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See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: <a href=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276950372 AN OVERVIEW OF AC INDUCTION MOTOR TESTING IN ACCORDANCE WITH BS 4999 PART 143 Article · April 1996 CITATIONS READS 0 75 1 author: Lutfi Al-Sharif University of Jordan 114 PUBLICATIONS 318 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: Gentle Electromagnetic Pump for Fluids with Stress-Sensitive Microparticles View project Deriving and Verifying Analytical Equations for the Round Trip Time for Double Deck Elevators View project All content following this page was uploaded by Lutfi Al-Sharif on 31 May 2015. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. All in-text references underlined in blue are added to the original document and are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately. " id="pdf-obj-0-2" src="pdf-obj-0-2.jpg">

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143

Article · April 1996

 

CITATIONS

READS

0

75

1

author:

114 PUBLICATIONS 318 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

All content following this page was uploaded by Lutfi Al-Sharif on 31 May 2015.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. All in-text references underlined in blue are added to the original document and are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately.

AN OVERVIEW OF AC INDUCTION MOTOR TESTING IN ACCORDANCE WITH BS 4999 PART 143

Lift Report [in Engl ish & German], March/April 1996

Author’s Note: Although this paper is written around a British Standard, I have felt that it would be useful to give our German speaking colleagues a flavour of the tests in accordance with these standards, to let them see how they compare with their equivalent national standards. I would be very interested to hear from anyone who has produced anything similar for the German equivalent, or to have a discussion on the subject.

1. INTRODUCTION

This paper describes a set of tests carried out on an induction motor for a 75 kw escalator 1 . The motor was a squirrel cage induction motor, TEFV (totally enclosed fan ventilated) to IP55 rating. Not all the test in here are required by BS 4999. Most of them are based on part 143; however, some other parts are also used (e.g., part 101). Check references for a list of the parts used. The rating of the 75 kw motor is as follows:

Type 7Y -AD315M

Current 132 A

Duty type duration design AMB40

Serial Number GB010168

Frequency 50 Hz

Diagram 3DTH

Power 75 kW

COS φ = 0.85

IP55

Speed 985 rpm

Insulation rating F

Drive End Bearing :

N319-C3

Voltage 416+6-10%

80 °C temperature rise

None Drive End Bearing:

6314-C3

Connection

Rating MCR

Grease UNIREX N3

The motor is also rated to be run by an inverter (VVVF) at synchronous speed continuously, and at reduced speeds for defined duty cycles. The following data was on the additional nameplate:

1 These tests were carried out On 22 June 1995, at the factory of Brook Crompton, at Guisely, Yorshire, England.

Inverter rated

1000-250 rpm (S2) duty cycle (10 mins)

Constant torque

75kw at 1000 rpm

1000-500 rpm (S1 2 ) duty cycle

 

The purpose of the tests was to prove that the motor would deliver the required torque at starting and running, with realistic losses, and appropriate efficiency. The tests also ensure that the required level of vibration is not exceeded, and that the insulation of the motor is more than the minimum value. This paper describes the details of how the tests were carried out for the 75 kw motor, in accordance to BS4999, part 143, in addition to other standards and requirements. It also lists and comments on all the results obtained.

  • 2. THE TESTING SETUP

In order to be able to simulate loading conditions, a DC generator is connected mechanically to the motor under test. The DC generator output is connected to a resistor load. The rating of the generator is 325kw. By varying the output current of the generator, the loading of the motor could be controlled. Figure 1 shows the setup which was used to load and test the motor. The motor is fed from a 3 phase variable voltage supply, and is mechanically coupled to a DC generator which acts as a load. The output of the DC generator is connected to a variable resistor bank which acts as a load. By varying the value of the resistance, the current flow from the generator can be varied, and thus the load on the motor is varied. In this way, a variable load to the motor can be obtained. Several parameters can be measured within this setup, as follows:

Input voltage

Input power factor

Loading of the generator

Input current

Shaft torque

Motor frame temperature

Input real power

Shaft speed

Inlet air temperature

2 S1 and S2 duty cycles are defined in BS 4999, part 101, section 4.

2

Variable AC voltage source (3phase)

and measurement system

U V W Speed M Air inlet sensor Voltage, Current, Power Factor Real Power, Torque, Speed
U
V
W
Speed
M
Air inlet sensor
Voltage, Current, Power Factor
Real Power, Torque, Speed
U V W Speed M Air inlet sensor Voltage, Current, Power Factor Real Power, Torque, Speed

digital Thermometer

Current G
Current
G

Variable

Rotor locking device

Torque

Resistor Bank

Resistor Bank

Case sensor

Figure 1: The setup for loading and testing the AC motor.

