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Place Value and

1 Number Sense

What is place value?


Place value is the value given to a digit by its position in
a number.

Example The table shows some facts about the honeybee.


Notice that each number has a different value.

Honeybee Facts
Travels 15 miles per hour
Makes 154 trips to make one tablespoon of honey
Wing stroke of 11,400 times per minute
Source: honey.com

What will I learn in this chapter?


Read and write whole numbers to millions.
Compare and order whole numbers.
Round whole numbers.
Use the four-step plan to solve problems.

Key Vocabulary
place value
standard form
expanded form
is greater than (>)
is less than (<)

Student Study Tools


at ca.gr4math.com

14 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense


Isidor Stankov/iStockphoto
Make this Foldable to help organize information about place value
and number sense. Begin with one sheet of notebook paper.

Fold a sheet of Fold the right Unfold the Label as shown.


paper. Leave a two- side and the left sides. Then cut Take notes as you
inch tab at the top. side to make three along the creases move through the
equal sections. as shown. chapter.

Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense 15


ARE YOU READY for Chapter 1?
You have two ways to check prerequisite skills for this chapter.

Option 2
Take the Chapter Readiness Quiz at ca.gr4math.com.
Option 1
Complete the Quick Check below.

Write each number in word form and expanded form.


(Prior grade)

1. 2.
Ones Ones
hundreds tens ones hundreds tens ones

6 4 9 9 5

3. 79 4. 30 5. 90 6. 165

7. 347 8. 692 9. 1,840 10. 4,505

11. Write 300 + 20 + 1 in standard form and word form.

Compare. Use >, <, or =. (Prior grade)


12. 40  4 13. 59  59 14. 888  898 15. 682  700

16. Nora earned $425. She wants to buy a video game system
that costs $375. Does she have enough money? Explain.

Round to the nearest ten. (Prior grade)


17. 26 18. 4 19. 18 20. 75

21. 152 22. 175 23. 347 24. 508

25. Measurement Carlsbad is 25 miles from San Diego. Would


it be reasonable to say that Carlsbad is about 30 miles from
San Diego?

16 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense


Place Value Through
1-1 Hundred Thousands

The average lead pencil can draw a


line that is almost 184,800 feet
(about 35 miles) long. Do you know
the value of each digit in 184,800?
MAIN IDEA
I will read and write
whole numbers to
hundred thousands.

Standard A digit is any of the symbols used to write numbers


4NS1.1 Read 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. A place-value chart shows the
and write whole value of the digits in a number. Each group of three digits is
numbers in the called a period . Each period is separated by a comma.
millions.
Period Period

New Vocabulary Thousands Ones


digit
hundreds tens ones hundreds tens ones
place value
period 1 8 4 8 0 0
standard form
word form
expanded form
EXAMPLE Identify Value of Digits
1 Write the value of the underlined digit in 184
,800.
Step 1 Write the number in a place-value chart.

Thousands Ones
hundreds tens ones hundreds tens ones

1 8 4 8 0 0
Step 2 Identify the column where the 4 is located. Circle it.

Step 3 Replace all the digits that are to the right of the
4 with zeros.
The underlined digit has a value of 4,000. This is because
the 4 is in the thousands place.

Lesson 1-1 Place Value Through Hundred Thousands 17


Standard form is the usual way to write a number using
digits. Word form is the way you read or say a number.
Expanded form shows the value of each digit.

EXAMPLES Read and Write Numbers


2 Write 628,371 in word form and expanded form.

When reading whole Thousands Ones


numbers in word
hundreds tens ones hundreds tens ones
form, the word and is
not used.
6 2 8 3 7 1

Word form: six hundred twenty-eight thousand,


three hundred seventy-one

Expanded form: 600,000 + 20,000 + 8,000 + 300 +


70 + 1

3 Write one hundred five thousand, twenty-six in standard


form and in expanded form.

Standard form: 105,026

Expanded form: 100,000 + 5,000 + 20 + 6

Personal Tutor at ca.gr4math.com

Write the value of the underlined digit. See Example 1 (p. 17)
1. 32,08
6 2. 78,3
87 3. 10
9,378 4. 5
90,320
Write each number in word form and in expanded form. See Examples 2 and 3 (p. 18)
5. 5,789 6. 18,046 7. 49,909 8. 270,006

9. Write one hundred thousand, two hundred fifty-six in standard


form and expanded form. See Examples 2 and 3 (p. 18)

10. China has 555,200 fast food restaurants. 11. Do 800,600 and 860,000
Write 555,200 in word form. represent the same values?
Explain.

18 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense Extra Examples at ca.gr4math.com


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Write the value of the underlined digit. See Example 1 (p. 17)
12. 59,8
33 13. 7
2,134 14. 93,74
3 15. 174,305
16. 593,8
02 17. 8
26,193 18. 830,259
19. 9
26,794

Write each number in word form and in expanded form. See Examples 2 and 3 (p. 18)
20. 5,050 21. 3,791 22. 57,402 23. 89,074
24. 243,895 25. 485,830 26. 649,320 27. 784,132

Write each number in standard form and in expanded form. See Examples 2 and 3 (p. 18)
28. twenty-five thousand, four hundred eight

29. forty thousand, eight hundred eleven

30. seven hundred sixty-one thousand, three hundred fifty-six

Write each number in word form and standard form.


31. 7,000 + 600 + 30 + 5 32. 20,000 + 900 + 70 + 6 33. 60,000 + 80 + 4

Real-World PROBLEM SOLVING


Science The photo shows an African elephant.
34. African elephants can weigh up to
1
4,432 pounds. What is the value of the
underlined digit?
35. Write 14,432 in expanded form.
36. A zookeeper weighed a newborn African
elephant. He was 232 pounds. After
one year, the elephant had gained
1,000 pounds. Write the elephants new
weight in standard form and word form.

37. OPEN ENDED Write a five-digit number that has a 9 in the


hundreds place and a 6 in the hundred thousands place.

38. Explain how the value of the 4 in


694,213 will change if you move it to the tens place.

