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Volume No. 1 Issue No.

1 International Journal on ISSN: 2456-5695

Fundamentals of Science and Engineering Research


Y.Krishna Sai[1] P.Prasanna Rajeev[2] P.Janvi[3] Sk.AsmaBanu[4]
Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering, NBKRIST, Nellore, AP, India.
Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering, NBKRIST, Nellore, AP, India, ,,

Virtual communication across the globe is possible due to the use of Internet. Enabling communication between any
types of physical devices, at any place using any networking technology is goal of Internet of Things. Describing the
new IoT technology this paper also overviews its recent developments Challenges occurring in the field are also
mentioned. Modern techniques useful for device identification are suggested. Networking environment supported by
IoT and its benefits in diverse areas of application domains are also illustrated. Paper concludes by suggesting the
various research and development opportunities that exist in the field.

Keywords:IOT, Internet, Network, Technologies, Cloud computing.

In today world humans are surrounded by many physical electronic devices, automated vehicles, smart
devices and smart building. These all physical entities are embedded with softwares that enable them
individually to provide the special services and facilities they are designed for. Internet has also overcome
the geographical boundaries through the use of powerful communication networks. Communication with
these physical devices is possible in the virtual world through the use of internet. But only very little amount
of interaction occurs between these physical devices. These physical devices are able to interact and
exchange only device specific information and obtain limitedcontrol over the connected device through the
use of technologies like Bluetooth and some mobile files sharing apps.
Internet of Things (IoT) is the term coined to enable interaction and full access control between the physical
devices from any remote location on earth through the use of Internet. IoT will require the participating
entities to be equipped with device specific embedded software, sensors and network supporting
components. Device specific functionalities would be provided by the embedded software. Physical devices
sensors would sense the presence of other physical entities in the surroundings and will gather the required
information. Internet will act as acommunication medium between various diverse types of physical devices
and will be responsible for remote management and access control of these devices. IoT is expected to
establish interaction between machine to machine communication irrespective of the wide range of
protocols, domains and applications. The increasing number of smart devices and connections between them
as surveyed are depicted in Fig 1.

Fig 1.Growth of smart devices and connections

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Volume No. 1 Issue No. 1 International Journal on ISSN: 2456-5695
Fundamentals of Science and Engineering Research
II. Definitions

The term "Internet of Things" (IoT) denotes a trend where a large number of embedded device
employ communication services offered by the Internet protocols. Many of these devices, often
called "smart objects, are not directly operated by humans, but exist as components in buildings or
vehicles, or are spread out in the environment. Within the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
A global infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting
(physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving interoperable information and
communication technologies.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a framework in which all things have a representation and
apresence in the Internet. More specifically, the Internet of Things aims at offering new
applicationsand services bridging the physical and virtual worlds, in which Machine-to-Machine
(M2M)communications represents the baseline communication that enables the interactions
betweenThings and applications in the cloud.
The interconnection via the Internet of computing devices embedded in everyday objects, enabling
them to send and receive data.

All of the definitions describe scenarios in which network connectivity and computing capability extends to
a constellation of objects, devices, sensors, and everyday items that are not ordinarily considered to be
computers this allows the devices to generate, exchange, and consume data, often with minimal human
intervention. The various definitions of IoT do not necessarily disagree rather they emphasize different
aspects of the IoT phenomenon from different focal points and use cases.


IoT comprises of sensors, network communicating devices, web storage and data processing, finally the
applications as depicted by the layers of Fig. 2.

Sensors sense and collect the required data.

Network components transmit and store the information on cloud servers.
Web storage tools apply data mining techniques on voluminous data to extractvaluable information.
This processed information is then utilized by the applications running on the physical devices.

Fig.2 Major Components of IoT

Information provided by IoT works on the concept of 4 As and 4 Cs. The As represent anywhere,
anytime, any network, any device. Cs aims to provide convergence, connectivity, computing power and
collective valuable information as depicted in Fig 3. To accomplish this IoT requires identification, network
compatibility and large storage space.