  • 3. TESTS CARRIED OUT

The tests carried out, were as follows, in the sequence shown here:

Stator winding (cold resistance) test.

Temperature rise test.

Full load test.

Stator winding hot resistance test.

Fractional load tests , 75%, 50% 25%.

200% overload for 15 seconds.

Locked rotor tests.

Speed torque characteristic graph.

No load test.

Vibration testing.

Insulation resistance testing and high voltage testing.

Direction of rotation.

Dimensional checking against drawing (and terminal box location).

Checking the calibration documents for measuring equipment and sensors.

Bearing checking.

The type testing carried out here was in accordance with the so-called basic-test within BS 4999, part 143, Table 1. The rest of the sections in this paper describe some of these tests, not necessarily in the order they were carried out in.

  • 4. FULL LOAD, FRACTIONAL LOAD AND NO LOAD TESTS

The purpose of these tests is to establish how the current, torque, power factor and

speed vary against loading conditions.

The tests are carried out at five settings, full

3

load, 3/4, 1/2, 1/4 and no-load 3 . The first four of these are carried out with the motor connected to the generator. All the results for these tests, and for the locked rotor tests (discussed in a later section), are shown in the figures. For the no-load test, the motor is disconnected mechanically from any outside shafts. The purpose of the no-load test is to quantify the no load mechanical losses (friction, windage and core losses). As the stator copper losses can be calculated from the resistance of the windings, the no load fixed losses can be calculated by subtracting the stator copper losses from the total no load losses. Figure 2 shows the variation of the efficiency and torque against loading. The torque rises linearly as expected, and achieves its highest values, at 727 Nm. The efficiency rises as well, due to the nearly fixed nature of the losses, achieving its highest efficiency at full load (95.4%).

Load tests

80 0 0 25 50 100 Loading (%) 10 20 30 Efficiency (% 40 50 60
80
0
0
25
50
100
Loading (%)
10
20
30
Efficiency (%
40
50
60
70
0
90
Efficiency (%)
Torque (Nm)
100
75
Torque
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800

Figure 2: Torque and efficiency against loading.

Figure 3 shows how the power factor and the speed vary with load. As expected, the power factor has a very low value at no load (around 0.07), and rises to 0.85 at full load (lagging). The drop in speed is very small, amounting to less than 15 rpm difference between full load and no load.

3 Fractional load tests are not a requirement of BS 4999 part 143.

4

Load tests 1 1000 0.9 995 0.8 0.7 990 0.6 speed (rpm) 0.5 985 0.4 980
Load tests
1
1000
0.9
995
0.8
0.7
990
0.6
speed (rpm)
0.5
985
0.4
980
0.3
0.2
975
0.1
0
970
0
25
50
75
100
Power Factor (lagging)
Loading (%)
Speed (rpm)
Figure 3: Power factor and speed against loading.
Figure 4 shows the change in current and power against loading. As expected input
power varies linearly with loading (output power). Current follows a non-linear
relationship.
Load tests
120
100
Power factor
140 120 100 80 80 60 Input Power 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 0
140
120
100
80
80
60
Input Power
60
40
40
20
20
0
0
0
25
50
75
100
Current (A)
Loading (%)
Power (Kw)
Current (A)

Figure 4: Current and input power against loading.

Throughout the test, some imbalance in the current was encountered between the three phases, as shown here:

130, 131, 127 A 122, 123, 120 A

These figures are normal.

5

In addition to the full load, fractional load and no-load tests carried out, an overload of 200% was applied for 15 seconds 4 . The motor did not change speed abruptly.

  • 5. LOCKED ROTOR TEST AND SPEED TORQUE CHARACTERISTIC

In order to check the starting performance of the motor, the so-called locked rotor test is carried out. In this test, as the name implies, the rotor is locked in place using a

locking device, and the full rated voltage is applied to the stator 5 . The current, input power and output torque are measured. The locked rotor current (LRC) represents the starting current of the motor, and the locked rotor torque (LRT) represents the starting torque. These two measured values are usually expressed as multiples (or percentages) of the rated current at full load and the rated torque at full load. These results were calculated against the full load rated values, and the results are shown here:

Locked Rotor Current (LRC) = 1258/130.23 = 965% of rated current (i.e., starting current would be 9.65 times the running current if started direct-on-line) Locked Rotor Torque (LRT) = 1750/727= 240% of rated torque (i.e., starting torque will be 2.35 times the rated torque).