Lesson 1-1 Place Value Through Hundred Thousands 19


Elizabeth DeLaney/Index Stock Imagery
Math Activity for 1-2
Explore
How Big is One Million?
You can use models to help understand the value of 1,000,000.

Model 1,000,000.

MAIN IDEA Step 1 Model 1,000.

I will explore the


Cut out a
concept of a million. thousand cube
model. Fold the
Standard edges where
4NS1.1 Read the sides meet
and write whole
numbers in the
and form a cube.
millions. This shows 1,000.
Standard 4MR2.3 Use
a variety of methods, Step 2 Model 10,000.
such as words,
numbers, symbols, Work with your classmates.
charts, graphs, Use 10 of the cubes to
tables, diagrams, and
show 10,000.
models, to explain
mathematical
reasoning. Step 3 Model 100,000.
Make more cubes to build a model of 100,000.
You Will Need
thousand cube sheet
scissors Step 4 Create 1,000,000.
tape
Suppose you were to build a model of 1,000,000.
How many more 100,000 models would you need?
(Hint: There are ten 100,000s in 1,000,000).

Animation
ca.gr4math.com

20 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense


Ed-Imaging
Think About It
1. How did you build a model of 10,000?

2. Describe what your model of 1,000,000 looks like.

3. How are the models you built and drew like the models for
ones, tens, and hundreds?

4. What number patterns did you see as you built and drew
these models?

Write the number shown by each model.


5.

6.

7. The model at the right shows 1,000. How many tens


are in 1,000?

8. How many thousands are in 1,000,000?

9. Explain how to determine how long it would take to


count to one million.

10. How many hundreds are there


in 1,000,000? Explain your answer.

Explore 1-2 How Big is One Million? 21


Place Value Through
1-2 Millions

Baseball is one of
Americas favorite sports.
Baseball Game Attendance
The graph shows how 3,770,000

Attendance
many fans attended 4 3,480,000 3,450,000
MAIN IDEA
games for three teams 3
I will read and write during recent years. 2
whole numbers
The attendance numbers
through the millions. 0
are in the millions. New York Los Angeles Cleveland
Yankees Dodgers Indians
Standard
4NS1.1 Read Team
and write whole
numbers in the
millions.
A place-value chart can be used to read and write numbers in
the millions. The place-value chart below shows the value of
each digit in 3,480,000, the attendance at the Los Angeles
Dodgers baseball games.

Period Period Period

Millions Thousands Ones


ones hundreds tens ones hundreds tens ones

3 4 8 0 0 0 0

Real-World EXAMPLE Read and Write Numbers


1 SCIENCE The human eye blinks an average
of 5,500,000 times a year. Write 5,500,000 in
three ways.

Standard form: 5,500,000

Word form: five million, five hundred thousand

Expanded form: 5,000,000 + 500,000

22 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense


Real-World EXAMPLE
2 CARS United States
citizens own one
hundred thirty-five
million, seven hundred
thousand cars. Write
this number in
standard form and
in expanded form.

One hundred thirty-five million, seven hundred thousand is


written in the place-value chart below.

Millions Thousands Ones


hundreds tens ones hundreds tens ones hundreds tens ones

1 3 5 7 0 0 0 0 0

Standard form: 135,700,000

Expanded form: 100,000,000 + 30,000,000 + 5,000,000


+ 700,000
Personal Tutor at ca.gr4math.com

Write the value of the underlined digit. See Examples 1 and 2 (pp. 2223)
1. 469,99
9 2. 1
,040,710 3. 35,0
98,098 4. 8
3,023,215

Write each number in word form and in expanded form. See Example 1 (p. 22)
5. 2,007 6. 43,980 7. 302,806 8. 38,000,875

Write each number in standard form and in expanded form. See Example 2 (p. 23)
9. nine hundred thousand, five hundred fifty-two
10. two hundred forty-six million, nine hundred thousand, eighteen

11. On Sunday, 2,617,000 newspapers were 12. Explain how to find the
sold. How many newspapers were sold in value of the underlined digit
word form and expanded form? in the number 26,057,928.

Extra Examples at ca.gr4math.com Lesson 1-2 Place Value Through Millions 23


Claver Carroll/CORBIS
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Write the value of the underlined digit. See Examples 1 and 2 (pp. 2223)
13. 132,6
85 14. 3
09,573 15. 309
,841 16. 7,824,01
5
17. 40,24
5,854 18. 6
8,210,397 19. 73,581,2
09 20. 97
,530,284
Write each number in word form and in expanded form. See Example 1 (p. 22)
21. 29,205 22. 82,009 23. 901,452 24. 200,013

25. 30,842,085 26. 63,930,053 27. 319,999,990 28. 800,493,301

Write each number in standard form and in expanded form. See Example 2 (p. 23)
29. two hundred thirty-eight thousand, three hundred seventy

30. four million, ninety-four thousand, two hundred fifteen

31. eighty three million, twenty-three thousand, seven

32. three hundred four million, eight hundred thousand,


four hundred

Write the following numbers in word form and standard form.


33. 200,000 + 60,000 + 3,000 + 200 + 70 + 3

34. 1,000,000 + 900,000 + 50,000 + 6,000 + 200 + 20 + 5

35. As of 2004, the population of 36. Measurement The land area for
Los Angeles was 3,694,820. Write California is 400,000 + 3,000 + 900 +
Los Angeles population in word form. 70 square kilometers. Write the area in
word form.

Real-World PROBLEM SOLVING


Planets The Sun and Earth are shown.
37. The distance from Earth to the Sun is
92,955,793 miles. Write this number in
word form and expanded form.
38. The amount of time that U.S. astronauts
have spent in space is about
13,507,804 minutes. Is this number Sun
read as thirteen million, fifty-seven thousand,
eight hundred four? Explain. Earth

24 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense Self-Check Quiz at ca.gr4math.com


(bc) Pixtal/SuperStock, (br) Brand X/SuperStock
39. OPEN ENDED Write an eight-digit number that has a 7 in the
ten millions place and a number in the thousands place with a
value of 2,000.