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Volume No. 1 Issue No. 1 International Journal on ISSN: 2456-5695
Fundamentals of Science and Engineering Research

Fig 4. As and Cs of IoT

For setting up communication over the network unique identity is required. Next step after identification is
compatibility of diverse devices with the underlying network architecture. Once the connection is
established then through the use of storage servers on web right information could be delivered at right place
in right time. The next section illustrates challenges faced by the components. It also describes device
identification techniques and types of network environment supported by IoT.


In todaysIT world technological advancements have occurred in various fields. Advancements in the below
mentioned field have helped in major development of IoT.


A.Sensor Technology
To overcome the perceptual disability of humans sensors are deployed. They help to gather information at
any place, any time in and in any critical situations. Earlier it had been not possible to deploy the sensors on
anything or in every environmental conditions. Thus sensors would facilitate communication between any
type of devices.

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Volume No. 1 Issue No. 1 International Journal on ISSN: 2456-5695
Fundamentals of Science and Engineering Research

B. Robotics and Artificial Intelligence

Physical disabilities of humans are overcome by using robots . Through the use of artificial intelligence
robots are able to detect dynamic changes in the environment and act accordingly. With different physical
devices in surroundings and using the available network technology robots could serve the humans in better

C. Communications:
Data sharing now days exist in almost every device. Medium of communication are diverting from wired
medium to wireless technologies like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth. Wireless medium overcomes the burden of wires.
As most of the modern physical devices are wireless, wireless networks will boost their individual
performance and communication withthe other devices in IoT.

D. Cloud Computing and Machine Intelligence:

On demand large storage and high computing power are provided by cloud based servers. Combing the
storage techniques with artificial intelligence IoT would be able to analyze contextual information from
large amount of data. Inpast large storage space and fast information retrieval was not possible.

E. Ubiquitous Information:
In the IoT world user will need help when they will come across many devices which they will be operating
or interacting with for the first time. In earlier days a user manual or CD were available with each device for
user guidance. Nowadays a customer support URL is provided, or a Model search on web search engine
provides desired information. IoT included devices broadcast a machine readable URL. This URL could be
accessed by a nearby smart phone or tablet. Thus the needed information of how to interact with the
unknown device is made available.

F. Context Sensing:
Using the context information in processing enables a device or technology to perform better. By sensing
what is around the host device and the context in which search result would be used allows an app to provide
the data in more presentable, structured and filtered format. In IoT world context sensing will enable the
devices to collect and store information about the nearby sensors and web services. This will make
operations less uncertain and more accurate. And "smart devices" will become smarter due to context


As depicted in Fig. 2 data is collected by the sensors. The collected information is transmitted to the storage
servers via the network components. The information is then processed and delivered as a service to be used
by the application. The challenges by each of IoT layer is discussed below

A. Sensors:
Device identification and gathering the requiredinformation is the task of sensors. IoT will require enormous
sensor deployment in the coming years. Hence once of the major concerns is complexity of the deployment
sensors [7]. Another concern is the service cost required for sensor battery replacement and management.
Thus either sensors that do not require batteries or those whose battery are not required to be replaced till
sensors lifetime would be appropriate for IoT.

B. Network Connection:
After information collection by sensors next step is its transmission over the communication network.
Sensors are
Connected to networking environment through technologies like 3G/4G, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi. Providing
connections to large number of devices is a serious issue. Base stations can provide connections to limited
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Volume No. 1 Issue No. 1 International Journal on ISSN: 2456-5695
Fundamentals of Science and Engineering Research
number of devices only. Providing connections to the numerous devices on net is a serious issue. Wireless
networks further leads to the problem of privacy and security

C. Privacy and Security:
Connected with each other information sharing is maximum. In such circumstances chances are there that
thecommunication can be hacked. Or the devices control mechanism could be accessed by an unauthorized
person. Web has its own standard mechanism for providing security against threats. But these mechanism
are not compatible with or adequate for all the devices. Also changes of social threats are also there as
important information could be leaked. A significant research area in the field of IoT is how to provide
security for multidisciplinary devices and

D. Web Storage and Data Retreieval:

Providing correct data at correct time is the main concern and challenge of IoT. Power and bandwidth both
are consumed while communicating with server. As IoT is communication between devices intelligent
computation is
Required at both the ends, devices and cloud based servers.

