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Latent Heat

1. When a solid melt, heat is absorbed but the temperature remains constant.
2. When a liquid is boiling, heat is also absorbed but the temperature again remains
constant.
3. The heat absorbed or given out at constant temperature during the change of phase is
known as latent heat.
4. The heat energy that releases during condensation or boiling is called the latent heat of
vaporization.
5. The heat energy that releases during freezing or melting is called the latent heat of fusion.

The latent heat is the heat absorbed or given out at constant temperature during the change of
state of matter.

The Heating Curve


Figure below shows the change of the temperature when a solid is heated until it become gas.
Note:
B to C

1. Temperature remain unchanged because the heat absorbed is used to overcome the force between
the particles in the solid.
2. The heat absorbed to change a solid to liquid is called the latent heat of fusion.

D to E

1. Temperature remain unchanged because the heat absorbed is used to overcome the force between
the particles in the liquid and also the atmospheric pressure.
2. The heat absorbed to change a liquid to gas is called the latent heat of vaporisation.

The Cooling Curve


Figure below shows the change of the temperature when a gas is cooled to become solid.
Q&A
Q: Why the temperature remained unchanged from Q-R and S-T?

A: The temperature remains unchanged because the heat released during the formation of the
intermolecular forces compensates the heat losses to the surrounding.

Q&A
Q: Why the temperature remained unchanged from U-V?

A: Because the temperature of the solid has reached the temperature of the surrounding.

Specific Latent Heat


1. The specific latent heat of a substance is the amount of heat requires to change the phase
of 1 kg of substance at a constant temperature.
2. Specific latent heat is measured in J/kg, if energy is measured in J and mass in kg.For
example, specific latent heat of ice is 334000J/kg means 334000 J of energy is needed to
convert 1kg of water into ice or vice versa.
Formula:

3. The specific latent heat of vaporization is the heat needed to change 1 kg of a liquid at its
boiling point into vapour without a change in temperature.
4. The specific latent heat of fusion is the heat needed to change 1 kg of a solid at its
melting point into a liquid, without a change in temperature.
5. If any solid is to become a liquid, it must gain the necessary latent heat. Equally, if a
liquid is to change back into a solid, it must lose this latent heat.
Measuring the Specific Latent Heat of Fusing of Ice

1. Figure above shows the apparatus setup to determine the specific latent heat of fusion of ice.
Some ice at 0 C is heated by a small electric heater which is left switched on for several
minutes.
2. Some of the ice melts to form water which runs down through the funnel and is collected in the
beaker.
3. The mass of ice (m) melted is found by measuring the mass of water collected.
4. If the power of the heater is P and the time taken to heat the ice = t, then the thermal energy
supplied by the heater = thermal energy used to melt ice = Pt.
Therefore, the specific latent heat of fusion of ice

L=Pt/m

Precaution Steps:
1. The heating element of the heater must fully immerse in ice so that all the heat generated is
absorbed by the ice.
2. A control set is needed to estimate the amount of mass of ice melted by the heat from the
surrounding.

Note:

1. The heat received by ice is less than the calculated value Pt as some heat is lost to the
surrounding. This will result in the value of l obtained from the calculation to be slightly higher
than the standard value.
2. If impurity is present in water, the melting point of the water will be lower than normal.
Measuring the Specific Latent Heat of Vaporization of Water

1. Figure above shows the apparatus used. When the water in the can is boiling vigorously,
the mass reading on the balance is noted and a stopwatch started. A few minutes later, the
stopwatch is stopped and the mass reading is taken again.
2. The difference in the mass readings gives the mass of water which has been changed into
steam during the time measured.
Therefore, the specific latent heat of vaporisation of water can be calculated by the
following equation

Note:

1. The boiling point of a liquid is proportional to the air pressure of the surrounding. The
higher the air pressure, the higher the boiling point.
2. At higher altitude, the atmospheric pressure is lower. Therefore the boiling point of a
liquid will decrease at higher altitude.
Pressure Cooker

1. Pressure cooker can cook faster than normal cooker.


2. The high gas pressure inside the pressure cooker increases the boiling point of the liquid
in the pressure cooker.
3. As a result, the food is cooked under higher temperature. More heat is supplied to the
food, hence make cooking faster.
4. The function of the safety valve is to release extra steam to the surrounding and
consequently reduce the pressure in the pressure cooker when it is too high.

Evaporation

Rate of Evaporation
1. Evaporation is the process of converting a substance (such as water) from its liquid state to its
gaseous state at temperature lower than the boiling point of the liquid.
2. There are several ways of making a liquid evaporate faster:
a. Increase its temperature
b. Increase its surface area
c. Pass air through it or across its surface
d. Make the liquid into a fine spray
A spray is made up of millions of tiny liquid droplets with a very large total surface area.
The highly curved surfaces make it easier for molecules to escape.
Cooling by Evaporation
1. Blowing air into a liquid will cause the liquid evaporate faster.
2. During evaporation, latent heat is absorbed from the liquid (as a surrounding) causing the
temperature of the liquid decreases.

Applications of Cooling by Evaporation

Refrigerators

1. The cooling effect in many refrigerators is produced by the evaporation of a volatile liquid called
Freon.
2. The liquid Freon evaporates rapidly in the pipes in the freezer compartment as more and more of
its vapour is drawn away by the electric pump. As the Freon evaporates, it draws the necessary
latent heat from the food inside the refrigerator.
3. The pump compresses the vapour which turns liquid again on being forced through the zig-zag
pipe at the back of the refrigerator. The latent heat released is given off through the cooling fins.
4. In this way, thermal energy is extracted from the food inside the refrigerator and given out at the
back. A refrigerator actually makes your kitchen warmer.