These measured values can be compared with the design values, which are 950% for locked rotor current, and 240% for locked rotor torque. Once the locked rotor test was finished, a two channel (XY) plotter, was used to plot the speed-torque and the speed-current characteristics. The torque sensor was connected to the Y channel, and the speed sensor was connected to the X channel, and the motor was run on no-load. The resulting curve is shown in Figure 5. The curve shows how the torque will vary at different speeds. The test was then repeated, with a current clamp connected to the Y channel, and the resulting speed-current curve is also plotted in Figure 5. As expected the current drops to a low value at near synchronous speed.

4 Not required by BS 4999 part 143. 5 If that is not possible, a fraction of the voltage at a lower frequency can be applied, and the results adjusted accordingly.

6

Speed torque characterisitc

800 0 100 800 600 900 400 300 200 700 1000 500 Torque (Nm) 200 400
800
0
100
800
600
900
400
300
200
700
1000
500
Torque (Nm)
200
400
600
Current
(A)
1000
current
1200
0
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
Torque
500
0

Speed (rpm)

Figure 5: Speed-torque and speed-current characteristics of the 75kw motor.

6. TEMPERATURE RISE TEST The aim of this test is to show that the motor temperature will stabilise at a certain level above the ambient temperature, and that this rise is limited to the level required by the standard. The motor is loaded to its full load 6 . Before the test is started, the cold resistance of the windings is measured. At the beginning of the test, the temperature of the case, the ambient and the bearing are measured every 15 minutes (because initially it will change rapidly). However, after the first two hours, the interval is increased to 30 minutes. The test is stopped when the temperature is considered to have stabilised (usually taken as the case temperature not changing more than 2 Kelvin within 30 minutes). Once the temperature has stabilised, the motor is switched off, and the resistance of the windings (referred to as the hot resistance) is measured within 90 seconds (for a 75 kw motor, as specified by BS 4999, part 101, clause 15.4.1). The difference in the value of the resistance, can be used to calculate the increase in the temperature of the windings (the resistance method as specified in BS 4999, part 101, 15.2.1 and the formula in 15.3.1.1). Once the hot absolute temperature of the winding is calculated in accordance to the resistance method, then the winding temperature rise above the ambient is calculated by subtracting the ambient temperature from the absolute temperature. The rise should not exceed certain limits specified in Table I, BS 4999, part 101 (for a 75 kw machine, the rise should not exceed 105 K (degrees Kelvin), for an F insulation machine). The case temperature and the DE (drive end) bearing temperature have been recorded, along with the ambient temperature and the input air temperature.

6 When the term full load is used, it refers to the output power being equal to the rating of the machine at around 75 kw (76.9kw in this case), whereas the input power at that point will be 79.4kw (see clause 8.3, BS 4999, part 101).

7

The case temperature rise is plotted against time, along with the bearing temperature, as shown in Figure 6. The purpose of the curve is only to prove that the motor has reached equilibrium, and not to give the absolute value of the temperature of the windings. The next sub-section shows the method then used to determine the temperature of the windings.

Temperature rise tests

04:30 00:30 01:00 00:15 01:15 00:45 Time elapsed 02:00 01:45 01:30 Frame temp. Bearing (DE) temp
04:30
00:30
01:00
00:15
01:15
00:45
Time elapsed
02:00
01:45
01:30
Frame temp.
Bearing (DE) temp C
05:00
0
04:00
03:30
03:00
02:30
Temperature (C)
10
20
30
40
50
60
70

Figure 6: Temperature rise tests, showing bearing temperature, and frame temperature (note that the time axis does not have equal increments).

  • 6.1 Determining Winding Temperature Rise

In order to measure the absolute temperature of the windings at the end of the temperature rise test, three methods are suggested by BS 4999, part 101. The method used here is the resistance method, by which the temperature of the motor windings is calculated by measuring the resistance of the windings before the test and at the end of the test and applying a formula.

 

Ambient

Resistance of

Iron

Copper

temperature

stator windings

temperature

temperature

(case)

(windings)

Cold (start of

22 °C

0.0303

22 °C

22 °C

test)

(measured)

(measured)

Assumed equal

Assumed equal

to ambient

to ambient

Hot (end of

26.7 °C

0.0364

67.2 °C

73.7 °C

test)

(measured)

(measured)

(measured)

(calculated)

Rise above ambient at the end of the test

   

40.5 K

47 K

Table 1: Cold and hot resistance measurements, with ambient temperatures.

8

As the resistance of the winding is quite low (in the milli-ohm range) a standard ohmmeter is not sufficient, and a special low range ohmmeter has to be used.

Moreover, in order to ensure that the resistance of the test leads does not interfere with the measurements, four test leads are used, two red and two black, as shown in Figure

  • 7. The terminals of the identical colour leads are shorted at the measurement end.