40. CHALLENGE Write the number with the smallest value using the
digits 1 through 9. Use each digit only once.

41. NUMBER SENSE Is the following statement true or false?


Explain your answer.
1,000 thousands = 1,000,000

42. Explain how you know what


number is missing in 3,947 = 3,000 +  + 40 + 7.

43 Which number below is the word 44 Yosemite National Park hosts three
form of 57,302? (Lesson 1-1) million, three hundred seventy
A five thousand, three hundred two thousand visitors each year. What is
this number in standard form?
B fifty-seven thousand, three (Lesson 1-2)
hundred twenty F 3,307,000
C fifty-seven thousand, three G 3,370,000
hundred two
H 30,307,000
D five hundred thousand, three
hundred two J 30,370,000

Write the value of the underlined digit. (Lesson 1-1)


45. 10,4
98 46. 12,00
4 47. 3
0,182

Write each number in standard form and expanded form. (Lesson 1-1)
48. three thousand five
49. four million, six hundred thirty-seven thousand,
five hundred four
50. seventeen million, twenty thousand, four hundred fifty-eight

Lesson 1-2 Place Value Through Millions 25


1-3 Problem-Solving Strategy
MAIN IDEA I will solve problems using a four-step plan.

Standard 4MR1.1 Analyze problems by identifying relationships, distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information, sequencing
and prioritizing information, and observing patterns. Standard 4NS3.0 Students solve problems involving addition,
subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers and understand the relationships among the operations.

There are six girls in Dinas scout troop.


They are planning a trip to the local
amusement park. Admission for children
is $12. What is the total cost of admission
for everyone to go?

Understand What facts do you know?


There are six scouts who
want to go.

The price of admission is $12 for each girl.

What do you need to find?


The total cost of admission for all the girls.

Plan To find the total cost, you can use addition. There are 6 girls, and
it will cost $12 each. So, add 12 six times.

Solve $12 + $12 + $12 + $12 + $12 + $12 = $72

So, the troop needs $72 to go to the


amusement park.

Check Look back at the problem. One way to check the answer is to
use a drawing.
$12

There are 72 squares, so the answer is correct.

26 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense


Paul Seheult/Eye Ubiquitous/CORBIS
Refer to the problem on the previous page.
1. Explain why multiplication was used to 3. Refer to Exercise 2. Draw a model to
solve the problem. check. Explain how the model shows
that your answer is correct.
2. In the problem, the price for an adult
admission was not included. Suppose 4. If three adults were to go on the trip
the price of an adult ticket is $8 more with the scouts, how much would
than a childs ticket. Find the total cost admission cost for everyone to go?
of three adult tickets. Explain. Explain how you found your answer.

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Solve. Use the four-step plan. 9. The opening phrase of the Gettysburg
5. A class is playing a game. Each Address is shown. A score is 20 years.
correct answer is worth 5 points. How many years would be in four
Team 1 has 55 total points. Team score and seven years?
2 has answered 12 questions
correctly. Who has answered more
questions correctly?

6. Rosa is downloading music. It


takes about 3 minutes to download
one song. If she downloads an
album with 10 songs, about how
long will it take her to download 10. Scott spends 1 hour a day in math
the album? class. How many hours does he spend
in math class in four weeks in which
7. Caseys mom is the there are no days off?
baseball coach for
his team. She spent 11. Karl Freidrich Benz invented the first
$50 on 10 baseballs. gasoline-powered automobile in
How much would 1885. Estimate how many years ago
1 baseball cost? this automobile was invented.

8. Willialm can make 4 bracelets in an


hour. With Daisys help, they can make 12. Select one
twice as many in an hour. If they work problem from Exercises 511. Explain
for 2 hours, how many bracelets can how you used the four-step plan to
they make? solve the problem.

Lesson 1-3 Problem-Solving Strategy: The Four-Step Plan 27


1-4 Compare Whole Numbers

A first year police officer


earns $41,793 in one year.
A first year firefighter earns
MAIN IDEA $41,294 in one year. Which
I will compare whole occupation pays more for
numbers. the first year?
Standard
4NS1.2 Order
and compare whole
numbers and decimals
to two decimal places.
Standard 4NS1.1 You can use a number line to compare numbers. A number line
Read and write is a line with numbers on it in order at regular intervals. The
numbers in the symbols below are used to show relationships of numbers.
millions.

is greater than is less than is equal to


New Vocabulary > < =
number line
is greater than (>)
is less than (<)
Real-World EXAMPLE Use a Number Line
is equal to (=) 1 JOBS Which occupation pays more for the first year:
police officer or firefighter?
On a number line, numbers to the right are greater than
numbers to the left.

41,294 41,793

41,000 41,200 41,400 41,600 41,800 42,000


Numbers get smaller Numbers get larger

41,793 is to the right of 41,294.

So, 41,793 is greater than 41,294.

Therefore, 41,793 > 41,294.

So, police officers earn more money than firefighters.

28 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense


Jeff Dunn/Index Stock Imagery
To compare numbers, you can also use place value.

Real-World EXAMPLE Use Place Value


2 DATA The table shows the two most popular names in
the United States. Which name is more popular?

Last Name Number of People


Miller 1,253,913
Jones 1,836,509
Source: Top 10 of Everything

Step 1 Line up the numbers so that the digits in the ones


place align.
Before comparing 1,253,913
numbers, always line 1,836,509
up the ones place.
Step 2 Begin at the greatest place. Compare the digits.
1,253,913
1,836,509
Since 1 = 1, go to the next place.

Step 3 Compare the digits in the next place on the right.


1,253,913
1,836,509
8>2

So, 1,836,509 is greater. Therefore, the more popular last


name is Jones.

Personal Tutor at ca.gr4math.com

Compare. Use >, <, or =. See Examples 1 and 2 (pp. 2829)


1. 1,798  1,789 2. 7,440  7,436

3. 25,409  26,409 4. 50,402  50,406

5. 655,543  556,543 6. 10,027,301  10,207,301

7. Jun collects stamps and baseball 8. Explain why any five-digit


cards. He has 1,834 stamps number is less than any
and 1,286 baseball cards. Does six-digit number.
he have more stamps or more
baseball cards?

