soil based on terrestrial volcanic material, lower water (2m) falling off faster than the measurements at
processed to mimic the composition of real 14m. Observed decay rates were between t 5/2 and t3.
Moon dust. This work was done by Stephen D. Billings of Black Tusk Geo-
physics Inc. and Lin-Ping Song of the University of British Colum-
techbriefs.com/tv/moon-brick
bia for the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Re-
search and Development Program (SERDP). For more
information, download the Technical Support Package (free
white paper) at www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp under the Sen-
sors category. SERDP-0001

www.techbriefs.tv Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


Intro Cov ToC + A

Upcoming...

Webinars System Simulation for Aerospace


and Defense Applications
Wednesday, June 21, 2017 at 2:00 pm U.S. EDT
This 60-minute Webinar examines LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim software, which is used throughout the aerospace and defense indus-
tries because of its rich, deep libraries and robust, easy-to-use simulation platform. The LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim platform is pre-
sented in detail with specific emphasis on aerospace and defense applications. An example of a complete aircraft system, integrat-
ing each aircraft engineering discipline, is also given.
Speakers:
Patrick J. OHeron Michael Herbstreit This 60-minute Webinar includes:
Simcenter Portfolio Manager, Associate Technical Fellow,
Live Q&A session
Siemens PLM Software Boeing
Application Demo
Access to archived event on demand

Please visit www.techbriefs.com/webinar446

Technical Webinar Series from the Editors of SAE:


Advances in Unmanned System Propulsion
Tuesday, June 27, 2017 at Noon U.S. EDT
The development of new propulsion technologies has been the focus of R&D looking to provide the functionality needed for unmanned
aircraft systems, including vertical takeoff and landing, long endurance, stealthy operations, and stability in hostile environments.
This 60-minute Webinar highlights key issues in the development and certification of advanced propulsion technologies, discusses
potential challenges and solutions, and looks at new approaches and ideas.
Speakers:
David Ransom Jeff Ratcliffe Karen Swider Lyons, Ph.D.
Manager, CTO and Engineering Services Alternative Energy Section
Southwest Research Institute Business Development Head, Chemistry Division,
Manager, U.S. Naval Research
Northwest UAV Laboratory

This 60-minute Webinar includes Live Q&A session Application Demo Access to archived event on demand
Please visit www.techbriefs.com/webinar447

Available On Demand!
3D Printing Large Metal Aerospace Parts
The applications for metal additive manufacturing are many, but the aerospace sector is one area that is leveraging metal AM for
actual production parts. In this Webinar, youll learn why Addaero has selected Arcam EBM to meet the most demanding structural
applications for larger, bulkier parts.
Speakers:
Richard J. Merlino Bruce Bradshaw
President, Chief Marketing Officer,
Addaero Manufacturing Arcam AB

Please visit www.techbriefs.com/webinar421


Intro Cov ToC + A

Application Briefs

Leopard 2 Tank Retrofits


Jenoptik Defense & Civil Systems
Wedel, Germany
+49 3641 65-2255
www.jenoptik.com

A s part of a Polish modernization program for the Leopard


2 tank, Jenoptik was recently awarded contracts to supply
126 17-kilowatt auxiliary power units to the Polish company
ZM Bumar Labedy S. A. The company Rheinmetall Defence
will receive another seven of these units as well as ten electric
turret and weapon stabilization systems.
The auxiliary power generator set, also known as the auxil-
iary power unit or APU, is a robust and compact combination
of diesel engine, alternator and rectifier. It generates power in
line with the relevant requirements of the vehicle and con-
verts this power to the voltage of the onboard system. The
APU assumes responsibility for the power supply independ-
ently of the vehicle's main engine. This saves fuel, as the main
engine does not need to be running constantly in order to op- ret and weapon while the tank is in motion, allowing the crew
erate the onboard systems. The APU is extremely quiet in its to continuously acquire and track targets even on uneven ter-
operation, allowing vehicles and platforms to operate in rain. Alignment movements can be automatically stabilized or
silent mode. The compact auxiliary power units reliably controlled manually.
generate electrical energy for the onboard system in the small- The Leopard 2 main battle tank was originally developed in
est possible space while the engine is switched off. the 1970s by Krauss-Maffei for the West German Army. It first
The electric turret and weapon stabilization systems will re- entered service in 1979, replacing its predecessor, the Leopard
place the hydraulic systems that have been used to date. They 1. In addition to Germany and Poland, it is used by the armed
are, for the most part, maintenance-free and generate less heat forces of a number of other European countries,
inside the tank. Basically, these systems steadily align the tur- For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-571

Mobile Weapons Stations


KONGSBERG Protech Systems (KPS) LW30 was able to demonstrate full station functionality and
Johnstown, PA mobility, firing without physical restraints on the system and
814-269-5700 successfully engaging targets out to ~1,000 meters.
www.kongsberg.com/en/kps/ What gave the unveiling added significance was the fact
that it successfully demonstrated the ability to leverage the

K ONGSBERG Protech Systems (KPS), one of the worlds


leading suppliers of Remote Weapon Stations (RWS) re-
cently unveiled their latest system developments at the Orbital
U.S. Common Remotely Operated Weapon System (CROWS)
family of systems to support new weapons development, ef-
fectively leveraging the U.S government (USG) (owned) Tech-
ATK Bushmaster User Conference. The Bushmaster demonstra-
tion showcased the PROTECTOR LW30, with a M230 LF can-
non and the PROTECTOR Medium Caliber (remote) Turret
(MCT) with both 30mm and Super 40mm cannons.
The centerpiece of the event was the demonstration of the
PROTECTOR MCT's flexibility to upgun from a standard
30mm configuration, to a 40mm cannon with no changes to
the turret structure. The demonstration included live fire with
both 30mm and 40mm high explosives and programmable
airburst munitions, giving the audience proof of the increased
effects on a variety of targets.
In addition, KONGSBERG demonstrated its PROTECTOR
LW30, firing in moving and static scenarios. The PROTECTOR

50 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


Intro Cov ToC + A

Application Briefs

Any
platform.
nical Data Package (TDP) and the expansive CROWS supply
chain (and industrial base).
Any time.
Both systems demonstrated at the Bushmaster event were
advanced prototypes, in each case significantly drawing from
serial production systems. In the case of the LW 30, that sys- dB Control
tem is a derivative of CROWS, approximately 60% common.
In the case of the MCT-30, it is virtually identical to the cur- delivers.
rent Stryker deliveries for Dragoon, but has (included) a
dual control / dual user capability as well as a commanders TWT AMPLIFIERS | MICROWAVE POWER MODULES | POWER SUPPLIES
independent sensor system.
Kongsberg Protech Systems (KPS) is the principal supplier
of RWS systems to the U.S. DoD. Between the M151 RWS
and M153 CROWS variants, KPS has delivered to the U.S.
Army over 15,000 RWS/CROWS systems. In addition, KPS
has developed, qualified, and is presently in serial delivery Our high-power TWTAs, MPMs
+1 (510) 656-2325
of similar remote weapon station systems (by weight / and power supplies for radar,
marketing@dBControl.com
class) to the United States Navy (USN) and the United ECM and EW threat simulation www.dBControl.com
systems save lives every day.
States Marine Corps (USMC). KPS is also the provider of the
If your expectations are as high
Medium Caliber (MCT-30) remote turret system for the
as your power requirements,
Stryker Dragoon.
please contact us today.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-572
2017 dB Control Corp. All rights reserved.
Photos provided courtesy U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army and U.S. Navy.

Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-921


Aircraft Rescue Fire Fighting
Vehicles (ARFF)
Oshkosh Defense, LLC
Oshkosh, WI
920-235-9150
www.oshkoshdefense.com

O shkosh Defense, LLC, an Oshkosh Corporation com-


pany, announced that the U.S. Marine Corps has re-
ceived Milestone C approval to begin Full Rate Production
(FRP) on the P-19 Replacement (P-19R) Aircraft Rescue Fire
Fighting (ARFF) vehicle program. This approval represents a
major milestone for the $192 million P-19R ARFF contract,

Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-922 51


Intro Cov ToC + A

Application Briefs

which was awarded to Oshkosh in May 2013 to replace the and 500 lbs of auxiliary firefighting agent. The roof and bumper
P-19A fleet. turrets combined will discharge up to 750 gallons per minute.
The Oshkosh P-19R ARFF combines the industrys most The Oshkosh P-19R is equipped with Oshkoshs Command
advanced fire apparatus and vehicle technologies to reach Zone integrated control and diagnostics system. This fully-au-
emergency scenes faster, and have more capability to manage tomated system provides access to vital vehicle information, and
a spectrum of emergency situations once they arrive on the allows Marines to repair and troubleshoot vehicles, view real-
scene. The P-19R comes equipped with a 600 horsepower en- time performance data and remotely access diagnostics informa-
gine that allows for speeds up to 70 mph. tion. The P-19R is also outfitted with advanced Striker ARFF ve-
The P-19R also is designed to perform well in off-road environ- hicle firefighting systems from Oshkosh Airport Products LLC.
ments with the Oshkosh TAK-4 independent suspension sys- The Oshkosh P-19R will give the Marines greater capability
tem. TAK-4 has been used on more than 20,000 military-class ve- in responding to on- and off-runway emergency response situ-
hicles, and delivers 16 inches of independent wheel travel to ations. In total, Oshkosh will deliver 164 P-19R ARFFs through
provide greater all-terrain performance for off-runway emergen- 2019. The P-19R will replace the P-19A fleet, which was first
cies. In addition, the TAK-4 system provides the payload capacity fielded in 1984 and is reaching the end of its service life.
needed to carry 1,000 gallons of water, 130 gallons of foam agent, For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-574

