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Eksplorasi & Produksi

Prepared for Teknik Kimia UI


2009

Questions from Last Session (1)


Jika sudah terbukti ada suatu reserve hidrokarbon di
lapisan bumi, lalu terjadi gempa bumi, apakah akan
mempengaruhi lapisan tanah tersebut? Apakah perlu
dilakukan seismic ulang

Bagaimana cara mengetahui adanya reservoir


geothermal? Apakah caranya sama seperti reservoir
hidrokarbon?

Pengukuran apa saja yang perlu dilakukan dalam


eksplorasi hidrokarbon?

Saya pernah dengar istilah geochemist, sebenarnya


profesi apakah itu? Apakah berperan juga dalam
eksplorasi hidrokarbon?
Questions from Last Session (2)
Teknologi apa saja yang digunakan dalam eksplorasi
hidrokarbon?

Kendala-kendala apa yang mungkin dan pernah terjadi


dalam eksplorasi hidrokarbon dan bagaimana
penanganannya?

Apakah ada hubungannya antara teknik kimia dengan


geologi dan geofisika

Parameter apa saja yang mengindikasikan tingkat


keberhasilan suatu eksplorasi hidrokarbon?

Questions from Last Session (3)


Apakah setiap perusahaan wajib melakukan eksplorasi
hidrokarbon?

Contoh soal atau aplikasi geologi dan geofisik

Apakah company selalu menyetujui hasil seismic yang


diajukan oleh seorang geologist atau geophysict untuk
melakukan pengeboran? Seberapa besar kemungkinan
dilakukannya pengeboran setelah dilakukan analisa
seismic?

Berapa lama waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk tahap


eksplorasi?
History of Hydrocarbon
Exploration

Key Dates
1627 First recorded mention of oil on North
American Continent (oil seeps)
1859 First Worlds successful oil well by Edwin
Drake (69 feet 6 inches deep)
1861 First oil well fire occurred, burned for 3
days, 19 deaths
1885 Oil discovered in Sumatra by Royal Dutch
1907 Shell (British) and Royal Dutch merged to
form Royal Dutch Shell
1908 Oil Discovered in Persia
Key Dates
1921 First experiment of using seismic
waves to image subsurface
1931 Conrad & Marcel Schlumberger
successfully identify presence of oil in a
formation by measuring resistivity
1948 Ghawar Field discovered in Saudi
Arabia the largest conventional oil field
in the world

First Texas Oil Field


Location: Spindletop,
Beaumont, TX
Blow-out in 1901
First Texas Oil Field

Spindletop in 1903

Field Cycle
Field Cycle

Gaining Access
Access to >90% of world resources is
owned by Government
Invitation to take part: Licensing Round (or
Bid Round)
Tools: literature, outcrop study, scout
check meeting
Bid documents: technical abilities, financial
performance, signing bonus, work
program
Gaining Access

Exploration
Length: ~3 years from start of contract
Analyzing more data (geological and
geophysical)
Objectives:
Test our concepts by drilling
Find new play concepts
Wells drilled: 2-3 wells
Exploration

Appraisal
Length: ~ 3 years after Exploration phase
Detailed analysis on the data
Reprocessing of old data
Acquire new data
Objectives:
Minimizing Risk
Determine maximum extent of the field
Preparation for Field Development
Development
Submit Plan of Development (POD) for
Government approval,
Objectives zones of interest
Petroleum engineering data
Operating and maintenance principles
Description of engineering facilities
Cost and manpower estimates
Project planning
Summary of project economics
Budget proposal

Development
Path forward:
Detailed design of the facilities
Procurement of the materials of construction
Fabrication of the facilities
Installation of the facilities
Commisioning of all plant and equipment
Production
Positive Cash Flow
Maintaining Production Profile
Build-up period
Plateau period
Decline period

Production
What Next ???

Petroleum Geology