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Transisi dari masa remaja

Pemilihan karir
MASA DEWASA Stress sehari hari

Aurora Lumbantoruan, MPSi

STIKIM, 19 Januari 2017

The Criteria for

Becoming an Adult
The Transition From Penanda utama yang umumnya disebut sebagai
penanda memasuki tahap perkembangan dewasa
Adolescence to Adulthood adalah ketika pertama kali ia memperoleh
pekerjaan, yang permanen dan full time
Kemandirian secara ekonomi merupakan salah
satu kriteria bagi orang dewasa.
The Criteria The Transition
for Becoming from High School Survey thd mahasiswa; menjadi dewasa berarti
menerima tanggung jawab atas konsekuensi dari
an Adult to College tindakannya, memutuskan keyakinan dan nilai
nilainya sendiri dan menjalani hubungan dengan
orangtua sebagai sesama orang dewasa.
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Todays College Kids

Mahasiswa saat ini mengalami tekanan yang lebih
besar dibanding masa lalu.
The pressure to succeed in college, get a great job, Cognitive Development
and make lots of money were found to be pervasive
concerns of students.
There has been a dramatic increase in the number of
individuals who attend community college rather
than four-year colleges.
An increasing number of todays college students are Cognitive Creativity
returning students, those who either did not go to
college right out of high school or went to college, Stages
dropped out, and have returned.

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Cognitive Stages Piagets View

Piaget mengemukakan bahwa orang dewasa muda
Piagets View secara kuantitatif memiliki kemampuan berpikir yang
lebih maju dibandingkan remaja, juga disebabkan
Realistic and Pragmatic karena memiliki pengetahuan yang lebih banyak.
Thinking He also believed that adults especially increase their
knowledge in a specific area.
Reflective and Relativistic Whereas adolescents may begin to plan and
Thinking hypothesize about intellectual problems, adults are
more systematic and sophisticated about it.
However, many adults do not think at the formal
operational level. 8

Realistic and Pragmatic Reflective and Relativistic

Thinking Thinking
Ilmuwan lain mengatakan bahwa sebenarnya orang William Perry mengemukakan beberapa
dewasa memiliki kemampuan berpikir yang perubahan yang terjadi ketika orang
melebihi thap formal operational
memasuki masa dewasa musda.
This especially occurs as young adults move into
the world of work and face constraints of reality. He believed that adolescents view the world
in polarities: right/wrong, good/bad,
K. Warner Schaie concluded that it is unlikely that we/they.
adults go beyond the powerful methods of scientific
thinking characteristic of the formal operational As they move into adulthood, this absolute,
stage. dualistic thinking gives way to reflective,
He does believe that adults progress beyond relativistic thinking of adulthood.
adolescents in their use of intellect.
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Is There a Fifth,Post-Formal
Stage? Creativity
Post-formal thought secara kualitatif berbeda dengan apa yang
dikemukakan Piaget ttg formal operational thought.
Post-formal thought menampilkan pemahaman bahwa:
Adult Developmental
Jawaban benar terhadap masalah membutuhkan cara Changes
berpikir reflektif
Jawaban dapat bervariasi tergantung situasi
Pencarian kebenaran berlanjut terus dan merupakan proses
Csikszentmihalyis Ideas
yang tak pernah berakhir
Solusi solusi dari masalah haruslah realistis

Selain itu, ada faktor faktor emosi dan subyektif yang dapat
mempengaruhi pemikiran 11 12


Adult Developmental
Csikszentmihalyis Ideas
Penelitian mengemukakan bahwa kreativitas
meningkat dan mencapai puncaknya pada Try to be surprised by something every day.
masa dewasa, umumnya di usia 40an. Try to surprise at least one person every day.

A decline in creative contributions is often Write down each day what has surprised you and
how you surprised others.
found in the fifties and later, however, it is not
as great as commonly thought. When something sparks your interest, follow it.
Wake up in the morning with a specific goal to look
Qualifying any conclusions about age and forward to.
creative accomplishments are: Take charge of your schedule.
the magnitude of the decline in productivity
contrasts across creative domains Spend time in settings that stimulate your creativity.
individual differences in lifetime output
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Careers and Developmental Changes


Developmental The Skills

Changes Employers Children have idealistic fantasies about what
Want they want to be when they grow up.
Personality Finding the In high school, students begin to think about
Types Right Career careers on a somewhat less idealistic basis.
In the late teens, early twenties, career
Values and Work decision making has turned more serious.
From the mid twenties through the
Monitoring the
remainder of early adulthood, individuals
Occupational often seek to establish their emerging career.
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Personality Types Hollands Six Types