Rugged Smart Displays


General Micro Systems, Inc.
Rancho Cucamonga, CA
800-307-4863
www.gms4sbc.com/

G eneral Micro Systems, Inc.s SD19 rugged smart display is


being deployed for use in modernizing select U.S. Navy
ships. This smart, all-in-one display will be distributed
throughout the Navys fleet to replace an existing dumb dis-
play that had been facing end-of-life challenges. The display
will actually combine two functions into one: a rugged, 19-
inch LCD with special electrical, mechanical and environ-
mental characteristics; and a rugged Intel-based single-board
computer running Microsoft Windows.
The technical challenge was maintaining one hundred per-
cent backwards compatibility with the existing display system
while still adding the complete computer subsystem within
the same physical space. The GMS SD19 SmartView is
roughly 3.5-inches thin and very rugged due to the companys
patent-pending RuggedCool technology, which conducts
the heat from the Intel 4th Generation Core i7 processor
(Haswell) directly to the SD19 case where, depending upon 100G in all three axes while operating and successfully passed
the location in the ship, the heat is either radiated into the en- the test.
vironment or conducted away from the SD19 unit. This inno- According to the U.S. Navy, programs such as the AEGIS
vative cooling technology alleviates the need for cooling fans, Modernization Program (AMOD)...introduces computing sys-
which are a reliability weakness. tem upgrades via the Advanced Capability Build (ACB) and
The SD19 SmartView smart display also features a hard- Technology Insertion (TI) process for both cruisers and de-
ened 4:3 aspect ratio touchscreen and night vision-capable stroyers. In that example, COTS computer systems are speci-
LCD, with finely controlled, Navy-specified brightness set- fied in the AEGIS Baseline 9 (BL 9) development effort. More
tings from full-on to complete dimmed darkness. Other upgrades are planned across the 84 ships in service with the
unique requirements for the SD19 include multi-display oper- AEGIS Weapons Systems installed (22 Cruisers and 62 De-
ation that allows the SD19 to output to other shipboard dis- stroyers). Other Navy programs similarly specify COTS up-
plays, while other displays can output to SD19 simply with a grades including the GMS SD19. For the ships being equipped
bezel button push. The SD19 also successfully passed the with GMS SD19 SmartView displays, many use multiple in-
hammer test per MIL-STD-901D, which simulates a projec- stances of the SD19 smart display system and are installed in-
tile striking the ship while the ships systems must continue to side or out on deck, depending upon the ships configuration.
operate. The SD19 SmartView unit withstood well over For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-570

52 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


Intro Cov ToC + A

Application Briefs

Industrial-Scale Metal 3D Printer


Sciaky, Inc.
Chicago, IL
877-450-2518
www.sciaky.com

S ciaky, Inc., a subsidiary of Phillips Service Industries, Inc.


(PSI), announced recently that Airbus was scheduled to
take delivery of a state-of-the-art Electron Beam Additive Man-
ufacturing (EBAM) 110 System. The renowned aircraft man-
ufacturer will utilize Sciakys industrial-scale metal 3D print-
ing system to produce large structural parts made of titanium.
Sciakys EBAM process combines computer-aided design
(CAD), additive manufacturing processing principles, and an
electron beam heat source. Starting with a 3D model from a
CAD program, Sciakys fully-articulated, moving electron
beam gun deposits metal via wire feedstock, layer by layer,
until the part reaches near-net shape. From there, the near-net
shape part requires heat treatment and post-production ma-
chining. In the end, there is minimal material waste.
Sciaky also brings quality and control together in one step
with IRISS the Interlayer Real-time Imaging and Sensing
System. IRISS is the only real-time monitoring and control
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-923
system in the metal 3D printing market that can sense and
digitally self-adjust metal deposition with precision and re-
peatability. This closed-loop control is the primary reason that
Sciakys EBAM 3D printing process can deliver consistent part
geometry, mechanical properties, microstructure, and metal
chemistry, from the first part to the last.
As mentioned above, EBAM utilizes wire feedstock, which
can accommodate a wide variety of metals and refractory al-
loys, such as titanium, tantalum, niobium, tungsten, Inconel,
and stainless steels. Sciakys EBAM 110 System has a work en-
velope of 70" (1778 mm) x 47" (1194 mm) x 63" (1600 mm).
Sciakys lineup of EBAM systems can produce parts ranging
from 8 inches (203 mm) to 19 feet (5.79 meters) in length.
EBAM is also the fastest deposition process in the metal addi-
tive manufacturing market, with gross deposition rates rang-
ing from 7 to 20 lbs. (3.18 to 9.07 kg) of metal per hour.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-573

Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-924 53


Intro Cov ToC + A

New Products

Ultra-Wideband Amplifier Thermocouple Simulator-Calibrator


The Lemos (Barrington, RI) PAT- Ectron Corporations (San Diego, CA) Model 1140A thermo-
HPA21G is a low noise, ultra-wideband couple simulator-calibrator provides four calibration functions:
amplifier, based on GaN technology. precise simulation of thermocouple signals, precise measure-
Compact and lightweight, the PAT- ment of thermocouple signals, generation of accurate DC volt-
HPA21G has good N.F, high output ages from microvolt level to 11 volts, and measurement of DC
power P1db of 24 dbm, and high gain of voltages over the same range.
30 db. The unit can achieve even better Using a high-speed micro-
specs if the user doesn't need the entire frequency band of 0.8- controller, the 1140A offers
21 GHZ and only needs, for example, 6-18 GHZ. Low Current such features as an autozero
220 mA Max. Meets MIL-STD 810F requirements. Physical di- function to correct the zero reading of a non-ideal thermocou-
mensions are 1.20" x 0.64" x 0.45." Weight equals 17 grams. ple. For repetitive operations, 100 sets of operating conditions
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-510 can be committed to memory for future retrieval, including
automatic sequencing from one condition to the next. Using
25W Ku-Band Transceiver one of several interfaces, all functions can be programmed
TRAK Microwave (Tampa, FL) a and executed under computer control. With an output imped-
Microwave brand of Smiths Intercon- ance of less than 0.05  on all ranges, high accuracy is main-
nect, has announced the addition of tained with an absolute minimum of loading error.
the HPT Ku-Band High Power Trans- For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-513
ceiver to its product offerings.
TRAKs new HPT functions as a complete airborne Satcom so- 35A SSPC Module
lution, integrating the necessary GaN SSPA, upconverters, Data Device Corporation (DDC) (Bo-
downconverters, and digital control technology to offer a hemia, NY) has introduced a highly ver-
highly modular yet easily maintained system complete with ad- satile 35A, 28V Single Channel Remote
vanced interoperability features and multiple Built-in-Test (BIT) Solid-State Power Controller (SSPC) module, offering advanced
functions. For applications that require additional commercial programmability, power optimization, and system health diag-
air transport use assurance, an optional vibration insensitive nostic and prognostic data in a compact and reliable module.
OCXO installed on a vibration isolation platform is available. The RP-20011601S0 programmable remote power controller can
The HPT can transmit from 13.75 to 14.5 GHz from an IF be readily configured for a wide range of power requirements,
frequency of 950 to 1700 MHz with a gain variation of less making it suitable for advanced electrical management systems,
than 1.0 dB over any 36 MHz band and provides the fre- as demonstrated by its selection for use on the Joint Light Tacti-
quency block down conversion from 10.7 to 11.7 GHz to the cal Vehicle (JLTV). These SSPC modules help extend mission
low band IF of 950-1950 MHz or from 11.7 to 12.75 GHz to range and longevity, minimize inventory requirements, and en-
the high band IF of 1100-2150 MHz. The Receive bands are se- able system designers to efficiently add additional power con-
lectable with commands over the Ethernet bus. trollers in support of evolving load requirements.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-512 For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-517

AE524PYA Series CPS


Outgassing Compliant Power Inductors CRITICAL PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Meets NASA low outgassing specications


Passes vibration testing to 80 G and
shock testing to 1000 G
Exceptionally low DCR; soft saturation
Temperature rating: -55 C to +155 C

Learn more @ coilcraft-cps.com


Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-925


Intro Cov ToC + A

SIX DAYS THREE CONFERENCES ONE EXHIBITION

EUROPEAN MICROWAVE WEEK 2017


NRNBERG CONVENTION CENTER,
NUREMBERG, GERMANY
8TH - 13TH OCTOBER 2017

EUROPES PREMIER MICROWAVE,


RF, WIRELESS AND RADAR EVENT
The Conferences (8th - 13th October 2017)
European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC)
8th - 10th October 2017
European Microwave Conference (EuMC) 8th - 12th October 2017
European Radar Conference (EuRAD) 11th - 13th October 2017
Plus Workshops and Short Courses (From 8th October 2017)
In addition, EuMW will include for the nth year, the Defence, Security and Space
Forum on 11th October 2017

DISCOUNTED CONFERENCE RATES


Discounted rates are available up to and including 8th September 2017.
Register NOW and SAVE!
Registration is available after this date and up to 13th October
at the standard rate.
The FREE Exhibition (10th - 12th October 2017)
ENTRY TO THE EXHIBITION IS FREE! Register today to gain access to over 300
international exhibitors and take the opportunity of face-to-face interaction with
those developing the future of microwave technology. The exhibition also features
exhibitor demonstrations, industrial workshops and the annual European Microwave
Week Microwave Application Seminars (MicroApps).
Organised by: Ofcial Publication: Co-sponsored by: Co-sponsored by: Supported by: Supported by:

Co-sponsored by: Co-sponsored by: Co-sponsored by:

Register online now as a delegate or visitor at: www.eumweek.com


Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-926


Intro Cov ToC + A

New Products

Fiber Optic Sensor Probe


Hal Technology (Fontana,
CA) has recently developed
and demonstrated a compact,
lightweight, rugged, high-
temp erature-capable, flush-
mountable, fiber-optic sensor probe for real-time particulate
loading rate measurement. The sensor uses an innovative
combination of optical particle sensing technologies and
fiber-optic packaging in a rugged, compact and non-intrusive
optical design. The fiber optic approach separates the elec-
tronic components from the extreme harsh environment to
prevent direct exposure. The sensor detects light scattering
from moving particles as optical pulsed signals whose ampli-
tudes are proportional to size and whose number is propor-
tional to concentration.
The sensor probe provides good sensitivity to particle size
(down to 1m or less) and has large dynamic range (up to
1mm). The current compact sensor probe head is about a
quarter inch in diameter, a little over one-inch long and
weighs less than 0.1 oz. After calibration, particle load rate
tests with standard ISO medium test dust matched distribu-
tion data well and high temperature tests showed negligible
change in sensor response.
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-927
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-511

CAE Software
Altair (Troy, MI) has released HyperWorks 2017. This latest
release sees several functionalities added in areas such as
model-based development, electromagnetism, nonlinear
structural analysis, modeling and meshing, multiphysics and
multi-disciplinary analysis, lightweight design and optimiza-
tion. New products and enhancement include:
Model-based Development Suite: solidThinking Acti-
vate , Compose and Embed capabilities encompassing
concept studies, control design, system performance opti-
mization and controller implementation and testing are now
part of the platform.
Electromagnetics Analysis and Design: Flux for EM sim-
ulation of static and low frequency applications, and Win-
Prop for propagation modeling and radio network planning.
Material Modeling
and Manufacturing:
Multiscale Designer is a
tool for development
and simulation of accu-
rate models for hetero-
geneous material sys-
tems including laminated composites, honeycomb cores,
reinforced concrete, soil, bones, and various others.
Usability and Efficient Model Management: Hyper-
Mesh now offers a complete, robust solution for assembly
and model variants management, expanding the part li-
brary and configuration management capabilities. Impor-
tant new features for crash and safety users have also been
implemented.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-514

56 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-928 Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


Intro Cov ToC + A

Product Spotlight
New Products MILITARY/ MULTIPHYSICS
AEROSPACE MODELING,
MULTI-SECTION SIMULATION,
FILTERS APP DESIGN AND
Our Power Filters for DEPLOYMENT
Military and Aerospace appli-
cations are available in both
SOFTWARE
standard and custom designs. We have the ability to COMSOL Multiphysics is an integrated software envi-
find solutions to suppress or eliminate electromag- ronment for creating physics-based models and simula-
4-Port SuperSpeed USB 3.1 Hub netic interference (EMI) allowing us to provide high tion apps. Add-on products allow the simulation of elec-
ACCES I/O Products, Inc., (San Diego, reliability power filters required. Our electromagnet- trical, mechanical, acoustic, fluid flow, thermal, and
CA) has released a new rugged, indus- ic compatibility expertise in the tempest arena can chemical applications. Interfacing tools enable its inte-
also help you meet MIL-F-15733 and MIL-STD 461 gration with all major technical computing and CAD
trial-strength, 4-port USB 3.1 hubthe standard requirements. http://eis.apitech.com/ tools. Simulation experts rely on COMSOL Server
USB3-104-HUB. Designed for the harsh- custom-power-filters.aspx product to deploy apps to their colleagues and cus-
est environments, this small indus- tomers worldwide. https://www.comsol.com/products
API Technologies
trial/military grade hub features ex- COMSOL, Inc.
tended temperature operation (-40C to Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-929 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-930
+85C), locking USB and power connec-
tions, and an in- LINEAR MOTION INTRINSICALLY
dustrial steel enclo- PRODUCTS SAFE FIBER
sure for shock and Del-Tron Precision, a US OPTIC
vibration mitiga- manufacturer for more SWITCHES
than 40 years, has been
tion. The OEM ver- providing the Aerospace Liteway, Inc. offers a line of full bi-directional fiber
sion (board only) is and Defense industry with design assistance, prod- optic switches in the following styles: 1N, 2N, 13,
uct prototyping and full service manufacturing for 14, Latching or Non-Latching, Signal Sensing,
PC/104 sized and Manual or Remote controlled. Since there is no light
custom linear motion products ranging from a stan-
can easily be installed in new or existing dard ball or crossed roller slides requiring custom to/from electrical data conversion, there is no data to
PC/104-based systems. holes or special materials to a complex positioning intercept. Switches can be used Stand-alone, DIN rail
system. For more information, call 800.245.5013 or or Rack mounted, are available with all standard opti-
This four port hub can be bus pow- cal connectors and are ready for immediate use. All
visit us at www.deltron.com.
ered or self (externally) powered. Choice switches are manufactured in the USA. Visit www.fos-
of two power inputs (power jack and ter- witch.com or call Liteway, Inc. at 1-516-931-2800
minal block) to provide a full 900mA Del-Tron Precision, Inc.
Liteway, Inc
source at 5V on each of the downstream
ports. Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-931 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-932
For Free Info Visit
http://info.hotims.com/65852-515 UV CURABLE HOW ACCURATE IS
SYSTEM FEATURES YOUR TORQUE
Mission-Ready Graphics System TG >180C MEASUREMENT?
Abaco Systems (Huntsville, AL) has Master Bond UV25 offers Our accuracy holds under field
demonstrated an advanced prototype of a exceptional thermal stability conditions that can vary.
very small form factor, over the broad service tempera- Our MCRT Bearingless Digital
ture range of -60F to +500F. Torquemeters offer the highest
rugged, mission- This one part, moderate viscosi- overrange and overload of any
ready system for ty UV curable system bonds well similar products.
graphics applica- to glass, surface treated metals and plastics such as Theyre simple to install and tolerant of rotor-to-
polycarbonates and acrylics, among others. stator misalignments.
tions based on Additionally, this material is optically clear with a Our calibration laboratory is ISO 17025 accredited by
the new NVIDIA refractive index of 1.55 at room temperature. NVLAP (Lab Code 200487-0). Contact: 800.632.7873 or
Jetson TX2 sys- http://www.masterbond.com/tds/uv25 sales@himmelstein.com; http://www.himmelstein.com
tem on a module. Op-
timized for minimal SWaP- Master Bond S. Himmelstein and Company
C (size, weight, power and cost), the new
system is designed for deployment in Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-933 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-934

harsh, constrained environments that re-


quire significant computing capability. Become an INSIDER A WORLD OF FIBER OPTIC
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Publisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Joseph T. Pramberger
Ad Index
Editorial Director TBMG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Linda L. Bell Advertiser Page Web Link
Editorial Director SAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . William Visnic
Accurate Screw Machine.......................................... 4........................................................ www.AccurateScrew.com
Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bruce A. Bennett
Anritsu............................................................................ 31................................ www.anritsu.com/test-measurement
Digital Editorial Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Billy Hurley
API Technologies - EIS Div....................................... 57........http://eis.apitech.com/custom-power-filters.aspx
Associate Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Edward Brown Arcam CAD to Metal, Inc........................................... 15.................................................................................. arcam.com
Managing Editor, Tech Briefs TV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kendra Smith Aurora Bearing Co.......................................................46...................................................... www.aurorabearing.com
Associate Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ryan Gehm Avnet, Inc....................................................................... 3......................................................................................avnet.com
Production Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adam Santiago AVX.................................................................................. 56............................................................................ www.avx.com
Assistant Production Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kevin Coltrinari Coilcraft CPS................................................................ 54......................................................................coilcraft-cps.com
Creative Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lois Erlacher COMSOL, Inc...................................................................57, COV IV.............................................. comsol.com/products
Senior Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ayinde Frederick Concept Group, Inc..................................................... 39............................................................ conceptgroupinc.com
Marketing Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Debora Rothwell Cornell Dubilier............................................................ 13..........................................................cde.com/MLSHSlimpack
Marketing Communications Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Monica Bond Crane Aerospace & Electronics.............................. 11..............................................................www.craneae.com/mw
Digital Marketing Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kaitlyn Sommer Create The Future Design Contest........................ 2........................................ www.createthefuturecontest.com
Audience Development Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marilyn Samuelsen CST of America, Inc.....................................................COV III...................................................................... www.cst.com
Audience Development Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stacey Nelson dB Control Corp........................................................... 51................................................................ www.dbControl.com
Subscription Changes/Cancellations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .nasa@omeda.com Del-Tron Precision, Inc...............................................57......................................................................www.deltron.com
Deposition Sciences, Inc...........................................36..................................................................................depsci.com
TECH BRIEFS MEDIA GROUP, AN SAE INTERNATIONAL COMPANY European Microwave Week...................................... 55................................................................ www.eumweek.com
261 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1901, New York, NY 10016 Evans Capacitor.......................................................... 10.................................................................. www.evanscap.com
(212) 490-3999 FAX (646) 829-0800
Gage Bilt Inc................................................................. 51.............................................................................. gagebilt.com
Chief Executive Officer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Domenic A. Mucchetti
GT Advanced Technologies...................................... 46.................................................................................... GTAT.com
Executive Vice-President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Luke Schnirring
Hawthorne Rubber Mfg. Corp................................. 56................................................ www.HawthorneRubber.com
Technology Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oliver Rockwell Helical Products Company, Inc...............................18............................................................ MachinedSprings.com
Systems Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vlad Gladoun Imagineering, Inc....................................................... 1........................................................................ www.PCBnet.com
Web Developer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Karina Carter Liteway Inc.....................................................................57....................................................................www.foswitch.com
Digital Media Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peter Bonavita Luna Optoelectroncs..................................................19......................................www.lunainc.com/optoelectronics
Digital Media Assistant Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anel Guerrero Marotta Controls, Inc................................................. COV IA-COV IB..............................................www.marotta.com
Digital Media Assistants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peter Weiland, Howard Ng, Md Jaliluzzaman Master Bond Inc...........................................................57............................ http://www.masterbond.com/tds/uv25
Digital Media Audience Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jamil Barrett Michigan Economic
Credit/Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Felecia Lahey Development Corporation........................................9.............................. michiganbusiness.org/pure-aerospace
Accounting/Human Resources Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sylvia Bonilla Mini-Systems, Inc.........................................................37.............................................................. mini-systemsinc.com
Office Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Alfredo Vasquez MPL.................................................................................. 53................................................................................ www.mpl.ch
Receptionist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Elizabeth Brache-Torres New England Wire Technologies............................ 45....................................................www.newenglandwire.com
OSRAM Sylvania.......................................................... 43........................................................ www.osramheaters.com
ADVERTISING ACCOUNT EXECUTIVES Photon Engineering....................................................24............................................................ www.photonengr.com
MA, NH, ME, VT, RI, Eastern Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ed Marecki Proto Labs, Inc............................................................. 7..........................................................go.protolabs.com/DB7HJ
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tatiana Marshall
Remcom..........................................................................35................................................ www.remcom.com/5g-mimo
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(401) 351-0274
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.......................... 21................................www.rohde-schwarz.com/ad/highend
S. Himmelstein and Company................................ 57............................................................www.himmelstein.com
CT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Stan Greenfield
S.I. Tech.......................................................................... 57......................................................www.sitech-bitdriver.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (203) 938-2418
Sealevel Systems, Inc.................................................47..............................................................................Sealevel.com
NJ, PA, DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Murray
Smart Reservoir.......................................................... 53...................................................... www.smartreservoir.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (973) 409-4685
Superior Tube Co.........................................................29.......................................................... www.superiortube.com
Southeast, TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray Tompkins TE Connectivity............................................................17................................................................ te.com/parisairshow
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(281) 313-1004 Tech Briefs TV.............................................................. 48.................................................................... www.techbriefs.tv
NY, OH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ryan Beckman Tektronix, Inc............................................................... 25............................................................................ tek.com/thrill
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (973) 409-4687 Thermacore, Inc...........................................................27.............................................. www.thermacore.com/design
MI, IN, WI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chris Kennedy Ulbrich Stainless
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (847) 498-4520 ext. 3008 Steels & Special Metals, Inc..................................... 41.............................................................................. ULBRICH.COM
MN, ND, SD, IL, KY, MO, KS, IA, NE, Central Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bob Casey VPT, Inc........................................................................... 5.................................................................... www.vptpower.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (847) 223-5225 W.L. Gore & Associates.............................................. COV II..........................................www.gore.com/GORE-FLIGHT
Northwest, N. Calif., Western Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Craig Pitcher WinSystems, Inc...........................................................23............................................................ www.winsystems.com
(408) 778-0300
CO, UT, MT, WY, ID, NM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tim Powers Aerospace Manufacturing & Fabrication
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(973) 409-4762 Ascent Aerospace.................................................... 1a............................................................ascentaerospace.com
S. Calif. , AZ, NV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tom Boris
C.R. Onsrud, Inc......................................................... 9a................................................................www.cronsrud.com
En'Urga Inc................................................................. 11a..............................................................................enurga.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (949) 715-7779
International Polymer Engineering.................. 11a...................................................... www.ipeaerospace.com
Europe Central & Eastern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sven Anacker
Ingersoll Rand Power Tools.................................. 6a...................................................................... irtools.com/qxn
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49-202-27169-11
Proto Labs, Inc...........................................................5a.................................................. go.protolabs.com/TB7HPQ
Joseph Heeg
Weldaloy Products Company................................3a.......................................................................... weldaloy.com
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49-621-841-5702
Europe Western . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chris Shaw
Aerospace & Defense Technology, ISSN 2472-2081, USPS 018-120, copyright 2017 in U.S. is
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44-1270-522130 published in February, April, May, June, August, October, and December (7 issues) by
Integrated Media Consultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Patrick Harvey Tech Briefs Media Group, an SAE International Company, 261 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1901,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (973) 409-4686 New York, NY 10016. The copyright information does not include the (U.S. rights to) indi-
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47857, Plymouth, MN 55447.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (219) 878-6068
June 2017, Volume 2, Number 4