Extra Examples at ca.gr4math.com Lesson 1-4 Compare Whole Numbers 29


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Compare. Use >, <, or =. See Examples 1 and 2 (pp. 2829)


9. 3,030  3,030 10. 5,980  5,090 11. 6,789  6,798

12. 9,623  9,623 13. 23,001  23,010 14. 18,041  18,040

15. 76,101  77,000 16. 12,683  12,638 17. 304,999  305,049

18. 701,010  701,010 19. 2,999,214  2,999,214

Copy and complete to make the number sentence true.


20. 658,431 < 00,000 21. 1,342,646 > 1,89,035

22. Delaney received 1,127 emails in a 23. Hassan read 2,365 pages during the
year. Patricia received 1,132 email school year. Anjelita read 2,382 pages
addresses saved in her email account. during the school year. Who read more
Who received more emails? pages during the school year?

Real-World PROBLEM SOLVING


Technology The table shows the top Language Internet Users
four online languages. Chinese 105,736,236
English 286,642,757
24. Which language is used most on Japanese 66,763,838
the Internet? Spanish 55,887,063

25. Which language is used less on the


Internet, Japanese or Spanish?
Source: Nielsen/Net Ratings/International

26. OPEN ENDED Write a seven-digit number that is greater than 8,458,942.

27. WHICH ONE DOESNT BELONG? Which number does not belong? Explain.

10,000 10 hundreds ten thousand 100 hundreds

NUMBER SENSE Compare. Use >, <, or =.


28. 3 thousands  3,200 29. 1,000,000  1,000 thousands

30. Explain how to compare numbers


using place value.

30 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense Self-Check Quiz at ca.gr4math.com


APTER
CH
Mid-Chapter Check
1 Lessons 1-1 through 1-4

Write each number in word form and in 10. What is 20,000,000 + 8,000,000 +
expanded form. (Lesson 1-1) 300,000 + 6,000 + 30 + 7 in standard
form and in word form? (Lesson 1-2)
1. 2,384 2. 917,022
Compare. Use >, <, and =. (Lesson 1-4)
Write each number in standard form and
11. 2,481  2,814
in expanded form. (Lesson 1-1)
12. 200 + 70 + 8  700 + 80 + 2
3. nineteen thousand, two hundred six
4. two hundred seventy-two Algebra Find the value of x. (Lesson 1-4)
5. There are 3 schools. Each school has 13. 5,000 + x + 9 = 5,709
297 students. How many students is 14. 40,000 + 6,000 + x = 46,009
that altogether? Write in standard form
and word form. (Lesson 1-1) 15. Rolando traveled 2,643 miles by air.
Ramiro traveled 2,643 miles by car.
Who traveled farther? Explain. (Lesson 1-4)
6. STANDARDS PRACTICE Which
sentence below is correct? (Lesson 1-1)
16. STANDARDS PRACTICE Which of
A 38,521 < 37,125 these is 7,402,644? (Lesson 1-4)

B 65,349 > 65,400 F seven million, forty-two thousand,


six hundred four
C 90,502 > 90,205 G seven thousand, four hundred two
D 12,754 < 12,574 H seven million, four hundred two
thousand, six hundred forty-four
Write the value of the underlined J seven million, two hundred four
digit. (Lesson 1-2) thousand, six hundred four
7. 1,6
87 8. 32
0,579 17. On Monday Dylan used a pedometer
to record 15,725 steps. On Tuesday he
9. Erika is writing the greatest number
took 15,806 steps. On which day did
possible using the digits shown.
he take more steps? (Lesson 1-4)

4 1 9 0 8 18. Explain how


to find the number missing in the
What would be the number in following expanded form sentence.
expanded form? (Lesson 1-2) 8,000,000 + 5,000 + 90 + 3 = 8,05,093

Formative Assessment 31
1-5 Order Whole Numbers

Having a dog is very popular. Dog Breeds in the U.S.


The table shows the number Dog Number
of Yorkshire Terriers, Beagles, Yorkshire Terrier 47,238
MAIN IDEA and German Shepherds in the Beagle 42,592
I will order whole United States. German Shepherd 45,868
numbers through Which dog is Source: American Kennel Club
the millions.
most popular?
Standard Least popular?
4NS1.2 Order
and compare whole
numbers and decimals
to two decimal places.
Standard 4NS1.1
Read and write
numbers in the
millions.

To order numbers, you can use a number line or place value.

Real-World EXAMPLE Use a Number Line


1 DOGS Order the dog breeds in the table above from most
popular to least popular.

Graph each number on a number line.


42,592 45,868 47,238

40,000 42,000 44,000 46,000 48,000

47,238 is farthest to the right.

45,868 is between 42,592 and 47,238.

42,592 is the farthest to the left.

The order is Yorkshire Terrier, German Shepherd, Beagle.

Personal Tutor at ca.gr4math.com

32 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense


(tl) Ingram Publishing/Alamy Images, (tr) G.K. & Vikki Hart/Getty Images
Real-World EXAMPLE Use Place Value
1 OIL The table shows the Oil Usage
number of barrels of oil Barrels
Country
used each day in different per Day
countries. Use place value Brazil 2,199,000
to order the data from Canada 2,200,000
greatest to least. India 2,130,000
United States 19,650,000
Source: CIA World Fact Book (2005)

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3


Line up the ones Compare the digits Compare the digits
place. Compare in the next place. in the next place.
When ordering the digits in the
numbers, you can greatest place.
use number lines or
place value.
19,650,000 greatest 2,199,000 2,199,000
2,199,000 2,200,000 2,130,000 least
2,200,000 2,130,000
2,130,000

The numbers ordered from greatest to least are 19,650,000;


2,200,000; 2,199,000; and 2,130,000.

So, the order is the United States, Canada, Brazil, and India.