E. Human Independence:
After having the context specific information, appropriate action is taken by either machines or they prompt
the humans to take action. Difficulties arise in making the machines human independent while making
decisions thus providing comforts to the user.

F. Scalability and Object Identity

Next issue that concerns IoT is the availability of the device address space in order to use the internet. To
useinternet service, the address space provided by IPv4 is not sufficient for IoT devices. To enable this
facility researches have been working continuously on IPv6 standard. Once the IPv6 standard is
implemented globally large amount of address space would be available to enable every object on the
Internet to be a part of IoT.


At present no direct wired or wireless connection is possible to the internet service. In order to start any type
of interaction between different devices identifiers are required for device identity. For global network of
communication 128 bit address field of IPv6 is used as identifiers. Locator and name field in Uniform
Resource Identifiers (URI) device are used is device identifiers for bridging the gap between the devices and
existing web technology. Distributed Name Service (DNS) and Uniform Resource Locator (URL) are used
jointly to route and request the service. Scheme specific methods are used to resolve Uniform Resource
Names (URNs) such as globally unique IDs. A distinguishing feature of physical web is it considers network
URIs as primary identifier. Proxy web environment makes use of the below mentioned techniques for
identifying the devices in IoT as depicted in Fig. 5 :-

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Volume No. 1 Issue No. 1 International Journal on ISSN: 2456-5695
Fundamentals of Science and Engineering Research

Fig.5. Enablers of IoT

A.Near Field Communications:

During early 2000, RFID played a key role in speeding up the formation of IoT [8-9]. Recent NFC (Nearest
Communication) used for electronic payments is based on the fundamental concept of RFID. NFC
transceivers could be build in smartphones that would enable them to read passive NFC tags that can store a
URI through themselves .Thus NFC could be efficient choice for tagging object identity as it is cheap, small,
thin and attachable to almost anything.

B. Quick Response Code and Optical Tag:

To implement low cost tagging, optical or printed tag could be used. The 2D optical standard, QR (Quick
codes, are one of the best choices.[10-11] Using image processing techniques QR code is extracted that
outputs a
Number, text or URI. But QR codes suffers from two drawbacks
It requires a preinstalled application capable of reading the QR Code.
Sometimes difficulty is faced in positioning the camera
so that it can focus and accurately decode the image.

C.Structured Tags:

For human to human interaction across the globe web pages are used, but in IoT most of the use cases
involvemachine to machine interaction. By using structured data in embedded format user agents and cloud
services can
intelligently parse data and process them interactively and proactively. Another advantage of using
structured datatype is it allows you to create uniform user interfaces. So once an interface is learnt for an
application it is not required to be relearnt for the application
D. Beacons:

AJAX, HTML and other open source web technologies in combination with structured datatype can provide
a good
support for IoT. But limitation with open source technologies is that they do not have capability to identify
objects.Beacons attached to objects could be used to overcome the gap between physical and virtual world.

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Volume No. 1 Issue No. 1 International Journal on ISSN: 2456-5695
Fundamentals of Science and Engineering Research
Compared to NFC and QR Codes beacons have better utility and they can broadcast a URL along with the
other information that can help with ranging.

E. Bluetooth:

Another good option from latest technologies that could be used for tagging is Bluetooth low energy (BLE)
[12-13]. Most mobile smart phones are now a day embedded with BLE Hardware providing various
capabilities with the help of operating System support. BLE could make object identity known by
transmitting a advertisement packet one per second which requires a very low power supply to operate for
up to one year on a lithium coin cell battery.