58 www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace & Defense Technology, June 2017


Intro Cov ToC + A

Discover
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C T STU DIO
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www.aerodefensetech.com June 2017

Technicians perform
Technicians perform final
final
assembly on
assembly on aa Pratt
Pratt &
&
Whitney geared
Whitney geared turbofan
turbofan
demonstrator jet
demonstrator jet engine.
engine.
(Photo courtesy
(Photo courtesy ofof
Pratt &
Pratt & Whitney)
Whitney)

Supplement to Aerospace & Defense Technology


Intro Cov ToC + A

Finding Alternatives to Cadmium
in Aerospace Applications
(U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Siuta B. Ika)

I
t is both an exciting and a difficult consistent torque-tension characteris- or washed away by water. While natural
time for the aerospace industry. tics. More importantly, cadmium is rela- emissions of cadmium are thought to
While the sector is at its most buoyant tively simple to apply by electroplating. be higher than human emissions, hun-
with demand soaring in the commercial However, while cadmium presents a dreds of thousands of tons of cadmium
market, this is placing a strain on the number of benefits to MRO profession- are released into the environment
manufacturing supply chain, and put- als in terms of ease-of-use, operational every year.
ting the MRO (maintenance, repair and effectiveness, and overall convenience, In terms of weight, only a thin layer of
overhaul) market under pressure to its use is currently under the microscope. cadmium is used on aircraft, with less
keep aircraft in operation for as long as than 1 percent of an aircrafts weight
possible. In addition, OEMs and MRO The Environmental Impact of being comprised of the substance.
businesses are being forced to consider Cadmium However, when you consider the area of
potential ever-evolving legislation, par- Releasing cadmium into the environ- an aircraft that comprises cadmium and
ticularly regarding the use of various ment impacts both people and the envi- multiply this by the number of steel
chemicals used in the plating process, ronment. As a non-essential heavy metal, parts that require cadmium, it is easy to
most notably the use of cadmium. This cadmium is not used by biological systems see how much volume is being used.
toxic metal has long been the topic of and accumulates in invertebrates, algae REACH (Registration, Evaluation and
debate in the industry, with companies and plants. The critical health effect of Authorisation of Chemicals) legislation
facing the threat of a European ban on cadmium is on the kidneys where it dam- has already called for a ban on cadmium
cadmium being extended to the global ages the blood filtration system, resulting for use in jewellery and plastics in the
aerospace industry if studies into possi- in protein being excreted in urine. EU, where previously it was used in vol-
ble alternatives prove fruitful. Cadmium can also cause skeletal damage ume for PVC applications.
For many years the aerospace market and lung cancer. The legislation, which is a result of
has trusted cadmium as its deposit of Its very difficult to eliminate cadmi- several years of debate, is almost 1,000
choice for corrosion protection on land- um from the atmosphere altogether, pages long and considered one of the
ing gear, airframe structures, flap tracks since the chemical is also released nat- most complex bills in EU history. It
and anywhere bare steel is present. urally in the form of particles through requires companies to register data on
When you examine the properties of volcanoes and the weathering of rocks. 30,000 chemicals with the European
cadmium it is easy to see why it has long Once it is in the environment it Chemicals Agency in Helsinki,
been such a popular choice. Not only remains present for a long period of Finland; seek authorization for the use
does it corrode sacrificially, it has excel- time and can be transported from one of substances of very high concern;
lent electrical conductivity, as well as location to another, blown by the wind, and replace them with safer alterna-

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Alternatives to Cadmium

Benefits of Zinc-Nickel sionals to also adopt new processes and


The application of zinc-nickel follows procedures, overhauling the way the
the principal of electroplated zinc, which industry currently operates.
is nothing new to the industry. Indeed, it
has been used with a post-treatment chro- An Automated, and Future-Proof
mate conversion coating for many years. Solution
Zinc-nickel has been proven to give more Zinc-nickel also presents a number of
than 500 hours of salt spray protection long-term benefits to the MRO market.
when used with a chromate coating, pre- As the aerospace industry continues to
senting a more environmentally-friendly seek new, automated ways of working,
solution to the market that is just as reli- the SIFCO Process has already been
Zinc-nickel chromate being applied by brush to able and effective as cadmium. automated for high volume applications
the bushing bores of an aircraft's landing gear. When used with the right conversion - something not traditionally associated
coating, the corrosion protection of zinc- with selective plating.
tives which have less of an effect on nickel is even more impressive. For exam- Working with Safran Landing Systems,
human health and the environment. It ple, the use of a high performance non- SIFCO worked extensively to design and
also means that US companies provid- hexachrome clear passivation further manufacture a robotic system that auto-
ing MRO services to some of the major increases protection of zinc-nickel against mates the selective plating process for
European OEMs, will need to start rust to double the duration achieved installation into the companys normal
seeking an alternative solution. without a coating. Furthermore, because production process. Safrans robust man-
of its high efficiency, the deposit from a ufacturing quality standards meant that
A Drive from the US OEM Market zinc-nickel plating process has little ten- the plating process had to be highly trace-
The primary reason why no real dency toward hydrogen embrittlement. able and repeatable, thus requiring
alternative has been mass adopted in Perhaps the biggest advantage of automation for high volume. AeroNikl
the US aerospace sector to date is the adopting zinc-nickel as an alternative to was chosen as the most effective plating
perceived risk involved in switching cadmium, aside from its performance treatment to prevent wear between the
from a deposit that OEMs are confi- benefits, is the fact that it is a drop-in companys stop-pad, located between the
dent delivers the right sacrificial corro- replacement process. The technology bogie beam and the vertical part of the
sion protection, to one that is yet to be already used for cadmium plating need landing gear component, as it is retracted
proven when used in high volume. not change in order to switch over to into the fuselage. The result is a highly
There is a higher risk for military air- zinc-nickel plating. With many other traceable, repeatable, and accurate plat-
craft manufacturers, for which cadmi- suggested cadmium alternatives, it is ing process that is well-suited to the hi-
um is a mission-critical application, necessary for OEMs and MRO profes- tech facility using it. An integrated com-
and it is unlikely that the drive for puter logs all relevant information
alternative deposits will come from including the parameters plated, batch
this area. Instead, it needs to be numbers, densities and solution levels.
driven by the OEM market. Boeing It is currently processing 30 bogie
has been pushing for a change from beams per month, resulting in cost
cadmium for the last 20 years, but and production efficiencies for Safran.
there is still no real drive from gov- During a time when the aerospace
ernments, OEMs, or any other bod- sector is stuck in a quandary, facing an
ies forcing this change through. imminent ban on the use of cadmium
This puts the MRO market in a diffi- while still attempting to qualify
cult position. While OEMs will con- replacements, zinc-nickel offers a
tinue to insist on the use of cadmi- more cost effective, simple, and effec-
um, MRO businesses are often tied tive replacement. As SIFCO continues
to this instruction. The only way to drive adoption of zinc-nickel in
that the MRO market can start to aerospace, the advice to OEMs is to be
eliminate the use of cadmium is if both more confident and forceful in
OEMs begin to state this in their driving this specification down to the
directive. MRO market. Only by taking action
This drove SIFCO to explore an now can we ensure that the US mainte-
altogether different process, called nance market is not left lagging
the SIFCO Process . SIFCO has behind its overseas neighbors when a
been working closely with Sikorsky proposed ban on cadmium in aero-
Aircraft to use zinc-nickel plating space is finally introduced.
on its heavy lift helicopter, and with This article was written by Derek
OEM parts on localized areas. The Vanek, Technical Manager, SIFCO
results have found that zinc-nickel Applied Surface Concepts (ASC)
could become a reliable and com- (Independence, OH). For more informa-
pliant alternative to cadmium in Cadmium has been used for years to provide corrosion tion, visit http://info.hotims.com/
the aerospace sector. protection on aircraft landing gear. 65852-503.