Order the numbers from greatest to least. See Examples 1 and 2 (pp. 3233)
1. 3,456; 4,356; 3,465; 6,543 2. 52,482; 50,023; 56,028; 63,340

3. 87,035; 80,562; 78,035; 79,003 4. 145,099; 154,032; 145,004; 159,023

5. Measurement Order the surface areas Great Lakes


of the Lakes shown in the table from Surface Area
greatest to least surface area. Lake
(acres)
Clear Lake 43,785
6. When ordering whole
Lake Almanor 27,064
numbers, explain what you
Lake Tahoe 123,520
do when the digits in the same place
Shasta Lake 29,500
have the same value.
Trinity Lake 16,400
Source: worldatlas.com

Extra Examples at ca.gr4math.com Lesson 1-5 Order Whole Numbers 33


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Order the numbers from greatest to least. See Examples 1 and 2 (pp. 3233)
7. 2,004; 1,906; 2,006; 1,507 8. 3,521; 3,512; 1,243; 3,306

9. 79,920; 82,234; 97,902; 90,125 10. 12,378; 12,783; 12,873

11. 138,023; 138,032; 139,006; 183,487 12. 258,103; 248,034; 285,091; 248,934

13. 6,052,264; 6,025,264; 6,052,462 14. 12,345,678; 1,234,567; 123,456,789

15. Rank the following cities in California 16. Order the cars from most expensive
from least to greatest population. to least expensive.
California Population Most Expensive Cars
City Population Car Price
Bakersfield 283,936 Bugatti Veyron 16.4 $1,192,057
Freemont 202,373 Leblanc Mirabeau $645,084
Glendale 201,326 Pagani Zonda Roadster $667,321
Huntington Beach 195,305 Saleen S7 $555,000
Source: U.S. Census Bureau Source: Forbes

Real-World PROBLEM SOLVING


Data Card
Data File The gray whale is
Californias state marine mammal. The
table shows the gray and other whale
migration distances and populations.
17. Order the whales from farthest to least
farthest distance migrated.
18. Order the whale populations from
least to greatest.
Source: whalewatchmaui.com

19. OPEN ENDED Write three numbers that are greater


than 750,000 but less than 760,000.

20. NUMBER SENSE Use the digits 3, 9, and 2 to create


five numbers. Order them from least to greatest.

21. Write a real-word problem in


which you would order three numbers from least to greatest.

34 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense Self-Check Quiz at ca.gr4math.com


Greater
Number Game
Compare Whole Numbers

Get Ready! You will need: 40 index cards

Players: 2 players

Go!
Get Set! Combine the cards.
Each player gets 20 index cards.
Shuffle and deal the cards.
Separate the cards into 2 piles of
10. On each card in the first pile, Place your cards face down. Turn
write a number in standard form over the top card at the same
that has no more than 4 digits. time as your partner.
Next, write the expanded form of The person who turns over the
each number on one of the cards greatest number takes both
in the second pile. cards. If the cards are equal,
keep turning over cards until a
player can take the cards.
Play until one person has all
the cards.

Game Time Greater Number Game 35


Ed-Imaging
1-6 Round Whole Numbers

A certain tractor
weighs 17,554
pounds. About
MAIN IDEA how much
I will round whole does it weigh?
numbers through the
millions.

Standard When you do not need an exact answer, you can estimate
4NS1.3 Round by rounding . You can use a number line to round.
whole numbers
through the millions
to the nearest ten, Real-World EXAMPLES Round Whole Numbers
hundred, thousand,
ten thousand, or 1 MEASUREMENT To the nearest thousand, how much does
hundred thousand. the tractor weigh?
17,554
New Vocabulary
17,000 17,200 17,400 17,600 17,800 18,000
estimate
rounding (or round) On the number line, 17,554 is closer to 18,000 than 17,000.
So, round 17,554 to 18,000.

2 WORLD RECORDS The most


dominoes that were set up and
toppled by one person is 303,621.
How many dominoes is this to
the nearest ten thousand?

303,621

300,000 302,000 304,000 306,000 308,000 310,000

On the number line, 303,621 is closer to 300,000 than


310,000. So, round 303,621 to 300,000.

36 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense


(tr) C. Borland/PhotoLink/Getty Images, (b) Matthias Kulka/CORBIS
Place value can also be used to round numbers.

KEY CONCEPT Rounding Whole Numbers

Step 1 Underline the digit to be rounded.


Step 2 Look at the digit to the right of the place
being rounded.
Step 3 If the digit is 4 or less, do not change the
underlined digit. If the digit is 5 or greater,
add 1 to the underlined digit.
Step 4 Replace all digits after the underlined digit
with zeros.

Real-World EXAMPLE Round Whole Numbers


3 FARMERS There are 422,800 farmers in California.
How many farmers is this to the nearest thousand?

You need to round 422,800 to the nearest thousand.

Step 1 Underline the digit in the place to 422


,800
be rounded. In this case, the 2 in the
thousands place is to be rounded.

Step 2 Look at the digit to the right of the 422


,800
underlined digit, which is 8.

Step 3 Since this digit is greater than 5, 423


,800
add 1 to the underlined digit.

Step 4 Replace all digits after the 423,000


underlined digit with zeros.

To the nearest thousand, 422,800 is rounded


to 423,000.

Check your answer to Check


make sure it is The number line shows that the answer is correct.
reasonable.
422,800

422,000 422,500 423,000

Personal Tutor at ca.gr4math.com

Extra Examples at ca.gr4math.com Lesson 1-6 Round Whole Numbers 37


Round each number to the given place-value position. See Examples 13 (pp. 3637)
1. 927; ten 2. 934; hundred
3. 4,282; thousand 4. 43,032; ten thousand
5. 593,205; hundred thousand 6. 709,385; thousand

7. The largest house made out of playing 8. Write the smallest number
cards used 91,800 cards. To the that you can round to the
nearest thousand, how many cards thousands place to get 8,000.
were used? Explain.

EXTRA 0R
P !C
2A # T4 IC %
)# E
See page R3.

