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Simplifications in the Solution of Column Interaction Problems

IRA H O O P E R AND R O B E R T E. RAPP

T H I S PAPER outlines time saving procedures that may be the designer a close approximation of the equivalent
employed by structural engineers to design columns axial load for selection of a proper column size.
subjected to combined axial and bending stress. T w o Fi gure 1 shows a typical page of column load tables
procedures are described, each of which involves pre- in the Manual, with the above factors inserted at 5 ft
calculated coefficients for insertion in the present column increments of length. T h e heavy line added to the table
tables of the AISC Manual. A discussion of these tables indicates the effective length Lc above which the allow-
and their use has already been published. 1 able bending stress Fb may be taken at 0.66 Fy. For all
Method A provides a short-cut procedure for select- lengths below this line, Fb shall not exceed 0.60 Fy.
ing a column shape from the Manual tables with a Likewise, the dashed line indicates when the effective
reasonable degree of accuracy. It is a rapid method for length Lu has been reached. Below this line Fb may be
preliminary design, sufficiently accurate for many determined by Formulas (4) and (5) of the AISC Speci-
commonly encountered design problems. fication. However, in column design this last case seldom
Method B is a modification of the existing interaction becomes a problem.
Equations (6), (7a) and (7b) which appear on page Direct interpolation to determine factors for any
3-10 of the A I S C Manual, which are derived directly column length is possible, provided the Lc or Lu line
from formulas in the AISC Specification. (see Fig. 1) does not separate the factors under consid-
eration. Such refinement is not warranted for prelim-
METHOD A
inary design purposes.
This method utilizes three factors which may be calcu- Figure 2 shows an alternate method of listing the
lated for each group of columns having similar prop- factors on an insert sheet.
erties. These factors, in their respective order, are equal Example A illustrates how these factors are employed
to the expressions to determine a proper column shape subject to combined
\2FaBx \2FaBv Fa axial and bending stress.
, and
Fbx Fby 0.6 Fy
EXAMPLE A
Because the bending factors (Bx and By) and the
radius of gyration (ry) are nearly constant for any group Assume the same design conditions as shown in Example
of compact or non-compact column shapes of the same 6, pages 3-10 and 3-11 of the AISC M a n u a l :
nominal size, there is little error introduced in applying Given: P = 600 kips
these factors to such groups. For these groups of shapes, Mx = 190kip-ft
Fa is nearly constant over a range of effective lengths of KL = 18 ft
5 ft. Therefore, when these factors are substituted in Mv = 0
interaction Equations (6), (7a) and (7b), simplified Use A36 steel
expressions result, which are applicable within each
Sidesway assumed uninhibited
group over a 5 ft range of effective length. These give
.-. Cmx = 0.85 (Spec. Sect. 1.6.1)

Solution: Neglecting wind:


Ira Hooper is Associate, Seelye, Stevenson, Value and Knecht, New From Table I select 14 \AF 119, good
York, N. Y. and is a Professional Member of AISC.
Robert E. Rapp is Regional Engineer, American Institute of Steel Con- for 618 kips > 600 kips o.k.
struction, New York, N. Y.
Including wind:
1. New Manual Makes Steel Column Design Easy, Engineering P = 600 X 0.75 = 450 kips
News-Record, September 5, 7963. Mx = 190 X 0 . 7 5 = 142.5 kips

20
AISC ENGINEERING JOURNAL
3-18

ASTM A 36
Fy 36 ksi COLUMNS
\AF shapes
14
I
Nominal Depth
and Width 14 x 16
TABLE I
Allowable concentric loads in kips

14 X 14%
Weight per Foot 158 150 142 136 127 119 in tl03 |95 t87
6 963 913 867 826 771 722 674 625 577 527
7 954 905 859 818 764 716 667 618 571 522
8 946 897 851 810 756 708 661 612 565 517
9 936 888 843 801 748 701 653 605 559 511

n
JO- 927 879 834 792 739 693 646 599 552 505

ll
12
ii

9
906
4,92
859
Q-90 Ct;Bgf 5 ; jjSro
"S2T 1ET
815 773
73T
721
6S
676
T38~
630 584
5.1& o<9oy
539
499
493
13 895 849 805 763 712 667 622 576 532 486
03
14 884 838 795 752 702 658 613 568 524 479
15 873 827 785 742 692 648 604 560 516 JUL
(l._7_3 4*56 H o. k 5/2.84 Q-84M
Wl
774
Lis. Am
ih TS? 508 465
18
861
836
JttL
793 751
7TT T7T T5T
707 660
FS
576
542
533
500
492
457
449
618
O 19 823 780 740 695 648 607 566 524 483 441
20 810 768 728 683 637 596 555 514 474 433
a.