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  +
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 +


+


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+
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+
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*)('+&%+$+#$""+$!+ ++()%)!+&%+$!+'"$"#

+
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Verifying Structural Integrity of
3D Metal-Printed Parts
I
nterest in 3D printing is remaking the By supplying a full 3D density map of the tive layer manufacturing (ALM), the
manufacturing landscape. Consulting samples, micro CT gives all this informa- whole part needs to be inspected. What
firm IDC says global spending on 3D tion in an easy-to-read visual format. do we look for when checking the struc-
printers, both desktop and industrial, hit tural integrity of ALM parts?
about $11 billion in 2015 and is forecast Youd Inspect Welds, Right? Powder residues blocking channels;
to reach $27 billion by 2019. Another Using conventional manufacturing Defects (voids and inclusions) poros-
research company (MarketsandMarkets) techniques, one would always inspect a ity, contamination, cracking;
is saying 3D printing will experience 30% weld for voids and inclusions. Well, in Departure from the CAD model
compound annual growth and reach $30 metal additive layer manufacturing, the dimensional analysis, wall thickness
billion by 2022. In its April 2016 study, whole sample is essentially one large weld! measurements, warping.
3D Printing Comes of Age in To not inspect it for voids, inclusions, and For example, a mold made using selec-
US Industrial Manufacturing, Price for dimensional accuracy would be a huge tive laser melting is designed to make a
Waterhouse Coopers (PWC) says com- leap of faith in the technology. small knocker for a watch mechanism.
pared to two years ago, more manufac- Because of the chaotic nature of the Micro CT can determine the cooling and
turers (52% this year compared to 38% 3D-printing process, with partially melt- flow channels built in by the ALM process
in 2014) expect 3D printing to be used in ed powder flying around in the printer, to an accuracy of 50-100 m (depending
high-volume production in the next the position and nature of defects is on acquisition parameters). From
three to five years. often totally random. With traditional flow/cooling simulations, this is known to
Metal-printed parts are being manufacturing processes, a few radi- be of sufficient accuracy for the purpose.
increasingly considered for lowering ographs at specific orientations can In fact, micro-CT can find defects
component weight without compro- often give peace of mind. But with addi- within samples down to a resolution
mising on strength, for example
in aerospace applications where
decreased weight leads to increased
efficiency. For such safety-critical aero-
space components, as well as automo-
tive, energy, and medical devices, it is
essential to know whether voids or
inclusions are present, how large they
are (both individually and in total),
and where they occur. Its also impor-
tant to know whether the dimensions
of the part conform to those of
the design.
In such cases, X-ray computed tomog-
raphy (micro CT) is a powerful answer. Scans can reveal external and internal features for checking.

4a www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace Manufacturing & Fabrication, June 2017


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given by the number of pixels across the surrounding material is great enough. For Typical largest samples are:
detector. Given a sample 100mm across, example, given a 3m X-ray focal spot, we 225kV aluminum piston heads;
and a detector 2000 pixels across, the can still see a 0.5m gold foil edge-on. diesel injectors;
limiting resolution would be 50m. The size of sample which can be 450kV aluminum cylinder heads; air-
Resolution is also limited by the focal scanned with CT depends on the mate- craft turbine blades.
spot size of the X-ray source, which may rial it is made of and the energy of the
range from 80m for high energies X-ray source (measured in kilovolts Maximum part size also tends to be
down to less than 1m for low energies. (kV)). Larger lower density samples limited by the size of the detector, but
Defects below the nominal resolution can be scanned, as can smaller higher also by the penetrating power of the X-
may also be spotted if the contrast with the density samples. rays. This decreases as material density
and atomic number of the material
increases. Much more plastic can be
penetrated than steel, and much more
steel than lead.

Part-to CAD comparison for FDM and STL ver-


sions of the same part.

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3D Metal-Printed Parts
To illustrate micro CTs applications to ALM, heres another
example taken from one of the papers Assessing Additive
Manufacturing Processes With X-ray CT Metrology present-
ed at the American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE)
(www.researchgate.net/publication/283119260). In this
research, a flexure mechanism fabricated by additive manufac-
turing is being investigated by X-ray CT scanning methods. A
first flexure sample (AM1) was manufactured by fused deposi-
tion modeling (FDM), which for pedagogical reasons and with
the aim of illustration, will be called AM1. A second sample
(AM2) was manufactured by stereolithography (STL). For ref-
erence, the FDM
and STL processes
have in general
printing resolution
FEATURING THE QXN SERIES of approximately
100 m and 0.5 m,
The QXN Series offers superior control,
respectively.
insightful operator feedback, a higher level Micro CT scans
of traceability in a way that is easy to use & show variance analy-
simple to set up. sis for both AM1
and AM2 flexures
against the original
Control CAD model. From
the measurements,
Assurance it can be seen that
deviations from the Flexure deformations revealed by CT scans.
Simple Setup nominal geometry
(CAD model) rise up to 0.25 mm and larger when using the
Ease of Use AM1 process. In contrast, the AM2 process generated part-
to-CAD deviations mostly between 0.1 mm, with a few
Operator Feedback exceptions particularly around surface edges or corners.
In addition to external checks, a cross section of AM1 shows
residual internal and spatial deformations. On the other hand,
the manufactured part generated by the AM2 process (bottom
figure) does not reveal the presence of major deformations in
the thin-walled flexure leaf structures.

Benefits
Micro CT is now much faster and more suitable for produc-
rear view tion-line use. Moreover, CT scanning of similar parts can be
automated for loading and unloading. Scan times down to a
few tens of seconds per part are possible.

Users gain:
Better insight into the inside of ALM parts;
Faster optimization of the ALM prototyping and production
processes;
Quality control much higher confidence in incoming and
outgoing parts;
Reduced costs by avoiding destructive testing.
angle option available
With the rewriting of the manufacturing rules book that
3D printing brings, X-ray computed tomography is a power-
ful partner for non-destructively assuring geometrical and
Learn more at tolerance quality control.
IRTOOLS.COM/QXN This article was written by Andrew Ramsey, CT Specialist, X-ray
Centre of Excellence, and Herminso Villarraga-Gomez, CT Metrology
Specialist, Nikon Metrology Inc. (Brighton, MI). For more informa-
tion, visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-504.

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UNCERTAINTY PROPAGATION
FOR FORCE CALIBRATION SYSTEMS

T
here are several labs operating
throughout the world that do not
follow a designated guideline for
calculating measurement uncertainty
for force calibrations. Realizing the
need for guidance, Morehouse decided
to draft this document explaining how
to calculate measurement uncertainty
and how uncertainty propagation for
force calibration systems works.
Calibration and utilization of measure-
ment instruments will imply some level of
uncertainty. As an instrument calibration
is traced back to SI units, a higher num-
ber of intermediate calibration stages
results in higher levels of measurement
uncertainty (Figure 1). In other words,
uncertainty of the unit under test is typi-
cally higher than the standard with which
it was calibrated. It is not possible for the
expanded measurement uncertainty of
the unit being calibrated to be less than
the machine or force measuring device
that is used to calibrate the unit itself.
This paper describes the propagation of
uncertainties using Calibration and Figure 1. Measurement Uncertainty Pyramid
Measurement Capability (CMC) for force
measurement instruments through the
traceability chain to SI units.