Personality type theory is John Hollands view that Realistic

it is important for individuals to select a career that
matches up well with their personality type. Investigative
He believes that this will more likely result in their
enjoyment of work and longevity at a job. Artistic
Holland acknowledges that individuals are rarely Social
pure types, most are a combination of two or three.
Hollands personality types are incorporated into
the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory. Conventional
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Values and Careers The Skills Employers Want

Oral and written communication skills
An important aspect of choosing a career is that it Interpersonal skills
also match up with your values.
Analytical skills
When people know what they value most, they can
refine their career choice more effectively. Computer skills

Some values are reflected in Hollands personality Leadership skills and experience
types. Involvement in campus organizations and
extracurricular activities
Relevant experiences in internships, part-time
work, or co-ops
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Good grades

Adult personalities are flexible as one ages
Work defines individuals in fundamental ways. Temperament involves emotions and the ability to
Most individuals spend about one-third of their control them
adult lives at work.
Temperament is linked to adjustment in adulthood,
When unable to work, many individuals
experience emotional distress and low self- with some continuity from early childhood to
esteem. adulthood
Some aspects of work create stress. Easy 3 to 5 yr olds were more likely to be well
adjusted as adults than difficult 3 to 5 yr olds.
New issues have arisen with the increasing
career commitment on the part of women.
The connections between childhood temperament and
21 adulthood adjustment are based on a small number of

The majority of securely attached children have secure ATTRACTION

relationships in adulthood
People actively seek out others to associate with
The quality of childhood attachment relationships is linked
to the quality of adult romantic relationships Familiarity is necessary for a close relationship
Securely attached adults score low on both: People seek others who are similar to themselves in
Attachment-related anxiety: extent to which individuals attitudes, values, lifestyles, and physical attractiveness.
feel secure or insecure about whether a partner will be
available, responsive and attentive. However, we may seek a complimentary personality.
Attachment-related avoidance: the degree to which Those with similar personality attributes reported
individuals feel secure in relying on others, opening up tot higher marital satisfaction but in this study, similarity
them, and being intimate with them.
in attitudes and values did not predict marital
Other links exist between childhood attachment and satisfaction.
relationship patterns in adulthood
Ex.: death of a parent may disturb attahcment Consensual validation: our own attitudes and values
are supported when someone elses attitudes and
Not cast in stone, some individuals do revise their attachment behavior are similar to our own.
styles as they experience relationships in their adult years


Love and Intimacy

Research does validate the matching hypothesis
Matching Hypothesis: For the long term,
we tend to choose romantic partners that we Eriksons Stage for Early Adulthood: Intimacy vs.
perceive are similar to our own level of Isolation
attractiveness. Erikson defined Intimacy as finding oneself while losing
Physical attractiveness may not be the primary oneself in another person, and it requires commitment
factor in establishing and to another person.
maintaining a relationship
Intimacy should occur after one is well into establishing a
Standards of what is attractive are always
stable and successful identity
changing over time and across cultures
Failure to achieve intimacy results in social isolation
Intimacys most important aspect is commitment
Attempts to establish intimacy occur at the same time
that one is seeking personal autonomy

Friendship is important throughout the life span Friendships between men and
between women
Friendship is a form of close relationship providing people
Women have more friends than men
Communication is central to female relationships
Enjoyment and spontaneity
Females do more self-disclosure than men
Females exchange more mutual support
Trust, respect, and mutual assistance
Activities are central to male relationships
Confidences shared and a sense of understanding
Men share useful information but keep a distance
Friends and lovers are similar in many ways Men seek practical solutions to their problems
Cross-gender friendships are more common in adulthood Men are less likely to disclose personal weaknesses
than in elementary school, but not as common as same- Male relationships are more competitive
gender friendships in adulthood.

Sternbergs Triangle
of Love
3 types of love combine to form
these patterns of love
Falling out of love includes
The tragic collapse of a close relationship Present
One person being taken advantage of Passion Absent or low
by another Types of Love Passion Intimacy Commitment
Betrayal of trust Infatuation
Emotions like depression or obsessive Affectionate
Being with someone who does not return
your feelings
Fig. 15.2


Loneliness Single Adults

Everyone feels lonely at some time in his or her
life, and some activities of contemporary Almost 50% of all U.S. households are headed by singles, some
society are causes of isolation by choice and others by circumstances

Married persons are less lonely than nonmarrieds In 2000, 25% of American adults lived alone, compared to 8% in
Many strategies exist for reducing loneliness
Loneliness is a chronic condition for some people and Has many myths and stereotypes
linked to impaired physical and mental health Has its advantages and disadvantages

Chronic loneliness differs from the desire to be alone Some adults choose to never marry but
may still desire to have children
or have some time to oneself
About 8% of US adults over 65 are never married.
Loneliness often occurs when life and relationships
Many singles feel pressure from a marriage-oriented society to
change; leaving the familiar for the unfamiliar settle down and get married