22
C 1.75
iw
4*f
75T
742
W703
U-TC
170
657
4?
"63
613
o/7
573
"life"
534
H4947 4f?3-
465
456
o3m
425
416
23 783 728 643 600 562 523 484 446 408
768 690
24 714 676 630 587 550 511 473 436 399
754
3 25 700 616 574 537 500 462 426 389
26
27
CI 739
,60
708
4,2Q
671
663
O*
mu F
635
60
587
~5oV
547
33 52F~
o.
512 476
451
440
4 -s
406
ir m
*0.<
381
370
28 693 656 621 572 533 499 463 429 395 361
JZ 29 677 641 606 557 519 485 451 417 384 351
"So 30 660 625 591 541 504 472 438 405 373 J4H
(1.43 2L I :;f>7l i>Z) (t/3fe! 3.34' 0,601
32
34 591 559 528
W
476
^
443
m. 414 nr 380
355
350
J-1T4-W
36 555
517
525
489
495
461
442
406
411
377
383
352
384
355
325
328 ft
276
275
251
38
478
,M4
40 451 425 368 342 319 294 271 249 227
(\>OZ4 2..7fcf Q,47> 10.91 ZcCA * <P-40_i
Properties Lu.
2
Area A (in. ) 46.47 44.08 41.85 39.98 37.33 34.99 32.65 30.26 27.94 25.56
Ratio rx/ry 1.60 1.60 1.59 1.67 1.67 1.67 1.67 1.67 1.66 1.66
ry (in.) 4.00 3.99 3.97 3.77 3.76 3.75 3.73 3.72 3.71 3.70
Lc (ft.) 16.8 16.8 16.8 16.0 15.9 15.9 15.8
Lu (ft.) 56.0 53.5 50.8 48.3 45.6 42.9 40.2 37.9 35.0 32.5
Bx\ Bending .183 .184 .185 .185 .185 .185 .185 .185 .186 .185
By J factors .485 .487 .491 .519 .520 .521 .525 .525 .529 .530
ax\ Multiply 283.6 266.5 249.1 237.2 220.1 204.3 188.8 173.9 158.5 144.0
ayj values by 106 110.8 104.6 98.3 84.7 78.6 73.3 67.7 62.4 57.3 52.1
Loads below heavy line are for main members with Kl/r ratios between 120 and 200.
t Non-compact section; see discussion under Allowable Loads on Columns, General Notes.

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 7. Factors inserted in parentheses are


2Fa 12 FaBy Fa
# respectively
Fbx Fby ' ' OlTy

21
JANUARY/ 1964
14 * 16 ! i4'"x""'"T4Vfe. J
156 I S O 142 |J3fe||2T]lJ9 I I I 1 0 3 5>5 8T 1
Fa, l2F a 6 x Fa, -2RLBx
Ft, Fb Z2. Fb 2.-2. Fb Fb

1 1.85 4.92 0.91 1.82 5.IC 0.90 2.00 5.74, 0.9o


1 5 ! 1.73 4.^6 0.85 4.80 0.84 1.87. 5.28-
1.71 o,84J
20 1.75 4-68 o-79 r.72
4.93 0,78 \.73 4.93 0.78
2 5 1,60 4<2o 0.72 ! I-54- 4.33 o.lo 1.55 4.45- O.7o
I 3o 1.43 3-72 0.65"; 1.37 3-84 O.tZ 1.36 3.84 O.fcl

lo_ l,oz 2.76 o.47i 0.91 2.64 0,41,


Fzg. 2. Sample arrangement of factors for insert sheet

Try: 14 W 7 119 with KL = 18 ft section new bending factors which are designated mx
Select factors as shown in Fig. 1 or Fig. 2 under and my.
column group which includes 14 W 7 119. These new bending factors can be calculated for each
column shape and inserted at the bottom of the column
~ l . / Z ; : .^0.78
load tables. T h e derivation of mz and my follows.
F, 22 If bending occurs about the X X axis, the max-
imum allowable bending moment for a given shape
Check: By E q u a t i o n s (7a) a n d (7b) respectively, may be expressed as