Test Plan and Equipment


A 445 kN (100k lbf) Morehouse Ultra-
Precision Load Cell was chosen for the
testing plan. The calibration test setup is
shown in Figure 2. The Morehouse load
cell provides relatively high stability, reso-
lution, and repeatability. Consequently,
the testing plan represents an almost
best-case scenario: the lowest level of
Calibration and Measurement Capability
(CMC) that a load cell user can achieve
at each level of the traceability chain.
An 89 kN (20k lbf) test point was cho-
sen for analysis based on historical data.
This load point was chosen for studying
the CMC propagation to follow the
ILAC P14 requirements. Morehouse
Ultra-Precision 445 kN (100k lbf) sys-
tems can often use this load cell in the
Tier 2 group from 20% to 100% of Figure 2. 445 kN (100k lbf) Load Cell in Deadweight Machine Being Calibrated

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FORCE CALIBRATION SYSTEMS

capacity for force calibration purposes more tangible for international users. was zero since they are physical stan-
without switching standards. The refer- Degrees of freedom and coverage fac- dards, and the resolution of a good
ence standard of Tier 2 in this paper tors were calculated separately using the measurement system was used as an
represents a load cell that is calibrated in Welch-Satterthwaite equation. In this uncertainty contributor for UUT resolu-
accordance with ASTM E74 standard tier, Morehouse had the reference dead- tion. Various technicians tests were
test method using other load cells with weights calibrated directly by N.I.S.T. compared to determine the repeatability
ASTM Class AA designation. These weights, pictured in Figure 3, and reproducibility per point of the
Additionally, the 20% point represents a were adjusted for the local gravity, mate- Morehouse deadweight calibration
pivot point for achieving CMC of rial density, and air buoyancy, and their machine. All of these efforts, combined
approximately 0.02% of applied force. traceability is derived from the interna- with continued process monitoring,
At higher forces, the CMC is typically tional prototype kilogram (SI unit sym- yielded a CMC of better than 0.0016% of
lower. However, at lower than 20% of bol kg). applied force.
capacity forces, CMC starts to increase; it When the calibration was performed
continues to increase to the 10% and in a Morehouse deadweight machine, Tier 1: Using Primary
lower force points, where the CMC CMC was calculated using these weights. Standard Deadweights to
becomes higher than 0.05% of applied A repeatability study was conducted with Calibrate a Load Cell
force. Therefore, it is often recommend- three Morehouse load cells (445 kN; 111 For Tier 1 calibration, the deadweight
ed that the end user in Tier 2 only uses kN; and 44 kN capacities) throughout calibration machine was utilized to cali-
the load cell from 20% through capacity the entire range of the machine. brate a load cell in accordance with the
in order to maintain CMCs better than Morehouses CMC resolution for 89 kN ASTM E74 standard. A Morehouse 445
0.02% of applied force. (20k lbf) load was used for UUT resolu- kN (100k lbf) load cell was calibrated in
tion in Tier 0 only. This value was deter- this tier by deadweight primary stan-
Tier 0: CMC for Primary Standards mined based on a 111 kN (25k lbf) load dards known to have a CMC better than
In this tier, CMC for Morehouses cell with 4 mV/V output at capacity and 0.016% of applied load.
deadweight calibration systems was 0.00001 mV/V readability. To calculate the CMC of the calibra-
determined. Table 1 contains the uncer- The environment was controlled by tion, a repeatability and reproducibility
tainty contributors for this calculation, better than 1.0 C, while the stability of (R&R) study was done for Tier 1 using a
along with their appropriate divisors. the weights was calculated using histori- 111 kN (25k lbf) Ultra-Precision load
Testing was conducted based on United cal values for the material and years of cell. Moreover, an environmental condi-
States customary units, and then con- wear history from our other deadweight tion of 1 degree Celsius, along with a
verted to SI units in Table 1 to make it machines. The resolution of the weights stability value of 0.005% (50 parts per
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Notes:
Expanded Uncertainty may be the CMC of the lab, depending on the Tier
Table is made based on data from a 445 kN (100k lbf) Morehouse Ultra-Precision load cell. Testing was conducted at 88.964 N (20k lbf) force (20% of capacity)
UCM: Universal Calibrating Machine

Includes: uncertainty of deadweight calibrations by NIST, uncertainty of material density, uncertainty of gravity, uncertainty of air density

CMC Resolution= Capacity (25 kip) / (load cell output)  Readability (This was added on top of the regular UUT resolutions. There is an ongoing debate on whether or not this
extra item is necessary) This is the resolution of the electronic indicator(s).

0.0015% per C ( 1 C)
Coverage factor= 2
Coverage factor= 1.97
Coverage factor= 1.98
* LLF was calculated according to the E74 standard method. However, this would not be valid since the standard requires a minimum Class A limit for calibration standard.

Table 1. Uncertainty Propagation Analysis for Load Cell Calibrations

8a www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace Manufacturing & Fabrication, June 2017


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Morehouse Universal Calibrating tions in different runs multiplied by a
Machine (UCM) can provide side loading coverage factor of 2.4. The UUT load
of better than 1/16th of an inch. cell in Tier 1 was assigned a Class AA
Additionally, the side load sensitivity of a loading range, which provides a test
Morehouse Ultra Precision load cell is accuracy ratio (TAR) of better than 5:1
0.05% of load per inch of side loading. when used to calibrate another load cell
Multiplying 1/16th of an inch by 0.05% in accordance with the ASTM E74 stan-
yielded an uncertainty contribution of dard. In this range, the calibrated load
0.003% of applied load. cell (UUT) can be used to calibrate
The ASTM E74 calibration and analy- other load cells that will be used to cali-
sis results in a Lower Limit Factor (LLF), brate force measuring or testing
which is the standard deviation of varia- machines. As presented in Table 1, the

Figure 3. View of Deadweight Machine


#durability
The measure of a machines worth lies in the parts it produces.
million), was used for calculating uncer-
tainty values. The actual resolution of
the UUT load cell 1.07 N (0.24 lbf) was Working in the aerospace industry, you need 5-axis precision,
employed for uncertainty calculations in speed and consistency to produce the highest-quality parts.
Tier 1. It might be noteworthy to men-
tion that the reference uncertainty used The Onsrud name carries a century of innovative engineering,
in Tier 1 already included the UUT res-
and were a CNC manufacturer with a proven reputation for
olution embedded in deadweight CMC
calculations. Basically, UUT resolution is building durable products and the pledge to stand beside you
considered twice in the calculation of
uncertainties for Tier 13. This method with benchmark service and support.
is on the conservative side of the uncer-
tainty calculations, and there is ongoing
debate about whether or not the resolu-
tion from CMC must be included in
higher calibration tiers.
Load cell output stability is another of
the uncertainty contributors when the Real. American. Originals.
cell is calibrated per ASTM E74. Stability
is calculated by comparing the load cell
output to the previous calibration data. [F309G24W8] PRO SERIES
Most Morehouse Ultra-Precision load
cells provide a one year stability
of around 0.005% through 0.01%.
Typically, the actual numbers would be
used for this evaluation; however, this
test was controlled, and the experiment
could not wait another year to obtain the
actual UUT load cells stability numbers.
Ideally, load must be applied to the pri-
mary loading axis of any load cell in order
to produce most repeatable and accurate
results. This primary loading axis for Need automation or robotics?
shear web load cells such as the one used Dm! integrator.
in this study, generally falls on the axisym-
metric axis of the cell. However, in reality,
some side loading is traduced into the 120 Technology Drive Troutman, NC 28166
loading system which can influence the
www.cronsrud.com
load cell output. Side loading on a shear
Copyright 2017, C.R. Onsrud Incorporated. All rights reserved.FANUC is a Registered Trademak of FANUC International, Inc. 06|2017
web load cell is demonstrated in Figure 4.

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FORCE CALIBRATION SYSTEMS

expanded uncertainty for Tier 1 calibra- expanded uncertainty for Tier 2 cali- utilized for this test, the uncertainty con-
tion was 0.01974% of applied force, or bration is 0.031% of applied force, or tributors remained the same; however,
17.57 N (3.95 lbf) at 89 kN (20k lbf) 27.45 N (6.17 lbf) at 89 kN (20k lbf). the ASTM LLF increased again. The
force. This value was applied as the ref- (*Note: Normal Metrology Practices ASTM LLF increase was due to the high-
erence uncertainty in Tier 2 calibration. Discourage TAR (ASTM E74 was developed er expanded uncertainty bands of the
in 1974 and still relies on a method using reference.
Tier 2: Using a Load Cell TAR where the maximum error of primary Repeatability and Reproducibility (R
Calibrated by Primary Standards standards are to be no more than 0.005% of & R) tests were conducted at each tier.
to Calibrate other Load Cells applied force, Secondary Class AA Standards In Tier 0, we used the same R & R values
In this tier, the Working Standard load are no more than 0.05% and Field as reported in our CMC. In Tiers 1
cell was calibrated in accordance with Standards are no more than 0.25% . This through 3, we used a R & R study we con-
the procedures outlined in the ASTM equates to TARs of 10:1, 5:1, and 4:1. ducted in house and repeated the num-
E74 standard. ASTM E74 fits the data Contemporary conventions of metrological sci- ber throughout tiers 1 through 3. The
points to a higher order curve using the ence no longer focus on a TAR in establishing full explanation for B/W Techs
least squares fit method. This is differ- decision risk criteria. Most modern practices Reproducibility and Repeatability can be
ent than just linearizing a load cell. To focus on TUR (Test Uncertainty Ratio) for a found in section 7. We would expect the
run the test, a second Morehouse 100k measure of adequate decision risk criteria.) R & R between technicians to grow larg-
lbf Ultra-Precision load cell was calibrat- er throughout the remaining tiers as
ed using the Morehouse Universal Tier 3: Using a Working Standard well as the resolution of the Unit Under
Calibrating Machine (UCM). Load Cell to Calibrate Field Test because the UUTs at each tier will
In Tier 2 Calibration, identical resolu- Equipment typically be less accurate than what was
tions were used for both the reference Tier 3 was meant to simulate the con- used for these tests.
cell and the Unit Under Test (UUT). ditions of a field calibration test. In the The uncertainty calculations in Table
The first Morehouse Ultra-Precision cell ASTM E74 pyramid, the working stan- 1 resulted in CMC for Tier 3 equal to
that was calibrated to primary standards dard that was calibrated in Tier 2 0.106% of applied force at 89 kN (20k
in Tier 1 was employed in Tier 2 to cali- (accredited calibration supplier or sec- lbf). It might be worth mentioning that
brate the UUT (the second 445 kN ondary standard) could only be used to actual Tier 3 testing would produce
Morehouse Ultra-Precision load cell). calibrate testing machines. However, the much higher CMC than shown in Table
The CMC that resulted from Tier 1 cali- testing plan presented was conducted in 1 since the stability per point would most
bration (17.57 N) was employed as the a controlled laboratory environment to likely increase, as would the resolution
reference uncertainty at this level. The simulate the best-case scenario for of the UUT. It is important to note that
same uncertainty contributors were used uncertainty propagation. Thus, the same the end calculation will inevitably be
and a new ASTM LLF was calculated. testing regime, with load cell and UCM, higher than what we have shown.
Based on the calibration data, the was followed for Tier 3. Nonetheless, an
LLF was calculated and an ASTM Class aircraft scale calibrator (such as Conclusions
A loading range that provides a test Morehouse 804000) could have been Based upon the testing information
accuracy ratio (TAR) of better than 4:1 used. For this calibration, the ASTM LLF presented from and supported by
was assigned*. This calibration pro- was reduced to a pooled standard devia- years of testing, this summary should
duced a working standard with an tion to perform what would normally be help guide users in determining what
assigned class A loading range. As the calibration of a testing machine. uncertainty they can obtain while
shown in Table 1, the resulting Since an identical setup as in Tier 2 was using various force standards. If a
CMC of better than 0.03% of applied
force is desired, calibration by primary
standards (deadweight) is necessary.
Figure 5 illustrates the predicted mini-
mum uncertainties that can be
achieved by various laboratory tiers.
The figure indicates that an additional
reference standard would be needed
at every 20% interval to maintain bet-
ter than 0.02%. In other words, a 500-
kN Universal Calibrating Machine
would need reference standard load
cells or proving rings with capacities of
445, 89, and 22 kN (100k, 20k, and 5k
lbf respectively) to achieve 0.02% of
applied load or better with a force
range of 4.450 kN (1k lbf) through 445
kN (100k lbf).
The testing proved the importance
of the reference standard in relation
Figure 4. Side Loading on a Load Cell to overall expanded uncertainty.