Is more acceptable in todays society (increased from
11% in 1970 to nearly 60% in 2000)
Has its advantages and disadvantages A stable marriage was the endpoint in adult
development until about 1930
Tends to be short-lived (less than 1 in 10 lasts 5 years or when personal fulfillment became a competing goal
Involves relationships that tend to be more equal than Marriage in the United States
those between husbands and wives A tradition, but with about 50% ending
in divorce
Whether cohabitation is a harm or help toward later
Young adults have more expectations from marriage and
marital quality their partners
is controversial
Adults are delaying marriage
Some research suggests yes, other research suggests no.
Adult marriages are not lasting as long
Some research suggests that cohabitation is not negative
for couples who cohabitate after becoming engaged
(Kline and others, 2004).

Remarried couples face many changes and challenges Gay and lesbian relationships
Custodial and noncustodial parenting issues Are similar to heterosexual relationships in
Negotiating rules for reconstituted families satisfactions and conflicts
and stepfamilies Have many misconceptions about them,
including role definitions
Many remarriages occur to reduce loneliness and Are easier to dissolve than heterosexual
improve financial circumstances marriages
Raise concerns in some people about their
Negative behaviors from earlier marriages may carry influence as parents
over into the remarriage
Strategies are available to help with remarriage
stresses Lesbian couples place a high priority
on equality in their relationships


The Family Life Cycle

Family life-cycle stages Emotional process of transition: key
The family life cycle has 6 stages principles
Leaving home allows youths to launch into Leaving home: single young adults Accepting emotional and financial
responsibility for self
Joining of families through marriage: the Commitment to a new system
Marriage is the uniting of two entire family new couple

systems Becoming parents and families with Accepting new members into
children the system
Becoming parents creates new problems and
The family with adolescents Increasing flexibility of family boundaries to
requires lots of adjustments include the
childrens independence and grandparents
Parenting can be very challenging when frailties

adolescents are seeking autonomy and identity The family at midlife Accepting multitude of exits and entries into
family system
The family at midlife discovers new freedoms The family in later life Accepting the shifting of generational roles
The family in later life is a time of adaptation
Fig. 15.4

Becoming a Parent Making Marriage Work

Successful parenting requires many skills and entails
High, unrealistic marital expectations are linked to
many emotional demands
dissatisfaction and underlie high U.S. divorce rates
Individual needs and expectations have created many Numerous myths about marriage are thought to be
myths about parenting the basis of unrealistic expectations
Child-rearing practices (desirable/ undesirable) tend to Gottman identified 7 main principles that determine
pass on from one generation to the next whether a marriage will work or not
Todays parenting roles are changing in response to There are many benefits to having a good marriage
changing marriage and family patterns
Overall, women are more expressive and affectionate
Interest in careers has postponed parenthood for many than men in marriage

Have roles that are contradictory
and inconsistent
Live 8 to 10 years less than women
Need to be self-motivated and maintain (on average)
their competency in relationships
Are expected to be dominant in
Cite lack of communication much more
relationships with women, seeing
often than men as a cause of divorce
them in physical terms and as inferior
See conversation as interaction or Often have too little interaction with
involvement, while men see it as a source of their fathers
Need to reconstruct their masculinity
See listening as a way to show care in more positive ways, eliminating
and interest cultural stereotyping


Stages of Adulthood The Life-Events Approach

Levinsons Seasons of a Mans Life (continued): The life-events approach is another major way to
Transition to middle adulthood lasts about 5 years (ages 40 conceptualize adult personality development
to 45) and requires that men come to grips with conflicts
existing since adolescence: Contemporary Life-Events Approach: how life
Being young vs. being old events influence the individuals development depends
Being destructive vs. being constructive on:
Being masculine vs. being feminine The life event itself
Being attached to others vs. being separated from them Mediating factors
According to Levinson, 70%80% of men find the midlife The individuals adaptation to the life event
transition tumultuous and psychologically painful
Life-stage context
A successful transition rests on reducing the polarities and
accepting each as an integral part of ones being Sociohistorical context

The Life-Events Approach The Life-Events Approach

Life-events approach places too much emphasis on
change, not adequately recognizing stability
It may not be lifes major events that are the primary
sources of stress, but our daily experiences
Focus on daily hassles and uplifts rather than major

Stress and Personal Control Stress and Personal Control

Overall, stress is highest in young and middle-aged adults;
declines in older adults
Middle-aged adults experience more overload
stressors that involve juggling too many activities at
Middle-aged adults are more reactive to interpersonal
stressors (but less reactive to work stressors) than
younger adults
On average, a sense of personal control decreases as adults
become older
Some aspects increase while others decrease