Round each number to the given place-value position. See Examples 13 (pp. 3637)
9. 568; ten 10. 396; ten

11. 297; hundred 12. 148,245; hundred

13. 4,752; thousand 14. 493,580; thousand

15. 519,158; hundred thousand 16. 791,275; hundred thousand

17. 77,690; hundred 18. 95,230; thousand

19. 190,236; hundred thousand 20. 303,985; ten

21. Measurement Earths highest peak 22. Measurement The highest point in
is Mount Everest. It is 29,028 feet California is Mount Whitney. It is
high. Is this about 30,000 feet high? 14,494 feet high. Is this about 20,000
Explain. feet high? Explain.

Real-World PROBLEM SOLVING


Literature The graphic shows the number of
characters that are in the longest novel in the world.
23. Round this number to the nearest hundred thousand.

24. To which place would this number be rounded if the


rounded number was 14,156,100?

Source: Guinness Book of World Records

38 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense Self-Check Quiz at ca.gr4math.com


25. OPEN ENDED Write five numbers that would round to 50,000.

26. FIND THE ERROR Amanda and Jamal round 83,275,925 to


the hundred thousands place. Who is correct? Explain.

Amanda Jamal
80,000,000 83,300,000

27. Create a real-world problem that


involves rounding a number and results in an answer of 670,000.

28 Which shows the correct order from 29 Yuma, Arizona, is the sunniest place
least to greatest? (Lesson 1-5) in the world. Round Yumas average
A 1,245; 2,451; 5,412; 4,152 hours of sunlight each year to the
nearest thousands. (Lesson 1-6)
B 2,124; 4,215; 4,512; 5,214
Top Two Sunniest Places
C 5,214; 4,512; 4,215; 2,124 Hours of Sunlight
Location
Each Year
D 2,512; 2,215; 4,124; 4,421
Yuma, Arizona 4,127
Phoenix, Arizona 4,041

F 4,000 H 4,200

G 4,100 J 5,000

Order the numbers from greatest to least. (Lesson 1-5)


30. 685; 700; 660 31. 1,363; 1,468; 1,333 32. 12,009; 12,090; 12,900

Compare. Use >, < , or =. (Lesson 1-4)


33. 163  165 34. 16,094  16,090 35. 1,866  1,866
36. The tallest mountain in the United States is 20,320 feet tall.
Round this number to the nearest thousand. (Lesson 1-3)

Lesson 1-6 Round Whole Numbers 39


(tl) Ed-Imaging, (tr) Ryan McVay/Getty Images
1-7 Problem-Solving Investigation
MAIN IDEA I will choose the best strategy to solve a problem.

Standard 4MR1.1 Analyze problems by identifying relationships, distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information, sequencing
and prioritizing information, and observing patterns. Standard 4NS3.0 Students solve problems involving addition,
subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers and understand the relationships among the operations.

TORY: My family is going on vacation


to Mexico. Before we go, we have to
trade our dollars for Mexican pesos.


For every dollar we will get about
11 pesos.

YOUR MISSION: Find about how many


pesos Torys family will get for $8.

Understand You know that one dollar is about 11 pesos.

You need to find about how many pesos they


will get for $8.

Plan For every 1 dollar, they get 11 pesos. Make a table


to solve the problem.

Solve Dollars $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8
Pesos 11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88

+11 +11 +11 +11 +11 +11 +11

The pattern is to add 11.

The family can expect to get about 88 pesos for $8.

Check There is a second pattern in the table. When the digit


in the dollar row is changed to pesos, the dollar digit
is repeated twice. For example, $5 is 55 pesos. $8 is
88 pesos follows this pattern.

So, the answer is correct.

40 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense


Ed-Imaging
EXTRA 0R
P !C
2A # T4 IC %
)# E
See page R4.

Use the four-step plan to solve. 6. Lee wants a


1. Measurement A black bear weighs motorized scooter.
25 pounds more than a gorilla. Use the He earns $8 a
information in the table to find how week, but already
much a black bear weighs. has $11. How
many weeks will
Large Animal Weights he have to save all
Animal Weight (pounds) of his money to
Gorilla 400 buy the scooter?
Black bear 
Lion 440 7. Leticia earns $20 each time she
babysits. How many times will she
2. A robin can fly 20 miles in one hour. need to babysit to earn $120?
An eagle can fly 40 miles in one hour.
How many hours would it take for a 8. Turi burns about 350 calories for every
robin to fly as far as an eagle flies in hour he skis. The last time he skied, he
3 hours? burned 1,200 calories. Did he ski over
3 hours? Explain.
3. Jade has 3 sticker sheets with
6 stickers on each sheet. How many 9. Jacks basketball games are 4 quarters
stickers does she have in all? that are each 8 minutes long. Is it
possible for Jack to play 35 minutes in
a game? How do you know?

10. Xavier saved three $10 bills, six $5 bills,


and twelve $1 bills. Does he have
enough money to buy this MP3 player?

4. A watch costs $34. A pair of sunglasses


costs $6. How much change could you
expect to receive if you bought one
of each item above and paid with a
$50 bill?

5. A video game store buys used video 11. Refer to


games for $10 each. Vivian wants a Exercise 11. Suppose Xavier has
new video game for $77. How many 5 bills and the total is $37. Explain
used games must she sell to buy the the steps you would take to find
new game? which bills he has.

Lesson 1-7 Problem-Solving Investigation: Choose a Strategy 41


Under the
Earths oceans are filled with many skilled divers. Both sperm whales and
different sea creatures. Of these elephant seals can stay underwater
creatures in the ocean, marine for almost two hours. Thats a long
mammals such as whales, dolphins, time to hold your breath!
seals, and sea lions are the most

fic Coast Ma
f Paci rin
no eM
a tio a
m
l
pu

ma

Estimated
Po

ls

Species Population
California sea lion .... 111,016
Gray whale . . ............. 20,869
Hawaiian monk seal ..... 1,300
Northern fur seal ...... 988,000
Pacific harbor seal .... 131,826
Spinner dolphin . . . . . . 631,000
Spotted dolphin . . . . . . . 731,000

So ce
urc
Servi
e: N
ational Biological

42 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense


(bkgd) Michael S. Nolan/SeaPics.com, (bl) J.Berndes/A.B./Zefa/CORBIS
Standard 4NS1.2 Order and compare whole numbers and decimals to two decimal places.