aT 204.3 Mcx (in kip-in.) = Fbx Sx


= 1.11
x- P(Kl)2 204.3-21.0 If the section is compact, Fbx = 24 ksi, for A36 steel.
P + P' -- 450 + (1.72 X 142.5 X 0.85 In this case Lc must equal or exceed the effective length
X 1.11) ~ 681 kips {KL).
By Equation (7b),
Fbx_^x
p+Pf = (0.78 X 450) + (1.72 X 142.5) Mcx (in kip-ft) =
12
c^ 596 kips
Equation (7a) governs; therefore, enter T h e factor mx is defined as the reciprocal of Mcx
column Table I, find 14V\F136 with = \/Mcx = \2/{FhxSx).
allowable axial load good for 707 kips.
If Pa, in kips, represents the tabulated value given in
Use: 14V\F136 the column load tables for a particular column with a
given effective length (KL), in feet, Fa then equals PJA.
T h e method outlined will lead the designer to a
T h e ratio Fa/Fhx may be expressed as
very accurate approximation of the desired column
section; however, for final design purposes the column (PaSx)/(AMcx).
selected should be checked by a more accurate method.
T h e bending factor Bx, with respect to the X X
axis, is equal to A/Sx.
METHOD B With respect to the major axis, Equation (6), as it
T h e design methods using the interaction equations appears in the Manual, is written as
given on page 3-10 of the A I S C Manual provide an
P + P' = P + [BXMX {FJFhx)\
accurate check. Although these methods, using Equations
(6), (7a) and (7b) present a simplified, direct and logical For a particular shape, each of the terms in this
approach to a column interaction problem, they can be equation, except Fa, are either calculated or may be
further simplified. found by reference to a single page in the column load
In using these interaction equations, it is necessary to tables. T h e allowable axial stress (Fa) must be selected
consult Tables 1 in the Specification Appendix in order from Tables 1 of the Specification Appendix for a cal-
to determine Fa. T h e necessity of referring to these tables culated slenderness ratio. In order to eliminate this un-
can be eliminated by adding to the column property necessary step the foregoing terms may be inserted into

22

AISC ENGINEERING JOURNAL


Equation (6); the equation may then be expressed as: column load tables except the mx value. This factor,
with respect to both the X - X and Y - Y axis,
, Pa $x
= p+ ' A Ma_
can easily be determined for each column shape
listed and inserted at the bottom of each respective page
MI of the Manual.
=p+\ r
p] Example B illustrates how the modified equations
Mcx '\ may be employed in solving a column interaction prob-
where Mx and Mcx are expressed in kip-in. lem.
P + P' = P+(mxMxPa) +m EXAMPLE B
where Mx is expressed in kip-ft Given: Assume the same design conditions as outlined
in Example A. Select a trial section which satisfies axial
Note that if the effective length exceeds Lc but is
loads only:
less than Lu, the bending component of the modified
equation must be multiplied by the ratio 24/22 for A36 Solution:
steel. Try: 14 V\F 119; KL = 18 ft (see Example A)
By inserting into the column load tables the mx From Table I:
and mv bending components for each section listed, Pa = 618 kips; A = 34.99 in. 2 ; Lc = 15.9 ft;
further reference to other portions of the Manual is not ax = 204.3; *mx = 0.00264
necessary.
LC<KL= 15.9 ft < 18 ft
Equation (7a), with respect to bending about the
/. Fb = 22 ksi and mx = 24/22 X 0.00264
major axis, is presently expressed as:
= 0.00288

P+ P> = P + BxMxCmx(-^- Check: By Modified Equation (7a),


ax - P(Kl)' 204.3
= 1.11
where Mx is expressed in kip-in. 204.3-21.0
By substitution, Equation (7a) may be modified: P + P' = 450 + (0.00288 X 142.5
X 618 X 0.85 X 1.11)
p + />' = p + MXx pa ^mx
M a = 690 kips
ax - P{Kl)\
By Modified Equation (7b),
4
where Mx is expressed in kip-ft. r $0
Also, Equation (7b) which now reads: P + p> = 618 h

Fn |_22 X 34.99
P + P' Br M^
\0.6 FyJ + (0.00288 X 142.5)
may be expressed for A36 steel as:
= 618 X 0.996 = 616 kips
P+ P> = ^l + pam xMx Equation (7a) governs; enter column Table I and
a x x
22A select 14 V\F 136 with an allowable axial load of 707
kips.
P + P' = Pa h mx Mx * To be precalculated and inserted in the tables for each shape. Solve
x
22A mxJor 14 \AF 119 (A36 steel, compact section):
Note that all terms in the foregoing modified equa- Mcx = 24 Sx = 24 X 189.4= 4550 kip-in.;
tions are directly calculated or are presently given in the mx = 12/4550 = 0.00264

23
J A N U A R Y / 1964