10a www.aerodefensetech.com Aerospace Manufacturing & Fabrication, June 2017


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Figure 4. Side Loading on a Load Cell

Deadweight primary standards are predictably the best pos-


sible reference standard. A laboratory using secondary stan-
dardsthose standards calibrated by deadweightcan
achieve CMCs as low as 0.02% of applied load if they are
using several standards. Nonetheless, the downside of using
Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-943
several standards is that this method involves standards to
be changed at least once during the calibration.
Laboratories that claim CMCs of 0.01% of applied or bet-
ter may have to make three to four standard changes, or,
they would need to have very expensive reference load cells
and meters calibrated direct by a NMI such as N.I.S.T. These
changes will add to the overall uncertainty of the force meas-
uring instrumentation being calibrated. Standard changes
take time, which often results in higher deviations between
the test points calibrated with one standard when compared
to the test points using the additional standard. This addi-
tional error is directly related to timing issues and often rais-
es the ASTM LLF, which affects the Class A loading range.
Therefore, if the end user wants the lowest possible loading
range, it is recommended that calibration be performed
using deadweight primary standards.
This article was written by Henry Zumbrun, President, and Ali
Zeinali, Technical Director, Morehouse Instrument Company (York,
PA). For more information, visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-505.
References:
ASTM E74-13a titled Standard Practice of Calibration of Force-
Measuring Instruments for Verifying the Force Indication of Testing
Machine.
JCGM 100:2008 Evaluation of measurement data Guide to the
expression of uncertainty in measurement
A2LA R205 - R205: Specific Requirements: Calibration Laboratory
Accreditation Program
ILAC P14:01/2013 Policy For Uncertainty in Calibration
NCSLI RP-12: Determining and Reporting Measurement
Uncertainties
N.I.S.T Handbook 150-2016: NVLAP Procedures and General
Requirements
UKAS M3003: The Expression of Uncertainty and Confidence in
Measurement

Aerospace Manufacturing & Fabrication, June 2017 Free Info at http://info.hotims.com/65852-944 11a


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On-Line UPS Family Pulsed L Band Multi KW Scalable Amplifier
Falcon Electric, Inc., (Irwindale, CA) Empower RF (Inglewood, CA) recently released its new Scalable
announced the addition of tower models to Pulsed L Band Amplifier with an expandable system hardware archi-
its on-line rackmount SC UPS family. The tecture. Adding 3U power amplifier
new 700VA to 3kVA tower-configured SC blocks is accomplished easily with no
UPS protects IT/IoT equipment, telecom- phase matching required.
munications, servers, security systems, pro- Suitable for applications where the
grammable logic controllers (PLCs) and amplifier output power must maintain a
other power-sensitive electronic systems set output level regardless of amplitude
against costly power disruptions. variations of the RF input signal level.
Falcons SC UPS models incorporate several important features This is accomplished by accurately meas-
including advanced digital signal processors (DSPs), surface mount uring the RF output level and comparing it to a digital reference level,
device (SMD) technology, multi-mode operation, intelligent self-diag- in real time, the reference is set by the user either through the front
nostics and innovative battery boost circuits all at a low cost. The SC panel or as a SCPI command via the LAN port.
UPS also features 5-year long-life hot-swap batteries. For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-522
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-524
Convection-Cooled Power Supplies
Oscilloscope Excelsys Technologies (Cork, Ireland) announced that its
Teledyne LeCroy (Chestnut Ridge, NY) recently introduced the CoolX600 Series of 600W convection-cooled modular power supplies
WaveSurfer 510 oscilloscope, providing 1 GHz bandwidth and 10 GS/s is now available with the option of PMBus (Power Management
sample rate simultaneously on all 4 chan- Bus) communication. PMBus is an
nels. The WaveSurfer 510 combines the open standard power management
MAUI with OneTouch user interface with protocol that offers system builders
powerful waveform processing, in addition a standard way to communicate with
to advanced math, measurement, and power converters over a digital com-
debug tools, to quickly analyze and find the munications bus by providing a full
root cause of problems. set of commands and data structures
The WaveSurfer 510 provides a high required by power control and man-
sample rate of 10 GS/s on all four chan- agement components.
nels, 32 Mpts of memory, sequence mode segmented memory, history The convection-cooled CoolX600 Series delivers 600W of output
mode waveform playback, 13 additional math functions, and two power without fan-assisted cooling from a compact 8.5 x 4.5 x 1U
simultaneous math traces. As a result, WaveSurfer 510 performs package. Typical efficiency is greater than 93%. Other features include
advanced analysis on long captures with 10x oversampling to find the 4KV input surge immunity and the ability to withstand input voltages
root cause of problems. of up to 300VAC.
WaveSurfer 510 also features MAUI with OneTouch gesture control For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-521
for common gestures such as drag, drop, pinch, and flick.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-531 Card Cage Front Panels and modules
The KM6 card cage family from
Three-Phase Power Converter Verotec (Manchester, NH) features
Marotta Controls (Montville, NJ) presents the 1-STEP AC-DC three different systems, each opti-
Conversion solution. 1-STEP mized to suit a range of applications:
achieves three-phase Active Power KM6-II, KM6-RF and KM6-HD. Front
Factor Correction (APFC), output panels, compatible with all KM6 ver-
regulation and electrical isolation sions, are a critical building block;
in a single conversion step. three types are available: unshielded
1-STEP meets key military and to IEC 60297, shielded to IEEE 1101.10 and a further design dedicated
commercial avionics standards: to the VXI architecture. Two and four rail modules, which can be fitted
MIL-STD-704A-F: Aircraft power quali- with top, bottom and side covers to enclose, screen and protect the
ty for 115 VAC, 3-phase, 400 Hz PCB are available in 3U and 6U heights, 160 and 220mm depths and a
MIL-STD-1399-300B for Type I Shipboard Power, 115 VAC, 3-phase, range of widths from 10 to 42HP.
60 Hz: The design is also adaptable for 440 VAC input voltage Iridite NCP conductive finish extruded shielded panels are fitted
DO-160G Sections 16: Power Input with a double swipe stainless steel EMC gasket. They are available as
DO-160G Sections 18 through 22: EMI/EMC blank filler panels, with a fixed pull handle or with an improved design
MIL-STD-461F: EMI/EMC requirements of injector/ejector latching handle. Shielded panels are available in
3U, 6U and 9U heights and 4, 5, 6, 8, 10 and 12HP widths as standard,
A 2.6 kW version has been qualified for a Navy aircraft application
other widths to order.
(to MIL-STDs 461, 704 and 810)
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-533
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-529