Real-World Math
Use the information on page 42 to answer each problem.

1. Which marine mammal species 4. A sea lion can dive 400 feet. Some
has the greatest population? Write seals can dive 5,314 feet. Dolphins
in expanded and word forms. can dive up to 1,000 feet. List
these dives from greatest to least.
2. There are about 20,000 blue
whales. Your friend tells you that 5. You are told that there are about
there are more blue whales than 132,000 Pacific harbor seals. Is
gray whales. Is your friend right? this true when you round to the
Explain. nearest ten thousand? Explain.

3. A humpback whale can eat up to 6. Which animal populations, when


9,000 pounds of food a day. Is this rounded to the nearest thousand,
more or less than a blue whale have a one in the thousands place?
eats? How much more or less?

A blue whale
eats about
7,500 pounds of
food each day.

Problem Solving in Science 43


APTER
CH

1 Study Guide and Review

Key Vocabulary
place value (p. 17)
Be sure the following Key Vocabulary
is greater than (>) (p. 28)
words and Key Concepts are written
is less than (<) (p. 28)
in your Foldable.
estimate (p. 36)
rounding (p. 36)

Vocabulary Check
Choose the vocabulary word
that completes each sentence.
Place Value
1. When you do not need an
A place-value chart shows the value of
exact answer, you can
the digits in a number. (pp. 1719 and 2225)
estimate by ? .

Thousands Ones 2. To help you read and write


numbers, you can use
hundreds tens ones hundreds tens ones
? .
4 7 2 1 4
3. When you do not need an
exact answer, you can
Read and Write Numbers (pp. 1719 and 2225) ? .
Standard form : 21,833
4. The ? of the
Word form : twenty-one thousand, 7 in 7,495 is the thousands.
eight hundred thirty-three
5. The symbol > is used to
Expanded form : 20,000 + 1,000 + show that a number is
800 + 30 + 3 ? another
number.
Compare Numbers (pp. 2830)
6. The symbol < is used to
To compare numbers, use is greater than
show that a number is
(>) , is less than (<) , or equal to (=).
? another
123 > 122 478 < 874 925 = 925 number.

44 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense Vocabulary Review at ca.gr4math.com


Lesson-by-Lesson Review
1-1 Place Value Through Hundred Thousands (pp. 1719)

Example 1 Write each number in word form and


Write 5,789 in three different ways. expanded form.
7. 18,045 8. 94,804
Thousands Ones
hundreds tens ones hundreds tens ones 9. Write four hundred thirty thousand,
two hundred fifty-six in standard
5 7 8 9 form and expanded form.

Standard form: 5,789 Write the value of the underlined


Word form: five thousand, seven digit.
hundred eighty-nine 10. 19
0,843 11. 84,2
99
Expanded form: 5,000 + 700 + 80 + 9
12. The Petrified Forest National Park
in northeast Arizona is 93,533
acres. Write this number in word
form and in expanded form.

1-2 Place Value Through Millions (pp. 2225)

Example 2 Write each number in standard form


Write nine million, three hundred and expanded form.
seventy-two thousand, five hundred 13. two thousand, six hundred
in standard form and expanded form. ninety-seven

Word form: nine million, 14. nine million, four hundred six
three hundred thousand, two hundred
seventy-two seventy-one
thousand,
five hundred
15. Len has a baseball card collection
Standard form: 9,372,500 of 4,826 cards. He sells 215 cards
to another collector. How many
Expanded form: 9,000,000 + cards does he have left? Write in
300,000 + 70,000 + 2,000 + 500 word form and in expanded form.

Chapter 1 Study Guide and Review 45


APTER
CH

1 Study Guide and Review

1-3 Problem-Solving Strategy: The Four-Step Plan (pp. 2627)

Example 3 Solve. Use the four-step plan.


Dorota saves $2 each week. How
much will she save after 2 months? 16. Cynthia earns 5 points at the library
for each book she reads. She wants
Understand to earn 75 points in order to win
Dorota saves $2 each week. the grand prize. How many books
You need to find out how does she need to read?
much money will she save
after 2 months. 17. Rafael has $72. He wants to buy
the bike shown. How much more
money does he need?
Plan There are 4 weeks in
1 month. Use repeated
addition to find out how
much money she has saved
after 2 months.

Solve First, find out how much she


saved in one month.
18. Kristina earned $22 dollars
$2 1 week
$2 1 week babysitting. She owes her mom
$2 1 week $17. How much will Kristina have
+ $2 1 week left after she pays her mom?

$8
19. Trent has to read a book for class
Now, find the amount saved by Friday. It is Tuesday and he has
in two months. 60 pages left to read. If he reads
$8 1 month 20 pages a night for the next
+ $8 1 month
3 nights, will he finish the book?
$16 Explain.
So, Dorota will save $16 after 20. Prestas family is going to the
2 months. mountains 280 miles away. The
familys car can go 25 miles on a
Check Count by twos 8 times. gallon of gas, and the gas tank
2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 holds 10 gallons. Can they travel
So, the answer is correct. to the mountains without stopping
to fill up the gas tank? Explain.

46 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense


1-4 Compare Whole Numbers (pp. 2830)

Example 4 Compare. Use <, >, or =.


Compare 1,278  1,500. 21. 25,689  25,679
Use >, <, or =.
22. 54,820  58,240
1,278
23. 109,050  109,050
1,000 1,500 2,000 24. 234,461  234,641

1,500 is to the right of 1,278. 25. Supriya ate 2,142 calories on


So, 1,500 is greater than 1,278. Monday. On the same day her
Therefore, 1,500 > 1,278. brother ate 2,111 calories. Who
had more calories on Monday?