This allows the instrument to measure the resistance of the test leads, and subtract the

value from the measured resistance of the motor winding which includes the resistance of the test leads.

 

RED

Low Resistance

   

RED

 

Ohmeter

BLACK

(milliohm range)

   

BLACK

 
   

Motor winding

Figure 7:

Winding resistance measurement setup, with four test leads to the motor

windings.

As the motor has three terminals (regardless of its connection, i.e., Υ or ), three measurements can be carried out. In order to allow for the worst case temperature rise, the highest resistance of the three hot resistance measurements is used, and the lowest resistance of the three cold resistance measurements is used. This gives the largest temperature rise. The formula from BS 4999, part 101 which is used to calculate the temperature rise is shown below, and it assumes a linear relationship between resistance and temperature.

t 2

+

235

R

2

clause

15

 

3

 

11 .

t

1

+

235

=

R

1

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

(235 used for Copper, 225 for Aluminium)

t rise = t 2

-

t a

where:

t2 = temperature of the winding (cold) at the moment of the initial resistance measurement t1 = temperature of the winding at the end of the test ta = temperature of the coolant at the end of the test R2 = resistance of the winding at the end of the test R1= resistance of the winding at temperature t1 (cold)

9

Applying the formula in this case, gives:

t 2

+

235

=

  • 0 0364

.

22

+

235

  • 0 0303

.

Which gives a value of 73.7 °C for the high temperature. With an air inlet temperature of 26.7°C, this represents a rise of 40.5 K (degrees Kelvin), which is within the requirement of 105 K (degrees Kelvin) specified by the standard, and 80 K (degrees Kelvin) specified in the design. Table 1 shows these results.

  • 7. VIBRATION TESTS

BS 4999, Part 142 specifies the vibration limits (expressed in velocity, mm/sec) for the various types of motors. The required standard is type S (which limits a 75 kw motor to 1.12 mm/sec for a speed of 100 rpm, and a shaft height of 315 mm, Table 1, BS4999, Part 142). The BS standard also recommends specific measuring points on the drive end (DE) and the non-drive end (NDE). The results of the measurements carried out on this motor at the various points are shown in Table 2.

Motor End

 
 

Horizontal

Velocity (mm/sec) Vertical

Axial

DE

0.2

0.5

0.2

(Drive End)

(measuring point 1) 7

(measuring point 2)

(measuring point 3)

NDE

0.3

0.5

N/A

(Non Drive End)

(measuring point 4)

(measuring point 5)

(measuring point 6)

Table 2: Measured vibration values on the motor (measuring point number refers to BS 4999, part 142, figure 2: Recommended measuring points).

All values are within the required limits (1.12 mm/sec).

  • 8. INSULATION RESISTANCE TESTING

Using a 1000V insulation resistance tester, the resistance between the windings and the earth was measured, with the thermistor and heater earthed. A value in excess of

200 Mwas measured.

This

was followed by high voltage testing at

2

kV for 60 seconds.

The

insulation resistance testing was repeated and a value in excess of 200 Mwas achieved again. The same procedure was followed for the thermistor windings, but at a high voltage of 1000V.

  • 9. OTHER TESTS

Noise level tests are usually carried out in accordance with BS 4999, part 109, but these were not carried out in this case. The motor is designed for a level of 73 dBA.

7 Measuring point number, as specified in BS 4999, part 142.

10

The motor dimensions were checked against the appropriate drawing. All calibration documents for the measurement equipment were checked and found to be in order. The resistance of the thermistors was measured, and checked against the design value. The heater resistance was also measured and checked against the design value.

The direction of rotation was checked and confirmed as clockwise at the drive end, with the correct electrical phase sequence checked by a phase rotation meter. The temperature of the bearing at the drive end was checked continuously during the temperature rise test. The bearings during the load tests did not produce any unusual noise.

10. CONCLUSIONS

The motor performance was satisfactory, and all values measured were well within the

design values, as shown in Table 3.

 

Design

Measured

 

80K

40.5K

Temperature rise Locked rotor current

950%

965%

 

240%

240%

Locked rotor torque Vibration

1.12 mm/sec

0.5 (max) mm/sec

Full Load current

132 A

130A

Full load torque

727.1 Nm

727 Nm

Table 3: Comparison of measured and design values.

REFERENCES

British Standards Institution, 1987, “BS 4999, 1987: General requirements for rotating electrical machines”:

Part 101: Specification for rating and performance Part 102: Methods for determining losses and efficiency from tests Part 109: Specification for noise levels, including test methods Part 111: Specification for built-in thermal protection for electric motors rated 660 Volts a.c. and below Part 141: Specification for standard dimensions Part 142: Specification for mechanical performance: vibration Part 143: Specification for tests

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