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AC-DC Power Supplies Four-Channel Time-to-Digital Converter
TDK Corporation (Neptune, NJ) has introduced the PHV Series of Precision Measurement Technologies (Clearwater, FL) is now offering
Versatile Precision High Voltage Programmable AC to DC power sup- the new TDC-GPX2 high-performance time-to-digital converter from
plies. The PHV Series covers the voltage range from 0-125 Volts to 0- AMS/Acam. The new converter delivers up to 10-picosecond resolution,
300,000 Volts, at power levels from 14 with two- or four-channel modes. The high-performance device delivers a
Watts to 15,000 Watts, and offers high update rate up to 70 mega-samples per second for drones, radar,
High Accuracy, Low Ripple, High LIDAR, PET scanner, automatic test equipment (ATE), photon counting
Stability outputs in a compact and and spectroscopy applications. The TDC-GPX2
lightweight switchmode design. has very low power consumption and is config-
Standard models feature a fully ured in a remarkably small 9 mm x 9 mm
instrumented front panel with 4 QFN64 package.
digit DVMs for output voltage and The compact TDC-GPX2 operates in two-
current. Output Voltage and Current can be locally set via channel or four-channel modes, achieving 70
10-turn potentiometers with precision dials, or via optional analog mega-samples per second with 10-pS resolution,
and/or digital interfaces. The front panel also features user adjustable and 35 mega-samples per second with 20-pS res-
OVP (overvoltage trip point) via a single turn screwdriver adjustable olution, respectively. Detection returns are five
potentiometer. nanoseconds pulse-to-pulse in two-channel mode
Optional remote analog programming interfaces feature either and 20 nanoseconds pulse-to-pulse in four-channel mode. It has an
ground referenced or isolated analog/digital controls and readbacks. unlimited measuring range of 0s to 16s. It is designed without any locked
The remote interface is located on the rear panel via a 15-pin D-sub loop technologies, and calculates all stop measurements inside, propor-
connector. Signals include voltage/current programming and read- tional to the applied reference clock.
back, HV ON, Polarity Set, and CC/CV indicators. For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-528
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-530
Remote I/O Unit
Multi-Channel RF Function Generators Aitech Defense Systems Inc.
Saelig Company, Inc. (Fairport, NY) has introduced the new (Chatsworth, CA) has developed a new
MFG-2000 Series Multi-channel Function Generators from method of providing high performance,
GWInstek that include the MFG-21XX entry-level models and the application-specific remote I/O manage-
MFG-22XX advanced models ment through the use of expansion mod-
with up to five functional ules, or slices, in the new rugged, space-
channels. Channels 1 and 2 qualified Ai-RIO. The remote I/O sub-
provide high-performance system includes a Gb Ethernet port with
arbitrary function generators precision time sync IEEE-1588 support, ten RS-422 ports (eight of which
up to 60 MHz. Channel 3 - the are RS-422/485), an additional eight LVDS or RS-422/485 UARTS as well
RF signal generator channel, with output up to 320 MHz, is a full- as four SpaceWire ports with LVDS I/O, two CANbus ports and sixteen
function signal source; identical to CH1/CH2, it can output sine, GPIO in two blocks of eight.
square, ramp, pulse, noise, etc. as well as various RF modulation The compact, rugged Ai-RIO features a powerful radiation-qualified,
schemes such as AM/FM/PM/FSK/PWM, Sweep, Burst, Trigger. dual-core PowerPC processor with two rad-tolerant FPGAs. All internal
Also included in each model is a 25 MHz pulse generator channel electronics are conduction-cooled and mechanically fixed and housed
with adjustable pulse width, duty cycle, rising and falling edge time. within a sealed, EMI/EMC Faraday cage for maximum thermal transfer.
Some models also feature a low-distortion 100 kHz Power Amplifier The housing is constructed of 6061/T6 flight grade aluminum and is based
channel - ideal for audio signals. A 150 MHz Frequency Counter chan- on a common 5.5" x 5.5" x 1.2" small form factor.
nel is available on some models too. For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-520
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-526
Time and Frequency Module with On-Board GPS
i.MX6 Single Board Computer VadaTech (Henderson, NV) recently announced the AMC005 Time
Technologic Systems (Fountain Hills, AZ) and Frequency module with onboard GPS. The AMC005 provides a com-
has introduced its newest industrial single plete, feature-rich, GPS / PTP (1588) / IRIG / NTP bus-level timing solu-
board computer, the TS-7970. The TS-7970 tion to MicroTCA and ATCA systems. Precision UTC timestamps and GPS
takes full advantage of the powerful features location/time/status are all made available via PCIe registers to the host
of i.MX6 NXP CPU based on the ARM CPU/application. GPS location, time and status data are available via back-
Cortex A9 core. The TS-7970 features a plane Ethernet Broadcast/Unicast
power consumption of only 3 watts (typical), with selectable bonding and failover.
and fanless operation over the full industrial The AMC005 can demodulate
temperature range (-40 to +85C). Offered IRIG Amplitude Modulated (AM) sig-
standard with 4GB of eMMC, and up to 2GB of RAM, as well as a nals and receive/transmit IRIG DC Level
mSATA socket for upgrades. There is abundant I/O with Gigabit Shift (DCLS) signals. The disciplined clock,
Ethernet, USB Host, USB Device, RS-232 Serial/COM Ports, RS-485 1PPS, divided-down clocks, IRIG DCLS, and
Serial Port, SPI Bus, I2C Bus, CAN Bus, Modbus, WiFi 802.11b/g/n, time trigger may be output in any combination
and Bluetooth 4.0+EDR. The TS-7970 also includes an FPGA on board of the backplane clock channels. The module acts as a Grand-Master
for extending the feature set of the i.MX6 beyond what is offered Clock or Clock Bridge between GPS / PTP (1588) / IRIG / NTP to pro-
by NXP. vide enhanced flexibility to the system design.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-527 For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-532

Aerospace Manufacturing & Fabrication, June 2017 www.aerodefensetech.com 13a


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Software Interface Enhancements Coaxial Voltage Variable Attenuators
Pentek, Inc., (Upper Saddle River, Fairview Microwave Inc., (Allen, TX) has introduced a new line of
NJ) has introduced new features voltage variable attenuators (VVAs) that offer up to 60 dB of attenuation
and enhancements to its Talon across a broad range of frequencies from
SystemFlow software. The optimized 400 MHz to 18 GHz.
enhancements to SystemFlow benefit This product line is comprised of six
radar, SIGINT and communications models that support frequencies from
recording applications. 400 MHz to 18 GHz while providing low
SystemFlow is the software interface that is integrated into every insertion loss and a wide dynamic range.
Talon recorder. The software includes the graphical user interface These modules display exceptional
(GUI) that is used to control the recorder with point-and-click config- VSWR over all attenuation levels and
uration management, a client/server communication interface, NTFS CW input power is rated up to +23 dBm.
file system support and an application programming interface (API) Rugged coaxial packaged assemblies are
for custom user applications and control. Signal analysis tools include designed to meet MIL-STD-202 environmental test conditions that
a virtual oscilloscope, spectrum analyzer, and spectrogram to monitor include humidity, shock, and vibration.
signals before, during, and after data collection. For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-523
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-525
Small Form Factor SBC
Diamond Systems (Sunnyvale, CA)
Axial-Leaded Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor recently unveiled VENUS, based on
Cornell Dubilier Electronics, the Intel Skylake 6th Generation
Inc. (CDE) (Liberty, SC) has intro- Core i7/i5 processor. Venus features
duced a new line of axial-lead alu- DDR4 memory soldered on-board,
minum electrolytic capacitors. bottom side conduction cooling, two
Continuous ripple current is rated PCIe Minicard sockets, in the 3.5
at up to 28 amps RMS. Nine values embedded form factor. Venus is available in two models, the high per-
are available, from 470 F to 4,700 formance 2.6GHz i7 version (VNS766-4GD) and a lower cost 2.4GHz
F, with ratings from 25 VDC to 63 i5 model (VNS563-4GD).
VDC. Maximum ESR ranges from 13 to 32 m at100 kHz. Venus incorporates a full suite of rugged features such as soldered
Like other CDE capacitors, the AXLH Series is subject to the memory, latching connectors, and a thicker PCB, making it suitable for
industrys most rigorous dynamic testing. Procedures outlined in the most demanding vehicle applications. The 4GB soldered memory
MIL-STD-202, method 204 are used to record the 20g vibration may be upgraded to as high as 20GB using Diamonds unique
tests. AXLH case diameter is a low-profile 20 mm for all values. RSODIMM rugged memory modules, which are designed to with-
Depending on values, lengths vary from 26.5 to 42.5 mm. The axial- stand MIL-STD-202G shock and vibration specifications. Standard
lead wires are a substantial 1 mm. DDR4 SODIMM modules may also be used.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-518 The board includes 6 USB 2.0/3.0 ports, 4 RS-232/422/485 serial
ports, 16 digital I/O lines, two Gigabit Ethernet ports, HDA audio,
Linear Positioning Systems Camera interface, and TPM support.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-519
Velmex (Bloomfield, NY) Linear UniSlide Assemblies are available in
manual and motor driven models to meet a wide range of applications
when reliable, precise linear motion is a requirement. UniSlide linear Universal Testing Machine
positioning systems also can be easily customized to fit exacting specifica- Mecmesin (West Sussex, UK) recently
tions. Constructed of a hard aluminum alloy ways and PTFE bearings for announced the launch of the new OmniTest-
clean, precise movements, linear UniSlides deliver higher rigidity for 5.0 Universal Testing Machine. The OmniTest-
longer life and more precise movement. They have a maximum load 5.0 frame takes up relatively little bench space,
capacity up to 400 lbs. (181.5 kg.) horizontally and 100 lbs. (45.5 kg.) ver- and has an integrated cable management system
tically. Straight line accuracy with precision lead and extended throat depth for testing of samples up
screws is 0.0015" per 10" (0.033mm/20 cm). to 200 mm in diameter. The OmniTest-5.0 has a
Linear UniSlide stages are available in five simple-to-use front panel for selection of test
manual series and five motor drive series. Each parameters live load and length readings and pre-
has an array of models/styles and sizes including cise manual crosshead positioning using the multi-
Free Sliding, Screw Drive, Rapid and Fine function controller.
Motion; Graduated Knob and Scale with Vernier. Mecmesins new generation of electronics gives
Left Right Screw Motion UniSlide stages feature active load control and improved motor performance
two carriages (sliders) and are ideal for giving a speed range from 0.01 mm/min to 1200
applications where two load objects mm/min with a positional resolution of 0.001 mm.
must share a common axis of move- The OmniTest-5.0 incorporates state of the art electronics and a new
ment. Standard travel lengths of Enhanced Load Sensor (ELS). Load accuracy is 0.5% rdg with a resolu-
Velmex Linear UniSlide Assemblies tion of 1:25000 allowing a wider range of tests to be performed without the
range from 3" (7.62 cm) to 42" (107 need to select a different load sensor. The OmniTest-5.0 is supplied with
cm). Read position from 0.025" to 1 Mecmesins new VectorPro MT material analysis software enabling test-
micron using mechanical scale/vernier or encoder. ing to many internationally recognised standards to be carried out.
For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-534 For Free Info Visit http://info.hotims.com/65852-535

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