1-5 Order Whole Numbers (pp. 3234)

Example 5 Order the numbers from greatest


Order 54,282; 65,820; and 52,466 to least.
from greatest to least. 26. 12,378; 12,784; 12,837
First, line up the ones place. Compare
27. 138,023; 138,032; 139,006
the digits in the greatest place.
54,282 28. 456,980; 612,701; 611,036
65,820 greatest
52,466 29. The table shows the population of
the three states with the largest
Then, compare the digits in the next
land area. Order these states from
place.
greatest to least population.
54,282
52,466 State Population
4 > 2. So, 54,282 is the next greatest Alaska 655,435
California 35,893,799
number.
Texas 22,490,022
The numbers ordered from greatest to Source: infoplease.com
least are 65,820; 54,282; and 52,466.

Chapter 1 Study Guide and Review 47


APTER
CH

1 Study Guide and Review

1-6 Round Whole Numbers (pp. 3639)

Example 6 Round each number to the given


Round 587 to the nearest ten. place-value position.
30. 874; hundred
587
31. 12,025; ten thousands
580 582 584 586 588 590 32. 617,589; ten thousands
33. 547,203; thousands
On the number line, 587 is closer
to 590 than 580. Therefore, round 34. In 1790, the population of the
587 to 590. United States was 3,929,214. To
the nearest million, what was the
population in 1790?

1-7 Problem-Solving Investigation: Choose a Strategy (pp. 4041)

Example 7 Use the four-step plan to solve.


Each time Esteban goes to the 35. Lindsay earns $5 for every A she
grocery store for his grandmother, gets on her report card and $3 for
she gives him $4. He has $12. How every B. On her last report card,
many times has Esteban gone to she received a total of $19 for
the grocery store? 5 subjects. How many As and Bs
Esteban has $12 and that he gets $4 did she get?
each time he goes to the store. You 36. Precious spends 35 hours in school
need to find how many times he has every five-day week. How many
gone to the store, use addition. five-day weeks will she have been
in school if she has been in school
$4 1 trip
$4 1 trip for 175 hours?
+ $4 1 trip
37. In 1916, Jeannette Rankin of
$12 Montana became the first woman
So, Esteban has gone to the store elected to Congress. Use rounding
3 times. to estimate how many years
ago the first woman was elected
to Congress.

48 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense


APTER
CH

Chapter Test
1
For Exercises 1 and 2, tell whether each Order the numbers from greatest
statement is true or false. to least.
1. The four steps of the four-step 7. 1,002; 1,037; 1,200; 1,102
problem-solving plan in order are Plan,
Understand, Solve, Check. 8. 7,613; 7,702; 8,045; 7,499

2. The standard form of nine hundred 9. A computer costs $1,295. Round this
seventy is 970. price to the nearest hundred.

Write the value of the underlined digit. Compare. Use <, >, or =.

3. 18,765 4. 301,936 10. 6,782  6,702 11. 2,487  2,784

5. Students voted on their favorite frozen 12. STANDARDS PRACTICE What is


yogurt flavors. The results are shown. 7,620,113 rounded to the nearest
Order the results from most favorite to hundred thousand?
least favorite. F 7,600,000
G 7,620,000
Number of
Flavor H 7,700,000
Students
Vanilla 410 J 8,000,000
Chocolate 240
Strawberry 99 13. Sora earned a score of 98 on a test.
Chocolate chip 401 Ryan earned a score of 89. Who
earned a higher score?

6. STANDARDS PRACTICE Which of


these is 7,201,446? Wite each number in word form.

A seven thousand, two hundred one, 14. 3,476 15. 97,602


four hundred forty-six
16. Andrew
B seven million, two hundred one rounded 647,963 to the nearest
thousand, four hundred forty-six hundred thousand. Is his answer
C seven hundred two thousand, one correct? Explain.
hundred forty-six
D seven million, two hundred ten 700,000
thousand, four hundred forty-six

Chapter Test at ca.gr4math.com Summative Assessment 49


APTER
CH

California Standards Practice


1 Cumulative, Chapter 1

As of 2004, the population of California was


thirty-five million, eight hundred ninety-three
thousand, seven hundred ninety-nine. What is
this number in standard form?

A 35,389,997 C 35,893,799

B 35,398,907 D 35,983,997

Read the Question


You need to find the number in standard form.

Solve the Question


A place-value chart helps you understand how the
number is written in standard form.

Millions Thousands Ones


hundreds tens ones hundreds tens ones hundreds tens ones

3 5 8 9 3 7 9 9

The answer is C.

Personal Tutor at ca.gr4math.com

Choose the best answer.


1 What is the standard form for 2 What is 54,678,491 rounded to the
sixteen million, three hundred nearest hundred thousand?
twenty-seven thousand, four
F 54,000,000
hundred three?
G 54,600,000
A 16,237,340 C 16,372,430
H 54,680,000
B 16,327,403 D 16,723,043
J 54,700,000

50 Chapter 1 Place Value and Number Sense


More California
Standards Practice
For practice by standard,
see pages CA1CA39.

3 A health club mailed coupons to 6 Which number is 1000 less than


four neighborhoods. The number of 25,387,226?
coupons mailed out is shown.
F 25,377,226 H 25,396,226
G 25,386,226 J 26,286,226
Health Club Coupons
Number of
Neighborhood
Coupons
The Meadows 12,550 7 What is $3,876,342 rounded to the
The Hills 12,638 nearest million?
Blackwood 12,450
The Fields 12,745 A $3,800,000 C $4,000,000
B $3,900,000 D $4,100,000

Which neighborhood received the


least number of coupons?
8 The estimated cost to build a new
A The Meadows C Blackwood baseball stadium is ninety-four
B The Hills D The Fields million dollars. What is this number
in standard form?

F $90,400 H $90,000,000
G $94,000 J $94,400,000
4 What is 724,385 rounded to the
nearest hundred?

F 700,000 H 724,300 9 Which is the value of the digit 9 in


G 720,400 J 724,400 349,865?

A 90 C 9000
B 900 D 90,000
5 The estimated cost of Shens
new pickup truck is twenty-
eight thousand, six hundred 10 Which symbol makes the following
seventy-two dollars. What is true?
this number rounded to the
nearest thousand? 12,935,374 12,953,748

A $28,000 C $29,000 F > H =


B $28,700 D $29,700 G < J +

Summative Assessment 51