Web page interaction is provided to exchange information between people, place and things in physical web.
OnSubmitting query to the physical web it would return search results in the similar way as web search
engine returns text, snippets and links on submitting a query. As IoT is the world of things that we can see
hear and touch the search results would be ordered by both proximities and ranking algorithms. Now days
based upon the application requirements the networking scenarios are either centralized or distributed.
Shown in Fig.5 and mentioned below are the networking technologies that provide support for the physical

Fig. 5. IoT Network Technologies

A.Cloud Computing:

The advantages of centralized cloud computing approaches have led many application and systems to
migrate towards the cloud based services. Some fundamental benefits with cloud are
Easier for maintenance
Automated data backup
Scalability support while building data centers
Security of data

Todays communicating devices are more powerful as they are compatible and flexible. We can have local
apps running on simple clients and being processed on powerful clouds. Or powerful apps that can function
on its own. The type of connection between clients and cloud depends upon various factors such are latency,
security, privacy and cost. As cloud based systems have proved worthy for various applications temp to
support IoT in the similar way. One of the good approaches could be to register IoT device with centralized
cloud service. Now users and other computers can access the device through centralized cloud services and
thus observe its status and control its behavior.

B.Hybrid Networks

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Volume No. 1 Issue No. 1 International Journal on ISSN: 2456-5695
Fundamentals of Science and Engineering Research
Hybrid techniques could act as an innovative solution to some of the existing problems of cloud based
system. One such technique is called as edge computing. Cloudlet paradigm, an edge computing technique
moves the cloud processing closer to the devices that require data access at real time. This reduces the
latency and number of network hops Through the use of virtual machines. Cloudlet could be used by IoT
devices that could help them to interact with each other and the cloud services irrespective of how far away
they are from each other and cloud data center.
Direct connection to the internet requires the device to connect to Wi-Fi radio, Ethernet or cellular model.
One mechanism in opposition to centralized cloud service could be to enable simple peripheral IoT devices
to connect to
Wi-Fi Bridge

C.Distributed Computing
Direct connection to the internet requires the device toConnect to Wi-Fi radio, Ethernet or cellular model.
OneMechanism in opposition to centralized cloud service could be to enable simple peripheral IoT devices
to connect to Wi-Fi bridge. IoT devices have the following benefits compared to the traditional internet
proximity.Building connection with the nearby object is simplynot useful. Instead devices should be able to
connect to each other and execute the task that is not possible to be completed by a single device. An
example of shared peripheral device could beconsidered as follows. A computer or a smart phone can
Wirelessly discover a nearby large screen object and share it while playing a movie.


Applications of IoT are not restricted but based on the

Usability of products it can be classified in different domains as follows:
Smart Wearables
Smart Homes
Smart City
Smart Enterprise
Smart Environment
Depending upon these domains, IoT products exhibitDifferent characteristics.


While the concept of combining computers, sensors, and networks to monitor and control devices has been
around for decades, the recent confluence of key technologies and market trends is ushering in a new reality
for the Internet of Things. IoT promises to usher in a revolutionary, fully interconnected smart world,
with relationships between objects and their environment and objects and people becoming more tightly
intertwined. The prospect of the Internet of Things as a ubiquitous array of devices bound to the Internet
might fundamentally change how people think about what it means to be online. While the potential
ramifications are significant, a number of potential challenges may stand in the way of this vision
particularly in the areas of security; privacy; interoperability and standards; legal, regulatory, and rights
issues; and the inclusion of emerging economies. The Internet of Things involves a complex and evolving
set of technological, social and policy considerations across a diverse set of stakeholders. The Internet of
Things is happening now, and there is a need to address its challenges and maximize its benefits while
reducing its risks. The Internet Society cares about IoT because it represents a growing aspect of how people
and institutions are likely to interact with and incorporate the Internet and network connectivity into their
personal, social, and economic lives. Solutions to maximizing the benefits of IoT while minimizing the risks
will not be found by engaging in a polarized debate that pits the promises of IoT against its possible perils.
Rather, it will take informed engagement, dialogue, and collaboration across a range of stakeholders to plot
the most effective ways forward.

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Volume No. 1 Issue No. 1 International Journal on ISSN: 2456-5695
Fundamentals of Science and Engineering Research
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